Football has become a sport that interest by all people nowadays. To experience or turn into a good football player, the individual must get better at many skills and also have a healthy physical and mental. Basketball players also must incorporate speed, durability, agility, ability, and endurance as basic characteristics before the individual skills natural to the taking part in of soccer can be employed and be based upon the positioning such as security, strikers, midfielder and goal keeper. The knowledge of the physical and the mental needs of the activity will enable a far more scientific approach to working out of sports players by (Bell and Rhodes 1975; Caru et. al. 1970; Fardy 1969).
According to (Nicks et. al. 2006; Romer et. al. 2002) Soccer is one of the intermittent athletics that want high intensity rounds of exercise, with times of passive or active restoration and coherent performance in repeated sprints need sufficient recovery between sprints.
So the ball player will need to have strong muscles, high muscular endurance, have strong center and have higher level of aerobic capacity because the football game are played for 90 minutes. Therefore the training must contain high aerobic training to improve cardiovascular and pulmonary functions therefore the athlete can deal with the sport.
Physiological diagnosis of athletes can provide an possibility to analyze or test the version to specific types of exercises and training. These adaptations can be valuable to the clinician, coaches and runners themselves. For instance, lab test that can be proceed to examine the adaptation to specific types of exercises and training. To check the version to the lung we can use pulmonary functions test to examine the effectiveness of lung muscles operating, to check the vital capacity and estimate the lung volumes.
The function of the lung is to provide O2 to gas exchanged surface and exhaust CO2 to atmosphere. To achieve this with brain functioning normally, breath begins with contraction of inspiratory muscle enlarging the thorax, decreasing intrathoracic and pleural stresses, enlarging the alveoli and airways, widening the alveolar gas so lowering its pressure below atmospheric. Air at atmospheric pressure must move in to the thorax where it is conducted to, and diffuses, out in to the alveoli. The carriage of air through the airways depends upon the patency of the tube as well as on the persistence of the lung and the power of the respiratory muscles. At any one moment about 100ml of desaturated blood vessels, with a solid affinity for O2, is disperse over a location of 70 rectangular meters( region of pulmonary capillary foundation ) segregated from air with a membrane 0. 2 micron solid. Air from alveolar air diffuses speedily across the alveolar capillary membrane and it is finally chemically coupled with hemoglobin substances within the circulating red bloodstream cells (RBC), CO2 diffuses into opposite direction and is taken out in expired gas.
The Essential capacity test is one of the oldest and most common respiratory lab tests. The way of measuring of essential capacity (VC) simply requires an individual blow as large a breathing of air as you can into a spirometer. Thus, the person expels three of the four components of the full total lung volume when performing the essential test. You will discover inspiratory reserve quantity (IRV), tidal quantity (Tv set) and expiratory reserve amount (ERV). It provides an indirect sign of how big is the lung, though it is not a complete way of measuring the entire lung size since it does not account for residual volume. Generally facts, essential capacity relate to three uncontrolled characteristics which can be age, stature and gender.
Lung function measurements also may be made for a number of reasons. They are useful in talking about the lung for diagnostic purpose and eventually in monitoring change. Correctness and steadiness are therefore very important, and a convention is available for the procedure of dimension and expression of result. Generally, a measurement will only be accepted after multiple endeavors have been scrutinized and expressed under standard conditions. They are usually body temperature and atmospheric pressure.
To guarantee exactness, laboratory practice should include regular physical and natural calibration of the gear. Standard for good laboratory conduct have been described greatly by Uk Thoracic Modern culture or association of respiratory system technologist and physiologist 1997. In health there are several factors which effect the magnitude of the lung function. Included in these are height, sex, time, and to a smaller level weight and ethnic origins (Cotes1979, Anthonisen1986). As a result, diagnosis of normalcy can only be weighed against reference beliefs. The better can be obtained from the study of larger numbers of normal folks from the relevant inhabitants (European community for Coal and Metallic 1983). Once obtained, results can be indicated as percentage expected or, more effectively, by comparison with the 95% self-confidence interval for the valves.
It is interesting to know whether there are any different of lung quantities and lung capacities basic on the several position in the basketball team such as striker position and defenses position. In sports team, the defenders position tasks will vary with the striker position process, for example the defensive position, the job of the centre backs or central defenders is to avoid opposing players, specially the strikers, from getting the opportunity to score, and clear the ball off their own charges area. So usually the defense has big physical to avoid the striker, but different with the striker position, usually the strikers' position players have not too big physical, because these positions are for the fast person to rating the goal.
This study of pulmonary function of the Uitm soccer players base on position, have taken students band of both striker position and defense position of older between 19-25 years and focused on essential guidelines including, FVC and has used Spirometer. The spirometer device used to determine these guidelines. This research mainly specializes in lung guidelines including Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and what lengths it varies base on the position such as striker and security. The FVC also use to examine the lung function of Uitm sports players.
1. 2. 1 Exhalation is act or an instance of exhaling air.
From journal resources Masaoka Y, Satoh H, Akai L, Homma I. (2010)
1. 2. 2 Inhalation is the drawing of air or other substances into the lung.
From internet sources http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki
1. 2. 3 Total lung capacity are refers to the total amount of air in the lungs after taking the deepest breath possible.
From internet resources http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki
1. 2. 4 Ventilation is a cyclic process of ideas and expiration whereby maximum levels of Oxygen and cabondioxide are managed in the alveoli and arterial blood vessels.
1. 2. 5 Tidal Amount (VT) is thought as the amount of air that is inspired and expired during normal resting ventilation.
1. 2. 6 Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) is the maneuvers in which the maximum amount of air that may be exhaled carrying out a inspiratory effort.
1. 2. 7 Maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) is thought as the maximum volume of air that may be breathed voluntarily by a person in a single minute.
From internet options http://www. answer. com/topic/maximum-breathing-technique
In this analysis, there are a few purposes or objective that can be seen. They are really;
To gauge the level of fitness of Uitm football players by using push vital capacity\
To determine whether there's a different in pulmonary functions starting on position in football team such as security and striker.
H-There is not any significant different on pulmonary functions in sports position such as striker and defense
HЄ-There is significant different on pulmonary functions in sports position such as striker and defense
The significant of this study is mainly to evaluate and compare the lung quantities and capacities on the list of Uitm soccer player base on their position. Does the basketball position such as striker position and defenses position have dissimilarities results on the lung volumes and capacities? The study is important because it can help certain individuals such as instructor, physiotherapy and sportsmen especially in any kinds of sports to boost pulmonary functions. Furthermore, this study also can increase knowledge of coach and players, and show them how important is to own successful and strong lung to improves their performances because of their sport.
The first delimitation is the number of any kinds of research things, which is composed thirty (n=30) a long time from 19-25 years old will need part in this study. The things are selected in the Uitm football team and physically active and everything the individuals must be healthy. The things are divided into two sets of security and striker. The others delimitation is the subject gender and age. The test will be carry out in Physiology Laboratory.
In this study, the participants included may involve some experience in essential capacity test. The members that will be selects in this analysis will be participating in the laboratory test by using spirometer. The involvement is important in this analysis because it can affect the results and data if the members do not cooperate and take part willingly.
Besides that, enough time constrains also can be one of the factors because the individuals have their own schedules and can clash with the test schedules and can not enroll in the test.
In addition, money can be a problem because, there is absolutely no sponsored in this study. The daily activities of the individuals will never be controlled.
In this analysis, it can be assumed that all the participants can do and completed the essential capacity test. Thus, I also believe that and ensure that all the participants will understand and follow all the instruction given by the specialist. The researchers also predict that the members are physically energetic and healthy.
The researcher assumed that the test in this study instrumentation was befitting the target inhabitants. I also forecast that all the participants totally realized the types of ensure that you method and how to perform it correctly.
The research individuals effectively of completed the inventory leisure contribution and leisure constraints to the best of their capacity. Finally, all the participants are from the same populations, which Uitm football team aged 19-25 years of age.