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Questions on management command and motivation

  1. TASK-1. 2
  3. Socialization
  1. TASK-1. 3
  2. What MAY BE THE Management's Role In Developing An Organization's Culture?
  3. TASK-1. 4
  4. TASK - 2. 1
  7. BASIS
  10. Meaning
  11. Goals
  12. Person Required
  13. Concept
  14. Rules / Principles
  15. Needance
  16. Coordination
  17. Communication
  18. TASK-2. 2
  19. What is charismatic command? Description
  20. Charismatic management model (Record)
  22. Robert House (1977) used four sentences to specify charismatic command:
  23. Conger and Kananga (1998) express five behavioral attributes of charismatic leaders:
  24. Using the charismatic management style Applications:
  25. Steps along the way charismatic control approach
  26. Jay Conger (1989) proposes the following four-stage style of charismatic control:
  27. Strengths of the benefits charismatic control style
  29. TASK-3. 1
  30. Abraham Maslow's "Need Hierarchy Theory":
  31. "Theory X and Theory" by Douglas McGregor:
  32. Under the assumptions of the theory X:
  33. In compare to the assumptions of Theory Y:
  34. The theory of Frederick Herzberg's drive hygiene:
  35. Federico has sought to modify the theory of Maslow need hierarchy. His theory is also called the idea of two factors or health theory. He mentioned that we now have certain satisfactions and dissatisfaction of employees at work. In-intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction, while extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction. He devised his theory on the question: "What people want using their careers?" He asked people to describe at length, this kind of situation when they believed exceedingly good or extremely bad. From reactions received, he figured the contrary of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction. Feature extraction of unsatisfactory work, not necessarily do the job as pleasing. Affirms that the existence of certain factors in the business is natural and the presence of the same does not lead to drive. However, their non-presence contributes to demonization. Similarly, there are specific factors, without which in turn causes dissatisfaction, but their presence has a motivational impact.
  36. Examples of hygiene factors are:
  37. Safety, status, relationship with subordinates, personal life, salary, working conditions, the partnership with the supervisor and company insurance policy and supervision.
  38. Examples of motivating factors are:
  39. Brochure promoting the expansion of occupation, responsibility, challenges, acceptance and achievement.
  40. Theory McClelland's Needs:
  41. TASK-3. 2
  42. How Do The Modern Ideas Of Work Drive Complement One Another?
  43. Definition of modern day theories
  44. Equity Theory:
  45. Reinforcement theory:
  46. Goal Placing Theory of Edwin Locke:
  47. Cognitive analysis theory:
  48. According to these ideas a change of exterior rewards to inner rewards results in motivation. It is assumed that even following the failure of external stimuli, inner stimuli survive. It identifies the salary composition of the business. Instead of working with external factors such as remuneration, bonuses, factors internal promotion, etc and the pursuits, devices, etc responsibility, individually, should be treated as modern with each other. Knowledge is in a way that even when exterior motivators are not present internal inspiration continues. However, nearly extrinsic rewards are given more weightage.
  49. X Valence of Vroom Expectancy Theory:
  50. TASK-3. 3
  51. Evaluate Different Motivation Theory Procedures In Organization Illustrate With Instances.
  52. The theory of Frederick Herzberg's determination hygiene
  53. TASK-4. 1
  54. Define Group And What Are The Five Periods Of Group Development?
  55. Definition of Group
  56. Five Levels of Group Development
  57. Step 1: Forming
  58. Step 2: Storming
  59. Stage 3: Norming
  60. Step 4: Performing
  61. Step 5: Adjourning
  62. TASK-4. 2
  63. When is Work Performed by Individuals Preferred over Work performed by Clubs?
  65. Task- 4. 3
  66. How Does Technology Facilitates Clubs Achieve Goals? Give Examples
  67. Definition of Technology

Organization is normally considered a grouping of activities in a coordinated way to obtain maximum benefits. Thus, the business is the partnership between your various aims and factors.

Culture is the way in overall life of the people. Culture includes the terminology, religion and ideas, clothing, traditions, codes, institutions, authorities, law, masterpiece of design, morality, rituals, ceremonies & etc.

Organizational culture is a set of shared values and norms that govern the connections between customers of the organization among them and with suppliers, customers and people outside the organizations. The organizational culture of principles means that makes an attempt to create unity, coordination, co-operation between these so within the organization. Maybe it's by means of assumptions, company logo, etc through these organizational targets or goals could be achieved by the business. An organizational structure is actually hierarchical idea of subordination of entities that collaborate and help provide a typical goal.

Examples: GlobalNokia, Pepsi, Coca-Colaetc.

Innovative & Risk Taking: The Degree to which employees are encouraged to be ground breaking & take hazards. Generates innovative solutions, assesses hazards, makes decisions & accepts the results. Thus, innovation & risk taking is one of the main characteristics of organizational culture defining how much it is important to allowing an enterprise innovation.

Attention to Details : methods to give close focus on what you are doing. It means being careful or watching what you are doing.

Outcome Orientation: The degree to which management will focus on results or apart from the techniques & functions used to accomplish those results.

People Orientation: The Degree where management decisions are taken into consideration.

Team Orientation: Means working collaboratively with others to attain a common goal somewhat than working individually

Aggressive: Means trying to spread quickly

Stability: It is something when & group activity point out maintenance will maintain contract development.

TASK-1. 2

Management of any company has the responsibility of setting out the goals and objectives. It also watches out how employees are supposed to behave in various situations. As such, it outlines the entire organization culture. For culture to be effectively taken care of in an organization, managers and market leaders must become followers and also leaders. Commitment and excitement towards a person or an organization differentiate effective and ineffective followers as well as leaders. A wholesome organizational culture is dependant on common understanding and cooperation between the employees and the management. For a healthy organizational culture to be retained, leaders and professionals learn role decision making and legislation of cash works in an corporation.

Normally, when a person is recruited & preferred after an extended procedure he will be taken around the organization and created to his acquaintances, superiors & subordinates. He will be made familiar with firm norms, goals & his obligations. This may be known as

Orientation & training. Through this the employee's performance is increased and through the increment in his performance organizational performance is also increased.

Through orientation & training unity, co-operation, etc. will be increased. Through this employee's performance will be increased and organization's efficiency will be increased. So, this is one way organizational climate is maintained. In Pepsi co. organizational culture is preserved through unity.

Here market leaders & employees gather and perform planning, decision making, managing etc. which can be managerial functions of an company. This is the secret with their firm's progress & development. Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the training culture within the business.

Induction training also helps an employee to maintain organization culture and increase his/her performance.

Selection is the procedure of discovering and finding the right person out of lots of prospective prospects for employment. The candidates are required to take a group of employment checks and interviews. Each level many are removed plus some move to the next stage.


Preliminary Screening

Selection Tests-

This includes cleverness test, Aptitude test, Personality test, Trade test, Interest test.

Employment Interview

Reference & Background Checks

Selection Decision

Medical Examination

Job Offer

Contract Of Employment

Top Management is an integral part of level of management. They contain the senior-most executives of the organization by whatever name they are simply called. They're usually known as the chairman, main operating officer, chief executive, and vice chief executive. Top management is a team comprising professionals from different functional levels. The essential task is to integrate diverse elements and organize the actions of different departments according to the overall targets of company. These top level managers are in charge of the welfare and success of the business. They analyze the business enterprise environment and its implications for the survival of the company. They formulate overall organizational goals and strategies for their achievement. They may be responsible for all the actions of the business enterprise and because of its impact on culture.


No matter how the organizations recruits & choose, talented & licensed employees. If new employees are not fully indoctrinated in the organization's culture. Because they are unfamiliar with the organization's culture, new employees are probably likely to

Disturb the values & traditions that are in place. The business will, therefore, want to help new employees adjust to its culture. This adaptation process is called SOCIALIZATION.

TASK-1. 3

What MAY BE THE Management's Role In Developing An Organization's Culture?

The manager's role is to successfully predict, describe and take care of the behavior that occurs in organizations. Specifically, professionals are interested in determining why people are a bit more encouraged and satisfied. Managers will need to have an ability to observe and understand the behavior of individuals, categories and organizations to forecast the particular response will be dependant on administrative procedures and, finally, to utilize this understanding and predictions can be effectively been able employees. Patterns can be reviewed at three levels: person, group, organization all together. Professionals seek to find out about the fact that folks, separately or collectively, to behave as they do in organizational options. What motivates people? This is not some professionals and other employees? How people talk and make decisions? How can organizations respond to changes in their external environment?

Management role in the introduction of organizational culture are growing and implementing management principles, the introduction of unity among the list of employees, maintenance-friendly environment with personnel managers.

Example: Dialog's director developed latest guidelines when most of the clients and workers still left and signed up with Airtel. Through his latest professional blaster & MY10 packages his customers were presented and through his travel packages to employee's coordination, unity, efficiency & connection with the firm strengthened.

TASK-1. 4

The organizational framework allows the distribution of responsibilities indicated for various functions and techniques to different entities such as office, work group and person. Yes, you'll be able to change the culture of a business. The individuals within an organizational composition are usually employed under employment deals of limited length or work requests, or agreement of indefinite length or instructions of this program. You cannot change the organizational culture; not knowing where your organization desires to be or what components of the current organizational culture must change. What are the social elements that support the success of your organization, or not? For example, your team decides that you spend too much time in agreement with the other person rather than to challenge the assumptions and predictions of his team, who have generally been incorrect.

It is harder to change the culture of a preexisting organization than to create a culture in a whole new organization. When a culture has already been set up, people need to unlearn the old principles, assumptions and actions before they can learn the news headlines. The two most important elements to build organizational ethnic change are management support and training.

ADDITIONAL ways to improve the organizational culture:

Practice effective communication-

Keeping all employees up to date about the organizational culture change process ensures determination and success. Telling employees what is expected of them is crucial for effective organizational culture change.

Review organizational structure-

Changing the physical framework of the business to align it with the desired organizational culture may be necessary. These models are improbable to align to aid the entire success of the business.

Redesign your method of rewards and recognition-

You will probably need to improve the praise system to encourage the behaviors vital to the desired organizational culture

TASK - 2. 1


Leadership is an activity to getting things done through people. ("Causing others to want what you are doing to accomplish the work of the business". - Proactive leadership 21 st century)

Leadership is the artwork to getting others to take action you want done because they want to undertake it. - Abraham Zaleznik, Harvard Business Review


Management is a very popular term and has been used extensively for all types of activities and mainly when planning on taking charge of different activities in virtually any enterprise. Management comprises of planning, managing, staffing, decision making & controlling.

Management in addition has been defined as a process of getting things finished with the purpose of attaining goals effectively & effectively.

Objectives of management:

Organizational objectives

Social objectives

Personal objectives

Management assists with:

Achieving group goals

Increase efficiency

Creating a energetic organization

Achieving personal objectives

Development of society

There are three levels of management. They are really:

Top level management

Middle level management

Operational level management





Management in addition has been defined as a process of getting things done with the purpose of attaining goals effectively & proficiently.

Leadership is a process of getting things done through people.


Management's goal is to accomplish their profit margin or even to provide certain services.

Leadership doesn't have certain goals to achieve unless & until the innovator creates.

Person Required

Managers to lead & staff to attain the goals.

Leaders to lead & followers to check out their guidelines.


Management idea is complex & large principle.

Leadership notion is an integral part of management.

Rules / Principles

There are certain business laws & principles to be accompanied by the organization to achieve the goals. Here if the manager is wrong staff can pinpoint the manager's wrongthness.

There are no rules to be followed. So if the leader is incorrect then all enthusiasts follow the incorrect path.


The idea of management is very much indeed needed in the business to attain their goals.

Leadership concept is not needed compulsorily in organization and it is merely required among labors or labor union.


Coordination among staff member depends on guidelines, professionals, etc. Coordination in general management is higher in comparison to leadership.

Coordination among supporters are managed by market leaders. Coordination in leadership is low compared to management.


Here communication dispatched can be reaching very little by little but it is very reliable.

Here communication dispatched can be attaining rapidly but it isn't very reliable.

TASK-2. 2

Charismatic management is leadership based on the leader's capacity to converse and behave with techniques that reach enthusiasts in a simple way, psychologically, to encourage and motivate.

A charismatic leader is the one which provides an environment full of energy and positive support. If you are obviously charismatic, they are extremely lucky! That is a feature that's not as effortless to learn.

Charismatic leaders inspire others and encourage them to be their finest. Employees and users of the group want to win over a charismatic innovator, so work hard and make an effort to succeed.

Charismatic leaders, that happen to be building a group, whether it's a political party, a sect or a business team, often focus generally on making the very clear and specific group, which separates it from other teams. Then platform the group's image, especially in the brains of his followers, is far more advanced than others. Charismatic market leaders use a wide range of methods to deal with their image and, if they're not in a natural way charismatic, you can practice regularly to develop their skills. They can build self-confidence through self-sacrifice noticeable and take personal dangers in the name of their beliefs. They show great confidence in his supporters. They are very persuasive and make quite effective use of body language and verbal terminology.

What is charismatic command? Description

Charismatic control is described by Maximum Weber as "resting on devotion to the exceptional sanctity, heroism or exemplary character of an individual, and the normative patterns or unveiled or ordained by him. " He defines charisma as "a certain quality of an individual personality by virtue which differs from typical men and cared for as endowed with supernatural, superhuman, or at least specifically exceptional capabilities or qualities. It is not accessible to the normal person but are considered of divine source or as exemplary, and on the lands that it treats the person as a leader in quality (. . . ). How concerned ultimately, taking into account the factors ethical, aesthetic, or other viewpoint as it is, of course, charismatic people irrelevant to the definition. "Has a remarkable ability to distill complicated ideas into simple information (" I have a goal ") are communicated using icons, analogies, metaphors and experiences. He also relished the chance and feels vacant without him, are great optimists, who are rebels struggling against the convention, and that may appear idiosyncratic. Charismatic market leaders are portrayed as heroes or magic organizational market leaders have a base of social capacity to orchestrate turnarounds, releasing new businesses, inspire organizational renewal, and get a particular performance by users of the business. These leaders encourage trust, beliefs and idea in them. Obviously none of the is a guarantee that the quest will be accurate, moral, or successful.

Charismatic management model (Record)

German sociologist Potential Weber in the 1920 recognized three ideal types of control, domination and expert:

1. charismatic domination (familial and religious)

2. Feudal / traditional domination (patriarchs, patrimonial, feudalism), and

3. Bureaucratic /Legal domination (rules and modern state, bureaucracy).


Robert House (1977) used four sentences to specify charismatic command:

1. Dominant.

2. Strong prefer to influence others.

3. Self-confident.

4. A solid sense of moral values them.

Conger and Kananga (1998) express five behavioral attributes of charismatic leaders:

1. Perspective and articulation.

2. The sensitivity to the environment.

3. The sensitivity to the needs of the member.

4. Personal risk taking.

5. The realization of unconventional tendencies.

More recently, charisma is the state of hawaii theater (Gardner & Alvolio, 1998):

Charismatic control is a management process enacted theatrically stamping to processing, scripting, staging, and acting.

Using the charismatic management style Applications:

In difficult times or circumstances, such as changing the organization of emergency.

Remember that, relating to Weber, a charismatic leader does not have to be always a positive force. Both Mahatma Gandhi and Adolf Hitler could be relatively considered charismatic market leaders.

See sets of basic persona of the theory of a few of the mechanisms behind a charismatic control.

Steps along the way charismatic control approach

Jay Conger (1989) proposes the following four-stage style of charismatic control:

1. Continuous evaluation of the surroundings and the formulation of an vision.

2. Communication of perspective, with arguments of determination and persuasion.

3. Building trust and commitment. The subordinates must desire and support the goals of the first choice and is likely to be achieved on coercion, however the leader to gain the confidence in the leader and the feasibility of the targets; it is likely that this is performed by taking personal dangers unconventional experience, and sacrifice.

4. To do this goal by using role models, empowerment, and unconventional tactics.

Strengths of the benefits charismatic control style

the relatively strong levels of unquestioning conformity.

It really is useful in difficult times or circumstances, such as changing the business of crisis.

Cash. When the charismatic leader's perspective is correct, this form of leadership can be extremely effective.

Rhetorical skill.

Energy clearness, interior, visionary, unconventional, and exemplary.


Real Name: Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu

DATE OF Labor and birth: August 27 Th, 1910

HOST TO Delivery: Yugoslavia

Mother Teresa decided to spend the rest of her life to help the indegent and needies when she was twelve years of age. When she thought that her vocation is to help the indegent, decided to teach for missionary work. At eighteen she signed up with the Irish nuns, the Sisters of Loreto. After training in Dublin for a few months she went to India. In 1928 she needed primary vows as a nun.

1929-1948 she trained at St. Mary's High School in Calcutta. Witnessing the suffering beyond your school created a big impression on her to leave university and help the indegent in 1949.

She started out a school outdoor homeless, without money. Voluntary helpers soon joined up with her. She also received financial support. On Oct 7, 1950 received authorization to begin their own "Missionaries of Charity, who cared and treasured the individuals who no one else cared. Mother Teresa began fifty jobs underway in India. Its assignments include supporting the folks of the slums, children's homes, homes for the dying, treatment centers and a leper colony. Her tasks have been prolonged to other countries such as Africa, Asia, Latin America, Italy, THE UK, Ireland and america.

For all the task that Mom Teresa has received the next honours: 1971 Pope John XXIII Peace Award, 1972 Nehur Prize for International Tranquility and Understanding, and 1979 Balzan Award for the Promotion of Calmness and Brotherhood US.

She's a good charismatic innovator. She did a wonderful job of keeping those people who were like dying.

www. myhero. com

TASK-3. 1

What are The Early Ideas of Inspiration, How Well Have They Been Supported by Research?


Motivation means incitement or inducement to act or move. In relevant to organization context, this means the process of earning subordinates to do something in a desired manner to attain a certain goal. "Motivation distinguishes the sufficient reason of Becoming, of Knowledge, of being and of Action. "(In the philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer)

Abraham Maslow's "Need Hierarchy Theory":

One of the very most frequently mentioned ideas of desire is the hierarchy of needs theory put forward by psychologist Abraham Maslow. Maslow found human needs in the form of a hierarchy, ascending from the cheapest to the highest, and concluded that when a set of needs is satisfied, this needs no more a motivator.

According to his theory, these needs are:

Physiological needs: They are important needs for sustaining human life. Food, drinking water, warmth, shelter, sleeping, medication and education are basic physiological needs, that are included in the key list of needs satisfaction. Maslow was views that until these needs are achieved in an even to preserve life, no other motivating factor to work.

(Ii) Security or Safety needs: They are the must get rid physical danger and worries of losing a job, goods, food or shelter. In addition, it includes protection against any psychological harm.

(Iii) Social needs: Since people are communal beings, need to belong and become accepted by others. People try to satisfy their need for affection, popularity and friendship.

(Iv) Esteem needs: Corresponding to Maslow, once people begin to satisfy their need to belong, they have a tendency to want to be performed in high esteem both by themselves and by others. This kind of need produces such satisfaction as electric power, prestige and self-confidence position. This consists of both inner factors like the self-confidence, autonomy and accomplishment and external factors as the areas of the esteem, recognition and attention.

(V) The need for home actualization: Maslow is convinced that this is the foremost need in their hierarchy. It's the need to be what some may be capable of becoming; it includes growth, attaining their potential and self-realization. Is to increase their potential and accomplish something. Determination2

As each one of these needs is substantially satisfied the next need becomes prominent. In the standpoint of drive, the theory would say that though it is not necessary always totally satisfied, satisfied require no longer motivates considerably. So if you would like to stimulate someone, you need to understand what is the amount of the hierarchy of that person is on and focus on gratifying the needs or the needs above that level.

Maslow's need theory has received huge recognition, especially among practicing managers. This is related to the intuitive reasoning of the theory and ease of understanding. However, research does not validate these theories. Maslow provided no empirical facts and other studies attempting to validate the theory found no support.

OPINION: Such kind of motivational technique helps the business to fulfill the needs of employees and encourage those to work for his or her business. Through this organizational goal as well as staff goals can be achieved.

"Theory X and Theory" by Douglas McGregor:

McGregor, in his book "The Human Part of Enterprise" provides that individuals within the business can be handled in two ways. The foremost is basically negative, corresponding to the category X and the other is actually positive, matching to the category Y. After experiencing the way the manager treated employees, McGregor concluded that a administrator view of the type of human beings is based on a particular group of cases and that he / she tends to shape their behavior toward subordinates According to these assumptions.

Under the assumptions of the theory X:

Employees inherently dislike work and whenever possible, stay away from it.

Because employees dislike work, have to be obligated, coerced or threatened with abuse to achieve the goals.

Employees avoid obligations and works to fill official rules are released.

Most employees place greater focus on safety most importantly other factors and show little ambition.

In compare to the assumptions of Theory Y:

Physical and mental stress at the job is as natural as rest or play.

People will exercise self-control and self-direction and if they are committed to these goals.

The common individual is willing to use responsibility and exercise the imagination, ingenuity and creativeness in dealing with organizational problems.

The way in which things are organized, the brains of the common human being is only partially.

In the research of the assumptions that can find that the Theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals and Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. An organization that runs on the Theory X lines is commonly authoritarian in mother nature, the term "authoritarian" advises ideas like the "power to compel obedience" and "right to rule. " As opposed to Theory Y organizations can be described as "participatory, where the objectives of the organization and people that are integrated, people can perform their own goals by directing their work for the success of the organization.

However, this theory has been greatly criticized for the common job and human behavior.

OPINION: Corresponding to McGregor, he says all drawbacks confronted by employees. He creates a picture where employees are punished using negative motivational technique and where managers get full use out of worker without any fulfillment of staff needs. Such picture also demonstrates manager as devil for employees. Such practices aren't prevailing very much in our world.

The theory of Frederick Herzberg's drive hygiene:

Federico has sought to modify the theory of Maslow need hierarchy. His theory is also called the idea of two factors or health theory. He mentioned that we now have certain satisfactions and dissatisfaction of employees at work. In-intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction, while extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction. He devised his theory on the question: "What people want using their careers?" He asked people to describe at length, this kind of situation when they believed exceedingly good or extremely bad. From reactions received, he figured the contrary of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction. Feature extraction of unsatisfactory work, not necessarily do the job as pleasing. Affirms that the existence of certain factors in the business is natural and the presence of the same does not lead to drive. However, their non-presence contributes to demonization. Similarly, there are specific factors, without which in turn causes dissatisfaction, but their presence has a motivational impact.

Examples of hygiene factors are:

Safety, status, relationship with subordinates, personal life, salary, working conditions, the partnership with the supervisor and company insurance policy and supervision.

Examples of motivating factors are:

Brochure promoting the expansion of occupation, responsibility, challenges, acceptance and achievement.

OPINION: Here, he says that opposing to satisfaction is not dissatisfaction. He also says that an employee dislike to perform a specific job because he doesn't obtain the likes through his job. This could be received through the motivations done by professionals in form of acceptance, achievement encouragement, etc.

Theory McClelland's Needs:

David McClelland has developed a theory in three types of motivating needs:

1. Dependence on Power

2. Dependence on Affiliation

3. Need for achievement

Basically people have to be high lean toward effect and control. They prefer to be in the center and are good audio speakers. They are challenging in character, forceful in the traditions and ambitious in life. They may be motivated to perform if given key positions or positions of electric power.

In the next category are individuals who are social in character. They try to become a member of individuals and categories. They are driven by love and trust. They prefer to create a pleasant environment around them. Community popularity and affiliation with others provides motivation.

The people of the third area are governed by the challenge of success and fear of failure. Their need for achievement is average and they arranged moderately difficult responsibilities. They can be analytical and take calculated risks. These people are motivated to perform when they see at least some potential for success.

McClelland mentioned that with the growth in the hierarchy of the need for greater power and performance alternatively than affiliation. He also observed that people who were at the very top, later ceased to be encouraged by this device.

OPINION: McClelland is nearly just like Hertzberg & Abraham Maslow. His idea is also given by means of hierarchy method. He reveals those three levels from where staff needs are extremely essential to be fulfilled to inspire them. Through this need are resolved from higher to lower needs. Corresponding to him a person could be motivated giving more vitality, through popularity of success, job security, autonomy, etc.

TASK-3. 2

How Do The Modern Ideas Of Work Drive Complement One Another?

Definition of modern day theories

A set of statements or principles attempt to explain a set of facts or phenomena, especially one which has been consistently tested or is broadly accepted and may be used to make predictions about natural phenomena that participate in the same time who live or occur in the same period.

Equity Theory:

According to equity theory by J. Stacey Adams, people are motivated by their beliefs about the structure of rewards to be fair or unfair, in relation to these entries. Folks have a tendency to follow a subjective criterion to balance the outcomes and inputs with regards to evaluations between different individuals. Therefore, if people feel they have the same pay back that will reduce the number or quality of work or move to another group. However, if people perceive that rewards are higher, may be encouraged to work harder.

OPINION: Collateral theory really helps to ignore sociable problems between subordinates & supervisors in organization. It is because this principle plainly states that there is no different treatment within people working in a business. Such kind of rule should prevail using environment like politics area. This principle helps another motivational theory known as "Goal setting theory". When there is an objective to be achieved by using organizations then employees in the group should maintain equality. Though they have more power in comparison to other group users they cannot punish them with stressed job. It'll lead to slavery revolution resulting in close down of organization.

Reinforcement theory:

BF Skinner, who suggested the encouragement theory, argues that by making the right environment, people can be motivated. Rather than considering inside factors such as impressions, feelings, behaviour and cognitive tendencies, individuals are driven by what happens in the external environment for them. Skinner says that the working environment should be appropriate to the people and the consequence that actually brings about disappointment and demotivation. Therefore, the only path to inspire is to continue making positive changes in the external environment of the organization.

OPINION: Skinner's way is pretty good but at certain specific areas it cannot be possible. He is true at a specific time but it isn't possible always. He also needs to know that at certain environments what he informed demotivations can be worked out. And it allows getting workout of tenacious employees. He should also know that inner factors should be developed as well as external factors. This process of motivation really helps to clear out certain problems like poverty, status, job security, medical health insurance etc. this principle also helps to work out cognitive evaluation theory of drive. Even cognitive theory can help work this out. Once the external factors doesn't get developed or doesn't help to motivate then cognitive evaluation theory helps to continue the inspiration with available inner stimuli.

Goal Placing Theory of Edwin Locke:

Instead of providing vague duties to specific goals and incredibly time donate to achieving them faster. As clarity is high, an objective orientation also avoids any misunderstanding in the work of employees. The goal setting theory areas that when establishing goals to attain an increased level where employees are motivated to prosper and make a maximum work. Opinion that revolves around the concept of "self-efficacy" individual is, he or she is in a position to perform a hard task.

OPINION: This theory helps to achieve the goals with no position or demotivational problems within people in organization. This also specifies that if

Cognitive analysis theory:

According to these ideas a change of exterior rewards to inner rewards results in motivation. It is assumed that even following the failure of external stimuli, inner stimuli survive. It identifies the salary composition of the business. Instead of working with external factors such as remuneration, bonuses, factors internal promotion, etc and the pursuits, devices, etc responsibility, individually, should be treated as modern with each other. Knowledge is in a way that even when exterior motivators are not present internal inspiration continues. However, nearly extrinsic rewards are given more weightage.

OPINION: According to the theory, if the exterior factors such as remuneration, bonuses etc. doesn't help motivate the staff this theory helps to convert exterior factor into inside factor and continue motivation with the inner stimuli. Through this workings of business will not hold off or get interrupted.

X Valence of Vroom Expectancy Theory:

The most widely accepted explanations of drive have been suggested by Victor Vroom. His theory is known as the idea of expectations. The theory holds that the effectiveness of a tendency to act a certain way depends upon the strength of the expectation that regulations will be followed by a specific result and the attractiveness of this cause the person to get this done simple theory, said the trust that a employee can be encouraged to execute better when there is a belief that better performance will allow the evaluation of good performance and this will lead to the achievement of personal goals as an incentive. Therefore an employee is:

Motivation = expectancy x Valencia.

The theory focuses on three things:

The attempts and performance relationship

Performance and pay back ratio

Rewards and personal goal relationship

This contributes to the final outcome that:


OPINION: Corresponding to Vroom, an employee doesn't contribute to his maximum potential because his needs aren't fulfilled as the company guaranteed. He also says that an worker will be motivated to work for full probable if the company fulfils their needs or through certain programs such as achievements recognition, job advertising etc. through these programs other employees also get encouraged. This also allows calculating the motivational value and expenditures incurred and the come back awarded by staff because of the motivational technique used. This enables knowing to whether continue or change the motivational technique used. This helps to perform other contemporary ideas of determination. Through this principle equation manager can evaluate all theories of determination and use the most appropriate and reliable & effective theory of drive to motivate the people working within the business.

TASK-3. 3

Evaluate Different Motivation Theory Procedures In Organization Illustrate With Instances.


X Valence of Vroom Expectancy Theory:

This theory helps the director to oversee an employee's contribution, potential and requirements. This theory also really helps to increase the efficiency and efficiency of organization. This theory helps the organization to compute daily salary and bonuses for daily basis staff.

EG: In garment factories this guideline and equation is utilized to calculate daily salary for the weavers.

Goal Setting Theory of Edwin Locke

This theory helps the professionals to lead their subordinate that is the employees towards obtaining the organizational goals using their individual goals. This leads the business to achieve the goals as well as lead it towards success. That is done by giving the employees with gift items, tour packages, vacation packages etc.

EG: This theory helps all types of organizational businesses. Because it's ultimate motive is to achieve the organizational goal by motivating the employees. In Airtel and dialog if the employees show up their quality in work their photography is put up in the reception of head office. Through this other employees are encouraged to donate to the tag.

Equity Theory

This theory demonstrates there is absolutely no difference between your employees working within the business regarding caste, religious beliefs, sex etc. due to this there is absolutely no inner problems and goals are achieved without any problems. In HSBC, there's a top decision making group which is a collision of men and women owned by different castes, religion, nationalities.

EG: This theory is mainly inspired in MNC where there is no difference among employees regarding gender, religion, background, electricity, caste etc.

Theory McClelland's Needs

This theory highlights the needs of the employees and through this the employees' needs are fulfilled. As well as the employees get encouraged to add with full probable.

EG: This theory is mostly used in factories, apparel, government companies.

The theory of Frederick Herzberg's determination hygiene

This theory is comparable to Abraham Maslow's "Hierarchy of Needs" and Theory McClelland's Needs. Which means this is required using organizations. It only highlights two needs only.

"Theory X and Theory Y" by Douglas McGregor

This theory helps to encourage the employees in positive as well as adversely. But adversely means punishing, hitting etc. can't be done in many countries. Those that do will be caught under brutality take action. But, still this also done in Zimbabwe which really helps to get the task done.

Abraham Maslow's "Need Hierarchy Theory"

This theory away shows the five needs of employees from the very important to lessen important. Through this an individual needs as well as organizational need are satisfied. This motivational approach prevails in all organization.

EG: This theory theory is needed in all types of business organizations. This is utilized in government, commercial firms. This is required even in small petty shop. In small petty shop the staff member is fulfilled his or her basic needs through his/her salary.

TASK-4. 1

Define Group And What Are The Five Periods Of Group Development?

Definition of Group

Collection of individuals who've regular contact and regular interaction, mutual effect, good sense of camaraderie, and working alongside one another towards a typical set of targets.

Five Levels of Group Development

Bruce Tuckman (1965) developed a 4-level style of group development. He labelled the phases, Dr Suess-style:






Step 1: Forming

In the formative level, personal relationships are seen as a dependency. Team members count on safe, patterned behavior to check out the group innovator and management. Group people have a desire to have a group and need to find out that this group is safe. They started out gathering impressions and data about the similarities and distinctions between them and developing tastes for future sub grouping. Rules of behavior appear to simplicity and also to avoid contradictions. Serious matters and feelings, which should be avoided.

Main functions of the situation and orientation. The users try to be task focused and with one another. Discussion points determining the range of tasks, how to approach him, as well as with similar problems. To develop from this level to some other, each member must renounce comfort non-threatening matters and risk the probability of discord.

Step 2: Storming

The next level, called the assault or storming, seen as a competition and discord in the non-public dimension of relationships with the business in the dimension of the situation functions. As members of the group attempt to organize for the task, conflict inevitably contributes to their personal romantic relationships. People have to bend and condition their thoughts, ideas, opinions and beliefs in the light of the organizational group. Because of "concern with exposure" or "concern with failure" will not be increased desire to have structural clarification and commitment. Although issues may or may well not surface clusters, they exist. Questions will happen about who will be in charge of that, which tips that the remuneration system is the actual fact that the analysis criteria. They indicate conflict over authority, structure, ability and authority. There may be significant distinctions in the behavior of members based on the rising issues of competition and hostilities. Due to the inconvenience made at this stage, some members may remain completely silent while some try to dominate.

In order to check out the next stage, group customers must move from the "testing and proving" mentality of problem-solving mentality. The most important trait in assisting groups to go to the next stage appears to be listening.

Stage 3: Norming

In the Norming level, interpersonal relations are seen as a cohesion. Group participants take part in the active reputation of all membership dues, community building and maintenance, as well as issues. Participants are prepared to change their preconceived ideas and opinions on the facts offered in other people, and they actively ask questions to one another. Leadership is distributed, and cliques dissolve. Once the participants begin

know and identify with another degree of assurance in their personal relations plays a part in group cohesion. It is at this stage of development (presuming the group gets the time) that individuals get started to feel a sense of community and a sense of relief from your choice of interpersonal issues.

The main function of the condition of the third stage of data move between group people: They show feelings and ideas, solicit and present feedback to one another, and explore actions related to the task. Creativeness is high. If this stage of the data flow and cohesion is achieved by group users, their connections is seen as a openness and writing of information on both personal and work. They feel good about belonging to a powerful group.

The main downside of the normalization level is that the participants can commence to fear imminent collapse of the group; he might withstand change of any sort.

Step 4: Performing

Performing level is not reached by all communities. If group users have the chance to develop in 4-th level, their electric power, range and depth of personal relations increase to true interdependence. At this time, people could work separately, in subgroups, or as a unit with the same decrease. Their functions and power of the dynamically adjust to the changing needs of communities and individuals. Stage 4 is proclaimed interdependence in personal relations, and problems in the adjustments of the taskbar. As of yet, the group should be the most productive. Individual members have become self-sufficient, and the necessity for agreement by the group before. Members are both highly job focused and highly people oriented. You can find unity: group individuality, the moral position of the group is high, and group devotion is intense. The task function becomes genuine problem-solving optimum solutions and perfect development of the group. You can find support for experimentation in handling problems, and focus on achievement. The overall goal is output through problem fixing and work.

Step 5: Adjourning

The final stage, Adjourning, offers the termination problem tendencies and care interactions. Planned productivity usually includes identification for participation and accomplishment and opportunities for users to state personal goodbyes. Concluding a group can create some apprehension - in place, minor turmoil. Termination of the activity of regressive abandonment of control is not included in this group. The most effective interventions at this stage are those that facilitate task termination and the disengagement process.

TASK-4. 2

When is Work Performed by Individuals Preferred over Work performed by Clubs?


A team is an organized group of people to interact interdependently and cooperate to address the needs with their customers by rewarding a goal and objectives.

A distinguishable set of several people who interact dynamically, interdependently and adaptively to attain specified, distributed and valued goals. - (Retrieved by- Bowers, Clint A. , Salas, Eduardo, Weaver, Jeanne L. , Et Al)

Reasons for preferring work performed by individuals over work performed by groups:

Teams are more successful in implementing intricate plans.

Teams develop creative solutions & insurance policies to look after difficult problems.

Teams build dedication and support for new ideas among personnel and community associates.

Teams are part of the learning process of professionals in universities.

A team also helps to make decisions.

Teams help in coordinating & controlling.

Teams are essential in staffing and arranging process.

The problems can be fixed quickly

You get many ideas as the answer of the problem

There are extensive possible solutions from which the best can be selected. Etc

(Note: advantages of team and team work. )

Reasons for not preferring work performed by groups:

Time consuming

Disagreements may hold off decisions and cause hard feelings

One or two group customers may dominate discussion

Many ideas may be forgotten if no notice taking.

Conflict of ideas leading to disagreement

The frequent insufficient concentration because of talk.

Task- 4. 3

How Does Technology Facilitates Clubs Achieve Goals? Give Examples

Definition of Technology

Targeted use of information in the look, produce and use of goods and services, as well as the organization of individual activity. Technology is usually divided into five categories

Tangible: blueprints, models, operating guides, prototypes.

(2) Intangible: consultancy, problem dealing with, and training methods

(3) High: completely or almost completely automated and 'intelligent' technology that manipulates subject ever finer and ever before powerful causes.

(4) Intermediate: partially sensible semi-automated "processed technology that manipulates subject and force-level supplementary education.

(5) Low: rigorous 'working dumb' technology that manipulates subject just ridiculous or gross and poor forces.

www. businessdictionary. com


The improvement in technology has helped people & business firm in lots of ways. With the help of technology people did many wonders. Technology also helps to earn a huge sum of earnings in businesses.

Technology helps to discover thieveries being happened in organizations by the assistance of CCTV.

It also helps to do activities and occurrences effectively. For instance, a note could be mailed through email or sms and the meaning is received ina moment or so instead of publishing it and receiving it in another two days.

Technology also helps to do activities efficiently. For example, the activities are done in machines or robots then pay produced for unprofessional personnel are not necessary to be produced, so firms net profits increases.

Technology also really helps to recruit professional employees by the organization to load vacancies. For instance, the majority of the organizations use job finding websites to recruit employees effectively and proficiently.

It also helps the organization and people in orientation and presenting programmes.

It also helps in training & developmental programmes.

It also helps the individuals in job orientation and promotional programs.


Positive effects:

It helps to present the ideas in conditions of presentation, task etc.

It helps to create models in teamwork.

It really helps to share ideas from a member in one area of the world to another one from other part of the world. For example, if a member is on christmas in Canada then he could complete his work and send it to team leader at appropriate time through mails and social networks.

It helps to finish the team work effectively and effectively.

It helps to understand if the teamwork is up to the typical and not copied from another team.

It keeps up the team spirit and coordination.

Negative impact

The software problems can result in delay of showing the tasks & display of ideas.

Sometimes it could lead to inefficiency & ineffectiveness.

The communication of information is not reliable.

The way of communication of teamwork may show the information is not upto standard.

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