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QUALITY

Quality Assurance in Engineering Projects

ABSTRACT:

The main aim of this research is to let viewers know how useful quality confidence is and its own benefit to the community. To guide building industries about how they can assure quality in their constructions and also how building industry to can perform minimum loses and avoid risk on site. Furthermore, to also let companies satisfy the necessity with their clients.

KEY WORDS:

Quality assurance, implementation, improvement, effectiveness and contrast.

INTRODUCTION:

The main purpose behind this research is to make a reliable source to identify the necessity for Quality Assurance in Design (Structure).

Statistics has revered that great deal of problems facing structure work is because of the fact that, Quality is not reassured in construction. In my viewpoint, quality assurance can be carried out if we avoid all the following problems:

Poor coordination of subcontractor's work, struggling to supervise and verification on site, insufficient communication among architects, engineer, subcontractors and material materials, uncertain instructions and unqualified operators and also misinterpretation of drawings and standards.

As a matter of fact these problems can cause frequent delay in task, financial damage in companies and lack of confidence in companies as result of inefficient quality assurance.

A project missing all these effects could wrap up as indication in fig 1. 1. See below how the demonstration of the good quality guarantee job and non quality guaranteed job could be.

As you can view from the diagram illustration, the red series explains the stability of a construction with good quality, however it also means that, the construction won't face any problems in a few a long time. Whereas, the blue collection indicate what sort of building can be of no quality and since a matter of fact, it's possible for the building to collapse in a brief period of your time.

I have therefore made a decision to research on the subject as I think that construction industry could improve after it performance if all these is prevented so that building would be quality reassured.

Besides, since building work is team work and everything customers need to contribute to its efficiency and quality of the engineering, therefore this will allow the people of the job team to recognize the main objectives of quality in a job.

In order to achieve this, it is best to establish a technique for modeling the human relationships between the project environments, objectives, control systems and feedback in the structure process. In this case the purpose will make tips to clients of the building industry and their advisers and about how precisely to make sure projects are quality manipulated and promised.

PROBLEM FORMULATION

Quality Confidence is one of the major areas in construction in which much attention must be attracted into. Because of this, it is my duty to determine how quality can rest assured in the building industry. In most cases, there has been complains, delayance and financial losses in engineering companies due to insufficient quality in the development industry.

Again, when a task lacks quality guarantee, the consequences of a period overrun are always serious and hard to resolve. It also distracts a job from interacting with deadlines which brings financial losses to the users and, generally, it has a poor effect on the profitability of the task for the promoters.

Besides the above mentioned problems, lack of quality guarantee in engineering is triggering litigation among architects, technicians, subcontractors and material supplies since each party is blaming each other for the issues at the building site.

As a matter of known fact, the positive feeling and understanding of enjoying the beauty of a residence is to provide a full comfort and security of your client but anticipated to lack of quality guarantee in development, this comfort can't be fulfilled. In addition to this, my discussion will be basing on quality confidence in design and project scrutiny.

METHODOLOGY:

Before this research can be achieved its main aims and objectives, the technique to make use of will basically bottom part on existing information's, general observation and other internet sources which will be very helpful to this issue.

However, this research will be limited within the information collected on the internet, standard observation and existing information from the researchers and can provide answers to the questions in the problem formulation.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS:

Л How do quality be assured in design

Л Problems impacting on construction industry as a result of lack of quality assurance.

1. 0 WHAT'S QUALITY?

The term quality means various things to differing people. Some needs it to be the characteristics of something or service that keep on its capability to gratify a need. Whilst others take it as the degree to which something surpasses a customer's requirements and targets. On the other hand, others think it is the attainment of prescribed specifications. (http://www. qualitydigest. com/html/qualitydef. html)

The international Organization for standardization (ISO DIS 9000:2000), formally identifies quality as the degree to which a set of natural characteristics fulfils the necessity.

In the situation of quality confidence, quality is not a statement of superiority in a comparative sense. It is merely a short cut for `desired quality` that should be laid down as clearly as is feasible. The maker, on the other palm, try to attain the desired quality at an optimum cost while the customer requires self-assurance in the maker`s ability to provide and solidly maintain that quality.

However, quality in construction is more challenging to explain. Firstly, the product is not a mechanical product but a bit of work with specific characteristics. An example will be building construction, the merchandise can be considered a complete building or just a prefabricated aspect that ultimately forms part of the building. Also the need to be satisfied includes not only your client but the goals of the city as a whole, into that your completion of the building will be integrated. The structure cost and time of delivery are also important characteristics of quality. In other words, each one of these things must be properly introduced in designing the building and the outcome should be portrayed absolutely in drawing and specifications.

Besides, in the building companies, it is a normal practice to have different agreements for design compared to that of the engineering with the custom made taking on responsibility of supervising the structure. The grade of the done works will be controlled by ways of inspecting and assessment as construction process. For instance, the quality of concrete and other materials on site is judged by examples of test and complete inspection of the done work is performed without any exemption before finial approval. The major goal of this inspectional system of quality control is to identify the mistakes following the product has been produce. Even high durability of concrete can be defective if it is not properly compacted, healed and the hazard of metallic corrosion won't surface until some years later.

In view of this, many short comings are covered up with the presence of subsequent engineering and consequently the grade of the completed works cannot be assessed by the ultimate inspection. Unlike consumer goods, problems in building work are extremely difficult to displace. The client is often remaining without choice than to patch up the original which is the source of repeated troubles and huge costs in some years to come.

Sometimes, poor workmanship is disregard to keep up with expected efficiency or maybe labour. However, showing commitment to quality, the senior management of the companies should therefore provide enough resources on site to avoid anybody reducing edges. Furthermore, an inclusive record of in process inspection is to ensure that the intended verification is actually done. The excess work are managerial in nature and complementary to the useful techniques of quality control in ensuring the grade of the merchandise.

1. 1 WHAT'S QUALITY Guarantee?

Quality confidence is defined a set of procedures designed to ensure that quality benchmarks and functions are adhered to, that the final product meets or exceeds the mandatory technological and performance requirements. Whereas, (ISO 9001:2000) also defined Quality guarantee as that part of quality management focused on providing self confidence that quality need is fulfilled. In other words, all those organized and systematic actions essential to provide adequate self-confidence that a service or product will gratify given requirements for quality.

Despite all the riches of site experience throughout the go years, one out of ten building agreements still leads to client's dissatisfaction and complains against contractors. Researches made by the (Building Researches Establishment) in britain suggest that 40% of building defects occurs through the construction period (BRE, 1982). In most cases, the defects are located to be the following:

Л Inadequate guidance and verification on site.

Л Misinterpretation of attracting and specs.

Л Ambiguous instructions or unqualified providers.

Л Usage of superseded pulling and specification

Л Poor coordination of subcontracted work

Л Poor communication with the architects, engineer, subcontractors and material suppliers.

Perhaps, due to the above talk about, it is evident that the following defects growing in engineering are mostly caused by poor management and communication. In cases like this, the assumption is that mistakes developing on site are usually made on site. These blunders somehow can be tracked back again to the purchase of inappropriate materials and inability to recuperate the out-dated drawings. Alternatively, the end result of site problems can be of disregard or malpractices in the top office.

Obviously, quality can be achieved when such avoidable mistakes are avoided in the first instance. Serious options must be studied to minimize the risk of managerial and communication problems; this is basic concept of quality confidence. Besides, the do of an individual in an firm could immediately or indirectly have an effect on the quality of a completed product. Responsibility for quality can therefore extends from the chief executive right down to the person face to face. If consistent quality is usually to be assured, all people in the organization, both in the head office and on site must; have proper firm structure, clear lines of responsibility and communication and to have good desire.

Before quality confidence can be practice, a business should be constituted and maintain a quality management system in its daily operation. An excellent system has, among other activities, a set recorded procedure for the various processes carried out by the organization. Also putting into action quality system does not replace the existing quality control function, nor would it conclude in more inspection and assessment. It just ensures that, a proper type and amount of verification is performed when and where it is planned to be done. In short, quality guarantee is oriented towards prevention of quality short coming. In addition, it aims at lessening the risk of making mistakes to begin with, therefore preventing the necessity for rework, repair or reject.

From the indicator of the diagram above, less time and money is employed in the very first and 2nd stage, whereas less time and money is utilized in the 3rd and 4th period due to the fact that mush money and time was found in the earlier phase.

1. 2 PURPOSE OF QUALITY ASSURANCE

(ISO 9001:2000) Quality guarantee ensures that something has achieved it highest standard which its production, changes or repair (regarding a production item) has been completed in an efficient and well-timed manner. The goal of quality assurance is there to provide guarantee to a client that the typical of workmanship within the companyґs premises of the best quality level and that the products giving the industry is above a certain lowest level of standards.

It should also further ensure that the company staff, sub-contractors and key suppliers know about customer requirements and that they are fully found. Conformance with requirements of the comprehensive procedures developed in accordance with the Quality Manual must be mandatory for those staff used in the company. It is vital to the system that encouragement is directed at each employee to develop and maintain an frame of mind of continuing quality improvement and client satisfaction. [11]

Also, to ensure that, the typical of productions are to be able between the divisions or section plus they have remain regular despite changes in workers.

1. 3 HOW TO Put into practice QUALITY ASSURANCE

Construction industry has been struggling with it implementation of quality assurance for quite some time. The cost may potentially be reduced reasonably if the industry were to carry onto the idea of quality assurance by using great success by the means others. (Construction Quality Confidence White paper. ) However, various case studies and initiatives have been successful in presenting quality guarantee to the construction industry on a tiny scale, but all together, it has mainly been ignored by the market sectors. The structure industry is unique and therefore the software of quality confidence requires to be implemented on the market. A number of the major steps of the process are reviewed below;

1. To begin with, project managers in various companies have to form a team or teams who'll be dedicated for quality confidence. This team will be accountable to value and record on the evaluation regarding every part of the company. The team will be working individually having power and independence of work, at each point of the procedure. The team must report to the older management of the business and keep all results in files. [9]

2. Once the team is made, the main responsibility of the team is to define the tasks and assign these to respective persons. A few of these responsibilities are to examine the products, tools, services according to the requirements, benchmarks and suggestions, audit project processes, suggest various methods, benchmarks or tools to be used in the job, report the outcome of the evaluation etc. [9]

3. The team then identifies the programs for the product quality assurance process. In this case, it depends after the type of company; the details of the plans in the company might change. However, it basic plan remains common for the majority of the companies. Largely the list includes quality targets, defining the lab tests and verificational activities, process evaluation, defining the average person responsibility of the associates, discovering training requirements, budgeting and financing for quality control careers, arranging all activities, documenting and checking etc. [9]

4. Creating the test process, checklists and related activities to explain the way quality confidence will be performed is the next phase. [9]

5. The team in simple sense has to perform according to the plans designed to ensure another steps of quality confidence process. These resources can be acquired to perform the procedures, when the team begins evaluating the task. Tools necessary for this evaluation are identified depending on aspect of the job. Any non conformance with the requirements or necessity are notified and reported to the correct department. The issues are then corrected and again delivered for examining to the quality control team. This way, testing and correcting continues on, till the project is proven to be in conformance with the standard. [9]

6. The next step is to identify working out requirement for the associates to perform the evaluation operations as specified in the quality control plan. [9]

7. The performance of the team should be monitored regularly by the project manager contrary to the plans, routine and budget. In case the progress of the team is not doing a good job, then corrective activities should be studied. [9]

8. The team activities and results are reviewed by the senior management of the business and their stakeholders on regular intervals. Any unsolved issue for the team procedure is taken care of by the mature management at this time of energy. [9]

9. The team gathers review information from various resources. Again, suggestions for improvement at any step of quality assurance process is accepted and put in place within the next treatment, if it satisfies the many limitations. Referrals are accepted from any degree of the company for future use. [9]

10. The team refines the full total process to give it a precise composition with the teamґs information, layouts and checklists. This structure can be used again as a model for future or might become an example to others or organizations. [9]

1. 4 WHY DO WE USE QUALITY Guarantee IN DESIGN?

In the development industry, quality confidence is followed in nuclear and offshore works mainly for protection and reliability reasons. The process of construction entails different kinds of professional and tradesman with an array of skills and level of education. The conditions where these processes are carried out are often revealing to aggressive factor, in such condition it is arguable if the strategies can be standardized at all. Alternatively some contractors feel that trying to do so merely place another layer of administration in the industry.

Despite, the variations of the task handled with a construction company, the corporate procedures apply to all varying diplomas. A few examples of such are tendering, procurement, document control and record keeping.

Mostly, the adoption of quality confidence in the engineering industry has been mainly client-led. Noting that the implementation of deal in rules cannot undo any damage already done, a intensifying customer, when awarding a contract, tends to take into account, the contractorґs capability to do it right at the first time down the hidden philosophy of quality assurance. Besides, there is a general activity towards making the enforcement of quality systems in a contractual requirement. Most of the specialists that are accountable for general public works and real estate have started to persist on an efficient quality system as an obligatory for tendering; perhaps public resources companies are doing the same thing.

In this instances, the basis of competition for companies will move from price to the mixture of price and quality, meanwhile if the companies do not want to keep out from bidding for available work, they need to then wait no more in establishing a quality system in their companies. Such companies will be struggling with a lose fight against their opponents who've already enhanced their product through better quality confidence or quality management.

More so, endeavoring to satisfy a condition for tending or deals may not be the best debate for doing quality assurance, but it could have probably be the most powerful reason to begin with. However, the companies that benefit usually from quality confidence are those who do so for the purpose of bettering their own efficiency. These improvement brings about higher production on the on hand and client satisfaction on the other.

Let's see some few constructions assess with poor quality assurance.

1. Damage to the terrace roof structure surface.

2. Roof leakage through joints, bushings and so forth, which lead to drenching of the thermal Insulation material and discolorations on inner surface tiers.

3. Roof leakage at the eave with discolorations and flakiness on the faade surface layer underneath.

Sources: 5th semester project 2009

Moisture has brought on many damages through the roof covering terrace covering because of different reasons. A few of which are found out in the engineering by some blemish on the faade and inside the building. The level to which these injuries can be determined is following the construction has been revealed. Besides, the deformation of this damage depends partly on changes in the supporting substrate and partially on movements of the building structure.

2. 0 ROOF

2. 1 BAD WORKMANSHIP

And the most common damage on roof structure construction is normal water leakage More often than not, the leakage may appear any place in the roof construction and also at other place then where in fact the water from the outside normally penetrates. These leakages are brought on by innumerable; another reason could be a damaged roof structure membrane. Most importantly, the roof top membrane can be a reckless traffic, ice blasting and thermal actions in the roof covering coverings. Also there can be movement underneath the rooftop membrane duo to shrinkage in the thermal insulation planks. This that comes through the opportunities in the rooftop membrane is partly soaked up by the thermal insulation boards and partly penetrates the roofing covering.

On terrace roofs with external thermal insulation, the thermal insulation boards make up a substrate for the roofing membrane. Terrace roofs with no thermal insulation or with inner thermal insulation take place more occasionally, however when it does the cement surface becomes the substrate for the roof structure Membrane.

The roof covering membrane can consist of one or two levels. Roof membranes made of one level are usually manufactured from:

* Thermoplastic materials (generally PVC)

* Plastic materials

* Polymer revised bitumen.

2. 2 BENEFITS OF QUALITY ASSURANCE

Quality Assurance is becoming basic part of most of the construction sectors. Every construction market sectors nowadays face difficult competition and hence it is vital to allow them to provide goods or services of high quality at low priced with their clients. Different systems are implemented in construction organizations to improve after the grade of the companies. Besides this will not only really helps to satisfy your client requirements but also helps in lowering costs and increasing earnings of the organizations. Most of the construction market sectors understand the importance and requirement of preserving good quality to make it through in today market and this are laying sustained emphasis on their QA systems.

The first profit is that, it helps in understanding the wishes and objectives of the client. It thus supports the business to focus on its techniques to satisfy those needs and targets, in order to keep it client happy and satisfied. For e. g. structure companies offering good quality of buildings to their clients get plenty of contracts from the community reap the benefits of it. They can also over shadow their rivals and enjoy good profits.

Secondly, quality guarantee has increased the potency of the construction business. It requires that, the construction industries offers proper training with their employees in order to understand their jobs better as well as get trained on the new technology to work and perform better. The complete building industry works in a predefined fashion with the aid of these procedures. It can help the employees in knowing and understanding their assignments and responsibilities. They also make the employees understand the different inter linkages within the departments. Thus, the employees understand the importance of teamwork in bettering the grade of products and so improve the brand value of the company.

Moreover, the quality assurance boosts the flow of work within the companies. It helps to recognize the challenge areas within the companies very early. You can find regular inspections and audits that pin point the condition areas of the companies. Not only the issues of the company, but also the low quality and other problems of the vendors are highlighted of these performance inspections. The aim of these systems is to consistently improve the whole quality of the firms, to be able to attain high output while keeping good quality.

Last but not the least, quality confidence help all the departments to work efficiently. You will find fewer lags in the manufacturing of the products and therefore the structure companies benefits from a short pattern time. For e. g. if proper quality systems are carried out in a prefabricated company, it will benefit from fast and good development to its potential buyers. There are lots of big names set for instants the Danish companies that lay claim to serve their customers in an exceedingly small amount of time. Such companies benefit tremendously from increased sales and clients satisfaction.

In short, quality assurance is vital for companies to be able to get a strong foothold in the market. These systems help the companies to work effectively, which in turn reduces the functional costs of the building companies. Also, it helps to infuse self-confidence in the employees though training and role clearness. All of this helps the structure companies to provide their clients better every day.

3. 0 HOW EXACTLY TO DO QUALITY Confidence IN DESIGN

Design in itself has four stages before a job can be completed. These phases include:

PRELIMINARY BRIEF

OUTLINE PROPOSAL PHASE

SCHEME DESIGN PHASE

DETAIL DESIGN ONE PHASE

DETAIL DESIGN TWO PHASE

A project needs to go through all these stages before it becomes a complete one and officially accepted. Quality must be ensured step by step as well.

3. 1 QUALITY ASSURANCE IN THE PRELIMINARY BRIEF

In as much as, this project is a reconstruction task it still has the basis for drafting the client preliminary brief. (The Constricting Architectґs Manual) Primary brief is the total of the clientґs visions and wishes / needs for a building.

In most instances the client's idea should be placed on paper which should comprise the following: the client has to make the architect alert to the reason why of the building; the function, location, rooms, space etc. As the clients mainly have differing backgrounds and experience with the development projects, the simple should be shown in varieties. Besides it is in some way essential for the architect to assist or explain to your client some important information's in the project.

Minutes of the talk between the customer and the consultants should be considering. These minutes can be used as basis for drafting the preliminary brief. The initial brief should be drafted so that not only the consultants can make use of it but every one concern with the project, in order it may also be used as the foundation for the job.

3. 2 QUALITY Guarantee IN THE Format PROPOSAL PHASE

This is a phase where materials for construction have to be taken into account, analysis of where you can place each room as long as design can be involved to fit regulations and requirements.

In redesigning such a development, the materials to be utilized must critically be studied into consideration. Concerning how and where you can place for example the bathroom and the materials to use to be able to get a better construction so that as a matter of known fact it life span. As observed in the fig. the materials to use in the wall space around the toilet has be normal water proofed to be able not to soaks with water. Sound and flame also should be taken into account which also make construction meet the needs in legislation.

3. 2. 1 Budget

Л To truly have a successful preconstruction phase, it's important to have an appropriate first budget. The main element to a precise first budget is communication of anticipations by all team members. This will likely lead the dialog among the team members, asking the right questions to evidently establish the range of the job. This includes discovering phasing plans, finishes, systems, equipment and duties of the dog owner, consultants, proprietary items and long lead items which might impact the job cost, routine and quality.

Л Preliminary thorough cost estimating and budget development must be performed at schematic design, design development and structure document phases. At each milestone design and budget must be evaluated against the professional project budget for conformance with the proven program price. Corrective action, if required, should be researched at each stage to keep carefully the project on target.

Л Companies perform detailed self-employed checks of estimations with subcontractors charges prior to competitive bidding to the subcontractor base. This is essential to ensuring accurate numbers in the changing pile market.

Л Value executive must be achieved early along the way. When utilized at this stage, it isn't cost cutting, but instead an activity that balances the Owner's goals of reaching quality, budget and agenda objectives.

Л A Team when possible must be produced to provide quality guarantee, constructability and multi-disciplined peer reviews to boost record quality and in the end achieve lower base bids and reduce change order publicity.

Л Proceeding to the issuance of bid documents, the bidding requirements must be set up and evidently communicated to all bidders. A compiled Лbid book' must be produced in addition to the plans and features that really helps to clarify the way they plan to build the job, as well as clarifying the role of each subcontractor. This eliminates doubling through to or lacking a opportunity.

Л Contractors uses an comprehensive select list of competent subcontractors and suppliers who able to respond to the needs of the job.

3. 2. 2 Schedule

Л A task routine should be developed and validated to maximize engineering efficiencies and optimize owner's program requirements.

Л Schedules must be validated at each step in the design.

Л Subcontractors must be called for source in the schedules early on to ensure an accurate, achievable program.

3. 2. 3 Design Intent

Л Analysis reviews are performed in the look phase. Assemblies and systems are evaluated for simple engineering so they are not later learned to be difficult or even impossible to create. The evaluation reviews can help avoid cost rises and plan delays during engineering. The Team's experience in development should allow beneficial reviews and examination of the suggested design to identify these things.

Л Submittal requirements and timing must also be identified in a submittal log so that the design intent can be properly validated.

Л Contractors must compare the merits of varied design ideas at the preconstruction level, including a cost evaluation, life cycle evaluation, schedule impact evaluation and a standard quality contrast. This gives the Owner the info needed to decide which design best fits the needs of the project.

3. 2. 4 Workmanship

Л Quality levels must be decided and integrated in the Project Mission Statement.

Л Drawings and specifications are assessed with subcontractors and designers to identify potential conflicts, which might impact constructability and quality.

3. 3 QUALITY Guarantee IN THE Design DESIGN PHASE

These stage shows where critical problems in the structure can be resolved before it actually reach the aspect design phase

Л There should be a concentrate on constantly scrutinizing for value adding ideas to best meet up with the owner's objectives.

Л Companies work to find creative solutions to problems during building in an effort to minimize cost, program or quality effects.

Л Contractors provide a review of the suggested changes, with regards to cost, program, design, constructability and quality implications as part of the role in the change order management process during structure.

Л The service provider complies with all contractual schedules. This eliminates additional charges for owners credited to plan delays.

3. 3. 1 Schedule

Л A weekly subcontractor meetings must also held to accomplish communication among subcontractors and suppliers. Reaching minutes should also be allocated with action items for accountability and communication purposes. Every subcontractor must get a tone of voice in these meetings to discuss an issue they may be having. By facilitating the subcontractors talking to each other, many issues can be avoided that might impact cost, agenda or quality.

Л Schedules must be watched daily and updated weekly. In this way, a potential problem is caught and rectified before it becomes a significant issue.

Л No tolerance insurance plan on schedule. This can meet every contractual determination, no matter what it requires.

3. 3. 2 Design Intent

Л Both the job management team and the website superintendent should monitor and review all shop drawings and submittals to avoid conflicts and verify that the design intent has been maintained.

3. 3. 3 Workmanship

Л The team's on-site superintendent provides monitoring over the creation activities of suppliers and subcontractors to mitigate conflicts and ensure conformity with quality specifications, deal drawings and features. This on-site superintendent also authorizes and gets the responsibility to accept or reject all stages of craftsmanship.

Л The team offers a safe, clean job site that facilitates output and quality of the final product. A monthly job site security visit is conducted by the Safeness Planner for verification

Л The team's standard superintendent visits the work sites at least one time weekly to execute quality control, benefit troubleshooting, and verify consistent execution.

Л At least a each week project management team reaching is held with all job managers to discuss current job issues and brainstorm possible solutions.

Л Companies must hire and teach highly qualified office and site management staff, so they know what quality looks like.

3. 4 QUALITY ASSURANCE IN THE Details DESIGN ONE PHASE

3. 4. 1 Budget

Л The team must talk with all subcontractors and suppliers to check final contract amounts, get proper final lien waivers, and ensure prompt payment of retain get older. This eliminates surprises or statements down the road.

3. 4. 2 Schedule

Л A full closeout treatment is developed to assist in the Substantial Conclusion Time frame and ensure turn over to Owner. This consists of items such as Procedure and Maintenance guides (O&Ms), training, as-built, punch list completion, etc.

Л An in depth out treatment is supervised daily and modified regular to ensure a timely closeout of the project.

Л Companies walk the work with each subcontractor prior to them forever leaving the work site so they get them to 100% complete. It is much better to get them to complete their work while they are there, than to keep these things keep coming back.

Л All contractual areas of a task are complete prior to contractor leaving the work site.

3. 4. 3 Design Intent

Л Subcontractors are required to provide as-built drawings in a format constant with Owner's requirements, and a strategy will be decided for creating overall as-built. This ensures ease of maintaining the center after it is completed.

3. 4. 4 Workmanship

Л Contractors take punch list very significantly. After the subcontractor's punch lists have been completed, the team then prepares and completes its punch list, before the Owner/Owner's Representative Walkthrough. This helps it be so that people have a minimal punch list for the dog owner.

3. 5 QUALITY ASSURANCE IN DETAIL DESIGN TWO PHASE

3. 5. 1 Budget

Л Contractors and each subcontractor/distributor provide a one-year guarantee to the Owner. This warranty protects defective craftsmanship and materials outside the world of normal deterioration.

3. 5. 2 Schedule

Л Warranty items are tracked and supervised once Service provider is notified of any issue. There can be an immediate notification to the correct subcontractor/supplier party (if suitable) with written notice, and relay to them a particular date (typically no more than 10 days and nights) in which the issue must be fixed, depending on its seriousness. All items are monitored and updated each week.

3. 5. 3 Group works

Л The service provider must inform Owner representatives in the Warranty Process, giving them prepared ЛWarranty Notices' to fax to your office with all relevant information. This can help to assist in the warranty process for the end user.

3. 5. 4 Design Intent

Л Each individual keeps a duplicate of all task documents, Businesses and Maintenance manuals (O&M's) and as-built drawings to offer an historical record of the job.

3. 5. 5 Workmanship

Л The Constructor superintendent accountable for the original structure job should supervise all guarantee work. The superintendent must be accountable for verifying correctness of guarantee resolution by subcontractors. This ensures continuity and quality.

4. 0 CONCLUSION

In realization, quality can be assured in the building industries when project managers in various companies have made a team or groupings who'll be dedicated for quality guarantee. Where the team will be accountable to value and survey on the analysis regarding every part of the company. The team will be working separately having expert and liberty of work, at each point of these procedure. The team has to report to the senior management of the business and keep all ends up with files. This will enable production division to accept responsibility.

Workers must be educated in a variety of companies because it is better of educating employees on how to achieve quality in a job than to postpone and lose a lot of money for lack of quality assurance in an organization.

Secondly, problems influencing construction sectors can be prevented if adequate supervision and verification on site is done for every material that arrives and every work done.

Also if staff are given better interpretation of pulling and work standards is delivered through good communication medium for a good knowledge of what's to be achieved on site, both companies and workers will enjoy their work.

Designers should not hesitate to go back to the creation company in case there is a change or an improvement to the building aspect before manufacturing is performed. However, quality guarantee can be achieved when such avoidable mistakes are averted in the beginning. If all the above talk about is accomplished development industries can come out with good quality assurance project.

5. 0 REFERENCE

1. Chung, HW. 1999, understanding quality guarantee in construction

2. Source: Construction technology, 2008. The quality assurance model. [Online] (2008) Offered by: http://www. pte. idaho. gov/SkilledTechSciences/ModelConstruction/schools/quality_assurance. html Accessed date: [2008]

3. Hoyle, D. , 2006, Quality system handbook, fifth ed, THE UK.

4. Lochner, H. Rober. & Matar, E. Joseph. 1990, Building for Quality. New York

5. Mangino, J. , 1996. quality confidence and quality control, [online]

Available at: http://www. ipcc-nggip. iges. or. jp/public/gp/english/8_QA-QC. pdf

6. Muller, E. , 1997. Constructing Architect BTH. Horsens Polytechnic, Denmark

7. North Celebrity Associations, 2003. Quality Confidence End result. [Online] (2nd Apr 2003) Offered by: http://www. northstarservices. net/newsletters/archive/apr2003/index_files/chart. gif Accessed date [Apr 2003]

8. Source: performance validation, 2005. Construction Quality Guarantee White paper. [Online] (April 2005) Available at: http://jobfunctions. bnet. com/abstract. aspx?tag=content%3Bcol1&docid=157444 [Accessed Apr 2005]

9. Source: Total quality, 2002. Implementing quality assurance. [Online] (2002) Offered by: http://www. totalqualityassuranceservices. com/the-steps-of-quality-assurance-process/ Accessed day: [2002]

10. Tricker, R. , 2005, Quality system handbook, third ed, Great Britain: Biddle Ltd, rulerґs Lynn, Norfolk

11. Source: http://www. oppapers. com/essays/Quality-Assurance-Construction-Industry/129387

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