Posted at 11.21.2018
Infrastructure is a wide concept linked to every element of the economy and individuals life. Appropriately, the set of associated issues is long. For any purposeful examination of issues in infrastructure development to lead to the action-oriented way forwards, it's important to narrow down the definition of infrastructure and associated issues. The term infrastructure has been used since 1927 to send collectively to the streets, bridges, rail lines and similar open public works that are required for an industrial market to function. Transportation, communication, sewage, normal water and electric systems are all a part of infrastructure. These systems tend to be high-cost investment funds. In general, infrastructure is location-specific and cannot be moved from destination to place (www. unescap. org).
Transportation infrastructure cannot operate without transport and travelling cannot run without transport infrastructure. Different transportations have their own infrastructure to support one another. For air transport, their infrastructure will be the airport. Port would be the infrastructure for drinking water vehicles while infrastructure for land transport such as open public bus will be the bus terminal or bus stop.
Transport infrastructure development in East and South-East Asia has played an integral part in the phenomenal growth of world trade. The infrastructure backbone for international trade has been the container shipping and delivery network and significantly the airfreight network. World container dock traffic, which widened by 9. 2 % to 266 million TEUs in 2003, is dominated by Asian countries. They accounted for 46 per cent of container ship operations, 62 per cent of container dock throughput, and 83 % of container dispatch building. Twelve major South and East Asian exporters together account for fifty percent of the world's containerized exports (www. unescap. org).
Bus terminal or known as bus train station is one of the main travel infrastructure where buses stop to pick up and drop off passengers. It may be meant as a terminal or train station for a number of routes or as a transfer station where the routes continue. It really is bigger than bus stop where bus stop is usually built at the road area for the bus to stop for some time but not to wait for passengers.
Tel Aviv's new central bus place was officially inaugurated just lately, after 26 many years of off-and-on engineering, legal and financial disputes (Encyclopedia. com). Most the Dan and Egged Tel Aviv-area buses are now based mostly at the new stop; 5, 000 buses pass through the stop daily, carrying some 150, 000 individuals. The station is the major bus station on earth, encompassing 197, 600 square meters indoors, and 34, 400 rectangular meters outside the house (Encyclopedia. com). The most significant underground bus train station in Europe is Kamppi Middle of Helsinki, Finland completed in 2006. The terminal cost 100 million Euro to complete and took 3 years to create and build. Today, the bus terminal, which includes 25, 000 rectangular meters, is the busiest bus terminal in Finland. Each day, the terminal has around 700 bus departures, transporting some 170, 000 people (www. webcitation. org).
Since bus station play a vital role in building up the volume of traffic as well as in providing better services to the traveler, the bus service undertakings, specially in the general public sector, should come up and encourage the introduction of the bus station management as an independent discipline in the field of traffic management. (Kulshrestha, 1993, p. 9)
Penang, as most of us may already know, is one of Malaysia's most popular destinations for travelers from the local or the international communities (Chat Malaysia 2010). One of the main known reasons for Penang to possess so many travelers arriving and venturing out annually is partially because there are a great number of interesting places to go to in Penang. Most of the interesting places in Penang are located at mainly around Georgetown and Seberang Perai (www. talkmalaysia. com).
Therefore, transport infrastructure especially bus terminal or place in Georgetown play an important role in order to pick up and drop off individuals from a destination to another destination. This is because Penang has traffic problem, therefore open public transport are being used.
Komtar Bus Terminal is the hub of bus services in George Town. All of the bus routes of Penang radiates from this terminal. To be exact, Komtar Bus Terminal is not really a "terminal" proper, but instead a bus train station, because buses do not actually begin from here, but instead, from the Weld Quay Bus Terminal. Nevertheless, most people will know it by that name. In the Komtar Bus Terminal, you can get buses heading to the north, central, south and west elements of Penang Island, as well as some buses that go to the mainland. Among the list of bus companies that use the terminal includes Super fast Penang, Milan, Transit Website link and KGN-Hin. The terminal is situated along Lebuh Tek Soon, although buses treat it via Jalan Ria plus they emerge from the terminal into Jalan Ria once more (www. penang-traveltips. com).
As a bus stop user, unhappy with bus terminal in Georgetown. Some of the same complaint had been made by locals and visitors too. This is because they have the down sides in determine which bus to ride in order to attain their vacation spot. Therefore, this research is to find out what exactly are the factors which will make the travellers satisfied rather than content with the bus terminals in Penang. This analysis also includes, to identify the present condition of move infrastructure, the cleanliness in the bus terminals and the safety and security in the bus terminals. From these factors, this review is able to conclude what exactly are their anticipations towards bus stop in order to allow federal government make improvement.
Transport and traffic management will always be a bone of contention for Penang. Many believe that rapid monetary development is not met with an equal amount of attention directed at proper traffic management and planning. You can find about 1. 4 million vehicles (motorcycles, autos and other vehicles) for a inhabitants of about 1. 4 million people in Penang. That is about double the amount of vehicles in 1999 (Sympologic, 2008).
For the aforementioned reason, public travel had played a very important role to reduce the traffic in Penang. But without a good infrastructure, general public transportation will never be able to run smoothly. A couple of 2 main transfer infrastructures for bus in Georgetown that happen to be Komtar Bus Terminal and Weld Quay Bus Terminal. But, locals and tourists are not satisfied with the bus terminals in Georgetown. It is because there are no proper path information and bus timetable. It really is difficult specifically for tourists to recognize which bus to ride in order to attain their destination. Travellers always have to ask the bus drivers one by one to ask for the destination. This had decelerate the traffic also. Besides, from the observation, the bus terminals aren't well-maintained in term of cleanliness and basic safety.
The goal of this research is to review tourists' satisfactions and objectives towards bus terminals in Penang.
In order to achieve the above goal, there are a few objectives need to be done.
To examine vacationers' satisfactions towards bus terminals
To examine travellers' expectations for the bus terminals
To examine today's condition of bus terminals
To identify the sanitation in the bus terminals
To identify the security and safety in the bus terminals
From the targets above, the here are the hypotheses which got concluded:
Locals and vacationers are not content with the bus terminals.
Locals and vacationers have high anticipations on the bus terminals in term of cleanliness and security.
There is not a proper course information or sign table in the bus terminals.
The bus terminals aren't clean.
The bus terminals aren't secure.
The above hypotheses are made based on my very own activities and observation.
This research is able to let the authorities and private sector to make improvement on the bus terminals to be able to let them become truly reliable. In the questionnaires which is distribute and gathered, they in a position to tell us the satisfaction level and expectation of local people and tourists towards the bus terminals. Using their expectation, the improvement can be produced. For instance by putting up the route information and sign board, local people and tourists in a position to know which bus to drive to reach their destination. Besides, clean the bus terminals daily so that local people and travellers will feel comfortable and assign more security to secure the bus terminals. Once the advancements have made, the locals and visitors will have the opportunity to use better bus terminals. Each one of these will make the business enterprise of the bus increase too.
The scopes for my research are Penangites and visitors in Penang. Penangites and tourists who will be the end user of bus terminals are targeted. 80% Penangites and 20% travellers are chosen to carry out this research. In order to complete this research, circulation of questionnaires will be produced to these 2 communities of people mentioned previously. Besides, observation in the bus terminals will be achieved by my very own selves too.
The bus terminals in Georgetown which would like to research on are Komtar Bus Terminal and Weld Quay Bus Terminal. These are the two popular bus terminals in Georgetown which packed by people every day. This is because these are the two main stops which the bus will opt for and drop passenger.
There are also restrictions for this research. The first restriction is resources. There exists very few home elevators books, publications or articles about transport infrastructure. Another limitation would be the time. Only 5 weeks to complete this research. Finally, the restriction is the manpower. I am the only one who repeating this research.
Page (2005) said that transfer act as one of the top that contributed to the international development of tourism.
According to Site (2007), the function of carry can be one of the key motivations for the tourists to visit. He also said that in the development of domestic and international tourism, carry is the most critical factor in the promotion. He extended said that transportation links the tourist from the foundation area with the vacation spot area. Therefore it enables the holidaymaker, business traveller and other categories of traveler to get the products and experience what they have purchased. He added that transportation may be an fascination in its right. Holidaymakers who travel by highway may use open public travel or private transfer to experience a variety of destinations.
A mixture of East and Western, Penang is growing in modernity but at exactly the same time holding its customs and old allure. Recently, because of the tranquility of multiracial in Penang and the heritage buildings which are well preserved, these make the Georgetown being accorded an inventory as a UNESCO World Cultural Traditions Site. Penang, long thought to be the food capital of Malaysia, it also attracts tourists with its beautiful beaches and delightful cuisines (www. tourismpenang. net. my).
Transportation in Penang is convenient. You may travel in or out of Penang by the well-connected of street, rail, sea and air. Not only air and teach service is good in Penang however the seaways also offer good travel. Ferry and seaports are there to create convenient to individuals in Penang and Buttterworth. Penang ferry is provided by the Penang Ferry Service that attaches George Town, Penang and Butterworth. There are four terminals, one on Penang Island (Swettenham Pier) and three on the mainland. Next, railway become one of the travelling in Penang, but they are not popular due to their low velocity. Besides, international plane tickets are available in Penang AIRPORT TERMINAL which located in the Bayan Lepas part of Penang, Malaysia (www. asiarooms. com).
Goh (2010) said that traffic jams in Penang especially the major streets including Jalan Burma, Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Jalan Jelutong and Jalan Mesjid Negeria re common although the population is small. Beyond your city, jams are located even in Bayan Lepas and Telok Kimbar. He added that although the Jelutong Exhibit Way had provided some comfort to Jalan Jelutong and Jalan Mesjid Negeri, but the costs to Penangnites have yet to be determined, even though the highway is touted to be "free". He recommended that Penang should follow the exemplory case of Crutiba. Crutiba is a city where in fact the people count on buses to avoid traffic jam. Lately, Fast Penang buses are introduced for individuals who do not have car or have chosen never to use their vehicles.
Zegeer (2002) said that good public transportation is an important to the quality of a community nearly as good roads. According Ramanathan and Parikh (1999, cited in Ramanathan, 2001; Banister and Berechman, 2001; Ramanathan and Parikh, 1999; Eisner, 1991), transportation is a vital element for the modern modern culture now and key to sustained economic progress.
But, Ortuzar and Willumsen (2001) argued that the world of transport still face many problems of the past such as congestion, air pollution, crashes, financial deficits etc. They prolonged said that these problems will not get away until the traffic management increased.
Figure 1 Car and Public-transport vicious circle
Car and Public-transport vicious circle cited in Ortєzar, J. d. D. , Willumsen, L. G. , 2001, p. 8
They continue said that the move problems have distributed broadly in both industrialized and developing countries. Matching to them, gas shortages that happen to be temporarily no problem, but the increase in street traffic and transport demand has led to congestion, delays, accidents and environmental problems well beyond what has been considered acceptable up to now. These problems never have been managed to roads and car traffic together. They added that economical growth appears to have generated levels of demand exceeding the capacity of most travel facilities. They continue argued these problems are not likely to vanish soon. They suggested that it is necessary to ensure a major work in bettering most forms of transport, in urban and inter-urban contexts.
With esteem to the quality of prices and services, carry services have been typically been at the mercy of tight economic rules with respect to entering and fascinating the market. In many countries, highway and rail networks and air-port and port systems are traditionally designed, built, and handled by the general public sector itself, which is the best form of rules. This sort of government intervention has resulted in excessive costs that aren't matched by prices or quality, therefore creating an result that reflects the passions of the sector's civil servants of contractors, unions, and other pursuits categories more than choices of users and taxpayers (Estache and Rus, 2000).
According to UITP (2004), federal government and public carry share a same goal to ensure the public transportation is accessible to all especially the traffic environments need to be well-designed and managed to let the visitors to reach and use general population transport easily and confidently. UITP suggested that federal government and the general public transportation community to interact to lessen not only the physical but also the emotional obstacles such as cognitive, information, fear and discrimination to travel safely in cities.
UITP goes on said that at anybody time, an average of 25% of the population may have a amount of reduced mobility anticipated to a physical or mental disability, impaired look or ability to hear, or through having to carry heavy handbags or travel with small children. UITP added, physical and sensory disabilities are often related to age group and, as established fact, the proportion of the elderly population in western countries is growing and will continue to accomplish that well into the 21st century. They are clear of the importance of improving option of transport systems. Matching to UITP, advantages from improvements in carry availability are accrued not simply to the disabled and ageing neighborhoods, but to all clients of the carry system.
Traditionally, building extra capacity has been dealt with because of the blockages in transportation infrastructure. But the opportunity is small for the further enlargement of infrastructure in many cities where the demand for transport is highest. Furthermore, a number of reports have discovered that the building of new highways and airports to alleviate congestion is ineffective because it only assists to cause new traffic. On the other hand, a study performed by a Norwegian research group, the SINTEF Group boasts that infrastructure capacity increases are directly associated with lowers in polluting emissions from automobiles. Using a traffic micro-simulation, it showed, for example, that upgrading narrow, winding roads or adding a street to a congested motorway can produce decreases as high as 38% in CO2 emissions, 67% in CO emissions and 75% in NOx emissions, without producing greatly more car travels (EurActiv. com, 2008).
According to Carcamo-Diaz and Goddard (2007, cited in IADB, 2000), Infrastructure, thought as the set of engineering structures, equipment and facilities with a long-term, useful life employed by households and different productive industries of the market, is essential for economic growth (cited in Easterly and Serven, 2003) and integration. As pointed out by IADB (2002), there is a positive romance across countries between income levels and the grade of infrastructure. Corresponding to Tanzi (2005), the implicit assumption about the course of causation goes from infrastructure to growth, although this matter continues to be debated in the literature.
In many cases, the aim of carry infrastructure investment is to increase the accessibility of confirmed region by minimizing travel time or increasing the to travel. Accessibility can be assessed as the number of economic or cultural activities that can be reached using the transport labor, resulting in increased competition and centralization. Alternatively, the impact for region concerned could be both positive and negative, depending on its original level competitiveness (OECD, 2002).
According to ITF and OECD (2008), there are a few top features of surface move infrastructure that produce its provision distinctive from a great many other regions of the economy and which will likely have to be accounted for when the latest models of are being considered. They stated that travel system will not exist for his or her own sake but rather to provide other financial and cultural activity, this is because move is a 'produced demand'. Which means that the possible wider implications of capacity shortages in, and overall standard of, the transfer system, must be studied into consideration in the look if any model for providing travel infrastructure.
The pressure of congestion, unnecessary strain on move infrastructure and environmental have led to a challenge credited to a sizable and increasing variety of commuters (OECD, 2008c). These stresses stem from both resident and cross-border commutes, that happen to be broadly similar in amount. High and increasing range of commutes among residents is shown in Europe's highest car possession rate and one of the highest annual distances covered by auto per capita. For cross-border commutes, 85% are made in passenger autos without use of public transport. These patterns lead to alarming degrees of congestion on the key road transfer corridors and there are now severe bottlenecks at the entrance to urban areas, notably in the location of Luxembourg. This leads to thrown away time, unsafe traveling conditions, noise and high degrees of emission and local air pollution (OECD, 2010).
According to Willis (2010), the transfer infrastructure in France is one of the very most modernized found anywhere in Europe which makes international freight motions streamlined and effective. In the area of modern tramways, France is a global leader in railway technology. Rail carry is therefore always a best option for delivery companies and freight forwarders functioning in France. The carry network is made as an online, with Paris at the guts. There's a total of almost 32, 000 kilometers of record in France, almost all of which is operated by the French railway company, SNCF. During the last twenty years, a couple of broadband LGV (lignes a grande vitesse) have been made to hook up most elements of France with Paris. You will discover same gauge rail links to adjacent countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and Sweden, as well as the Route Tunnel hyperlink with the UK. The TGV, the French high speed train has damaged world speed files is an indicator of just how that France is a true global leader in rail transportation. For freight transportation, rail is a model in France.
According to Willis (2009), Germany has a travel infrastructure that is the envy of the world and this has helped enable the development of a highly effective freight services industry. The phrase 'Germanic' is often used as a byword for efficiency and with justification, if the freight services industry in Germany sometimes appears as a solution. He extended said that when consider that it is less than two decades because the Berlin Wall came up down and East Germany started its procedure for integration within Germany, the efficiency of the transportation network throughout the united states is all the more remarkable. There's a very useful network of waterways, railways and motorways that make internal connections fast and straightforward and also hook up Germany with other countries throughout the world.
Timon Singh (2010) claimed that the center East and North Africa region has spent heavily in its carry infrastructure as well as for famous brands the UAE in particular over the past couple of years. He continued stated that the amount of money has gone into planes and trains in order to raised improve between states, but to turn the spot into both a small business and visitor hub. Air traffic in the Middle East is the most effective growing in the globe, and in order to appeal to the increasing variety of people at their various international airports and thus increasing their general transportation infrastructure, the UAE has been putting into action various aviation tasks.
According to him, rail is another part of the region's carry infrastructure that has collected support in the centre East from Dubai's Metro System to strategies for an expansive network linking the GCC states. Qatar and Bahrain have one of the most ambitious projects, incorporating both rail and metro lines, which is set to transform the emirate into a major carry hub. The project, which is rumored to be priced at over US$36. 6 billion (QR133. 5 billion) and believed to have six years, is likely to be finished in stages over the next six years, with three major areas being the target of the plan - the metro network within Greater Doha, the over-ground railways within the whole of Qatar and then, linking it to the rest of the GCC region and cargo trains.
McDougall (2010) asked how do cities meet the needs of an evergrowing inhabitants, promote diverse and healthy neighborhoods, improve the environment and handle weather change. The answer is it's a extra tall order and the one that London is tackling at once using their aptly called "London Plan". He said that the London Plan models out to ensure that London's travel is simple, safe and convenient and motivates cycling, walking and electric vehicles. The ambitious plan sets out the overall strategic course for an integrated economic, environmental, transport and social framework for the development of London over the next 20-25 years.
He remains said that the London Plan identifies what are termed "Opportunity Areas" in and around London's major reservoirs of brown-field land. These areas are characterized by their potential to accommodate new housing, commercial and other development linked to existing or potential improvements to public carry accessibility. It is important to ensure they can be developed without undue additional pressure on London's already-crowded general population transfer, or on the limited money available for anything beyond devoted transport advancements.
According to Pradhan (2010), move is an integral infrastructure in the present study, as triggers energy consumption as well as economical development in India. Therefore, he recommended that increasing move facility along with energy usage will lead to more economic progress in India. The achievement of higher financial growth through travel infrastructure and energy consumption could be because of its various immediate and indirect benefits in the economy. But he said that the amount of transfer infrastructure is not good, both in number and quality, as opposed to developed countries on the globe. He suggested that if there is sufficient move infrastructure throughout the market, the effect would be far better. He continued recommended that a ideal transport policy should be required urgently to improve economic growth and to maintain sustainable monetary development in the country since transportation infrastructure is a major deal to economic growth.
The greatest advantage to manufacturers in Malaysia has been the country's persistent drive to develop and update its infrastructure. Over the years, these investments have paid off and serious bottlenecks have been averted. Today, Malaysia can boast of having one of the well-developed infrastructures on the list of newly industrializing countries of Asia (www. mida. gov. my).
The latest development of Kuala Lumpur Sentral has become a futuristic self-contained city, providing the perfect live, work and play environment. A modern transport hub integrating all major rail transfer networks, like the Express Rail Link to the KLIA and Putrajaya, the government's new administrative middle. Besides, the Peninsular Malaysia's network of well-maintained highways is a gain to companies. These highways web page link major progress centers to seaports and airports throughout the peninsula and provide an efficient method of transportation for goods. (www. mida. gov. my).
Malaysia's central location in the Asia Pacific region makes her an excellent gateway to Asia. Air cargo facilities are well-developed in the five international airports - the Kuala Lumpur AIRPORT TERMINAL (KLIA), Penang International Airport and Langkawi International Airport in Peninsular Malaysia, Kota Kinabalu International Airport in Sabah, and Kuching AIRPORT TERMINAL in Sarawak. Malaysia's biggest airport, the KLIA, surrounded by four main towns of Kuala Lumpur, Shah Alam, Seremban and Melaka has a capacity of handling 25 million passengers and up to 8 million tons of cargo per time. Cargo import and export strategies are fully programmed at the KLIA to decrease delivery time (www. mida. gov. my).
Recently, Swift Penang has created a state-of-the-art Intelligent Commuter Information System (ICIS), which provides real-time information on the entrance times of buses at terminals in Penang. The ICIS system, the to begin its kind utilized by level bus companies in the united states, would permit some 75, 000 commuters who use Swift Penang buses daily to plan their voyage more efficiently. It proved to be successful and has since been broadened for utilization at the Komtar bus terminal, which views the highest quantity of men and women boarding buses daily. A complete of 200 buses operate from the Komtar bus terminal on a regular basis. The ICIS screen system uses global setting system (Gps unit) to map out the movements of all Rapid Penang buses and compute the precise time of arrival of each bus at the Komtar bus terminal. The ICIS screen system will later be extended to other proper areas throughout the state including the probability of having it installed in shopping complexes (newstraitstimes, 2010).
There are bus stops all around the Penang and there are three main bus terminals for buses in Penang, Malaysia. They may be Weld Quay Terminal, Komtar Bus Terminal and Sungai Nibong Terminal. Relating to Zegeer (2002), a well-designed transit routes a reachable stops are essential to useful system. He remains said that bus puts a stop to should be located at intervals that are convenient for travellers for safety goal and really should be comfortable places for individuals to hold back.
UITP (2004 cited in Grenoble, 2004) argued that if the related infrastructure is inaccessible or inappropriately designed, much of the accessible vehicles will lost. Grenoble has completed comprehensive research and development work to design tram and bus puts a stop to, starting some 20 years ago. The concept used by Grenoble was that the bus services should be made as accessible as the tram. Relating to Grenoble, the look standards found to be most effective for accessible bus halts were 14m(standard bus) and 20m(articulated bus) for overall length of bus boarding program, 2. 1m(least) and 2. 6m(when a shelter is provided) for overall breadth of boarding program, 3% for gradient of gain access to ramp at end of system, 21cm for elevation of boarding area, 60cm again from front border of boarding area for safe practices series and 1. 1m(minimum) and 1. 3m(preferred) for clear space between front end of bus shelter and forward advantage of boarding area.
Zegeer (2002) said that besides the bus stop putting your signature on, a bus shelter with seating, trash receptacles, and bicycle parking are also desired features. He suggested that bus halts should be highly obvious locations where pedestrian can reach them easily through accessible travel routes. Therefore, a full sidewalks system is essential to support a public transport system. Convenient crossings are also important.
He continued suggested that proper placement of bus stops is key to user safety. For instance, placing the bus prevents on the next to area of intersections or crosswalk may block pedestrians' view of getting close to traffic, and getting close to drivers' view of pedestrians. Getting close to motorists may be unable to stay in time whenever a pedestrian steps from in front of a ceased bus into the traffic lanes at the intersection. Far-side bus halts generally encourage pedestrians to mix behind the bus. Reallocating the bus stop to the far side of the intersection can improve pedestrian properly since it climates the sight-distance restriction brought on by the bus. Placing bus ceases at the very far aside of intersections can also improve motored vehicle operation.
Besides, he also recommended that the bus halts should be fully accessible to pedestrians in wheelchairs, must have paved contacts to sidewalks where surroundings buffers exist, and should not obstruct pedestrian travel on the sidewalk. Adequate room should can be found to use wheelchair lift. Yet, it is also useful to install curb ramps at bus stops so a passenger can panel from the road if bus-lift deployment is blocked.
According to Iles (2005), problem may come up at bus stations which are being used as intermediate ceases for buses moving through the town or city when services are run to schedule. Iles gave an example on whenever a full bus with a few travellers drop enter the place, they have the capability to get same volume of new traveler, but through services always postponed by having queue while other buses, a few of which might be commencing their journeys at the place, load first. Because of this, in some countries, illegally in some cases, long-distance buses do not call by any means bus channels on option, but stop beyond your intermediate bus stations to create down travellers at the roadside. He continues said that by not going into a bus train station, however, a bus more likely to miss passenger who could often be carried; on the other hand, the practice may encourage some prospective passengers to hold back at the roadside outside the terminal, thus triggering problems, principally obstruction of other traffic by buses loading in the street.
Then he stated that the operation at bus channels is very well organized in some countries. He gave an example on the bus train station in China, the passenger will first purchase a ticket at one of the ticket windows and any baggage will then be studied by the passenger to the baggage office where it is weighed, recharged for, labelled and despatched to the correct departure bay, as the passenger proceeds to a longing room. Then the departure time approaches, travellers queue at the correct gate. Their seat tickets are checked with a steward at this time when the bus has been brought to the gate, then only they are simply allowed to board.
He continues said that different countries, the requirements are different. If the business having poor management especially in peak times, people obtaining a place on a bus may be a very unpleasant activities ride for them.
The recent studies experienced shown that there is positive relationship between transport infrastructure and efficiency. The production of carry infrastructure is the top key determinant of comparative gain between countries. Both private individuals and business used and it could be viewed as an support in to the production of a transport service, which can be used as an effort into the product or service demanded by consumer, such as stop by at a pal or the option of a certain product in the local retailers. (Grimsey and Lewis, 2007)
There are two types of research design which can be qualitative method and quantitative method. Because of this research, quantitative method is chosen. A couple of three ways in quantitative method which are descriptive, experimental and quasi-experimental. Descriptive will be utilized in this research where data are collected from questionnaires, interviews or observations if the sample size is small.
The sample size of the research is 100 people. Questionnaires will be sent out to 80% Penangites and 20% tourists out of 100 individuals who are the user of bus terminals.
There are two sorts of sampling, scientific sampling and non-scientific sampling. In methodical sampling, each member in the populace is given an equal chance of being contained in the sample. In non-scientific sampling, not absolutely all of the associates in the populace are given the same chance of being included in the sample. This research, non-scientific sampling is used. In non-scientific sampling, there are purposive sampling, incidental sampling and quota sampling.
Purposive sampling is been chosen to this research. This sampling is based on choosing individuals as examples according to the purposes of the researcher as his control buttons. A person is chosen as part of the sample because of good facts that he is a representative of the total population.
Non-scientific sampling is employed in this research and purposive sampling is applied. The test of people will be chosen randomly in the Komtar Bus Terminal and Weld Quay Bus Terminal.
Research instrument is the technique that used by researcher to acquire all the info and information which required based on the research topic. The methods include questionnaires, test, interview, observation schedule, checklist or score scale maybe defined by the researcher. The research musical instruments that been decided for this research are questionnaire and observation. The purpose of questionnaire is to gather all the data and information of the satisfaction level and expectation of the bus terminal consumer. Observation of hygiene and security in the bus terminal will be produced by my very own selves.
The questionnaire consists of two sections. Section A is the background of respondent such as gender, age group nationality and profession. Section B is the visitor behaviour which the questions are asked to learn the satisfaction level and expectation of the bus terminal customer.
Data gathering process is a process or procedures manufactured in administering the questionnaires or the research instruments. Because of the Komtar Bus Terminal and Weld Quay Bus Terminal are general public areas, therefore no need to seek for approval from any sector.
Data handling method is a process or procedures for the investigator tabulate and process the info either by hand or by machine after the retrieval of the questionnaire. For this research, after collecting all the data which required, all the data will be tabulated into graph or table such that it is easier to analyse the day.
Statistical treatment of data is vital to be able to make use of the data in the right form. Local people and travellers satisfaction level and expectation become a very important data in order to learn the perfect solution is for the study problem. Therefore, the data which had accumulated will be record and analyse carefully to avoid inaccuracy in the effect.