Posted at 11.13.2018
This chapter aspires to outline the present general public bus planning system and celebrities model in Johor Bahru City framework. Through illustration, it could help to realize differences between your existing system and the perfect open public bus planning system which includes been developed in Section 2. 5.
3. 2 Carry Planning in Johor Bahru City
In essence, Johor Bahru City does have a transport plan. The idea for the program are designed from national planning. and translated into the Johor Strucure Plan and consequently into more descriptive plans as offered in the district local ideas. However, from what extend will these plans show the way the planning system for general public bus service in Johor Bahru? Hence, it is essential to understand Malaysian planning system and also to see how move coverage and planning is translated from the very best to bottom level level.
3. 2. 1 National Planning (Five-year Plan)
Malaysia has been carrying out a federal type parliamentary form of democracy in respect of administration and administration since independence. In conditions of planning for countrywide development, centralised planning has become the tradition of the united states. Particularly because the inception of New Economic Plan, centralised countrywide planning is used very significantly by the government. For this function "Five-year Plan" system has been adopted very constantly. This "Five-year Plan" is the top level of planning in Malaysia and involved numerous firms (Amount 3. 1). Near the top of the hierarchy of planning businesses are Parliament and Cupboard where the broad socio-economic goals and strategies are created. The next in the planning hierarchy is National Development Planning Committee (NDPC) which is accountable for guiding the production of the five-year ideas. Under the instruction and guidelines of NDPC, various central government agencies take part in the plan prep. These are Treasury, Economic Planning Product (EPU), Execution and Co-ordination Device (ICU), Socio-Economic Research Device (SERU), Federal government Ministries and Departments, a range of autonomous or semi-autonomous agencies and statutory physiques. Inputs from the States for the planning of the five-year ideas come mainly from Point out Economic Planning Items (SEPUs) and Point out Economic Development Organizations (SEDCs).
In Malaysia, the prep for a fresh five-year plan starts during the last year of the previous plan period (for an example: prep for the 2001-2005 Plan will get started in 2000). Initially stage, EPU will send out broad guidelines to all State governments asking them to send development project for their respective state governments for another plan period within three to four months. THE STATE OF HAWAII authorities in turn send out guidelines to all District Officers in their particular states to prepare and submit development job proposals for the average person districts. On the district level, there's a Region Development Committee which performs under District Action Committee and is also chaired by the District Official. This Committee involves all the area level minds of the various administration departments as well as the peoples staff. This committee is sensible to get ready and post departmental task proposals to Area Action Committee. After scrutinising the proposals, the Region Action Committee will then forwards the put together district plan to the State authority.
Figure 3. 1: Major Physiques and Agencies Involved in the National Planning and Development Evaluation Process
Source: www. epu. gov. my (2010)
At the state of hawaii level, addititionally there is the State Action Committee. The committee which includes all the State Director of the various government and peoples associates is chaired by Main Minister. The committee together with SEPUs are responsible to help expand scrutinise and evaluate the proposals. The final proposals will then be published to the Treasury and ICU of the government. The National Ministries then based on the proposals submitted must prepare their development programs in order to forward it to EPU. All of the proposals are then organized sector by sector through EPU and the financial allocation for every single sector will be assessed by the Inter Company Planning Group, so that priorities can be established and strategies of optimum utilisation of open public fund can be ascertained. After the plan is adjusted, it'll be submitted to NDPC for reviewing and co-ordinating proposals and insurance policies. The plan will then be forwarded to Country wide Action aCouncil (NAC) which is chaired by Perfect Minister. NAC is accountable to undertake an economic and social analysis of the blended plans, programs and projects. It also gets the power and prerogative in respect of issuing coverage directives and priority willpower before and during the planning of plan. The Five-year Plan thus well prepared is then posted to the cupboard and the Parliament respectively for approval and official adoption. The process for producing the Country wide development plan has been founded since 1961 and is also a two-way process concerning "top-down" and "bottom-up" flows of planning inputs (Quazi, 1986). Wide-ranging strategies that happen to be formulated for transportation sector in countrywide level are shown as following:
Supply-driven methodology will form the basis for the enlargement of infrastructure capacities considering long-term demand, development projects and economic development in order to guarantee the availability of supply upon demand. This process will be applied especially to large infrastructure tasks that are indivisible and require long lead time;
Long-term involved planning that incorporate a total procedure will be implemented in infrastructure likely to improve co-ordination and ensure a more orderly, organized and complete development and implementation of infrastructure;
The campaign of multimodalism in the carry sector will be positively pursued to enhance the interfacing of all modes of travel as well as related services to be able to boost the efficiency of infrastructure facilities and encouraging services;
Further enlargement of infrastructure facilities to rural areas to be able to enhance accessibility consistent with a more balanced and equitable distributive insurance plan; and
Continuous review and stricter enforcement of performance criteria and technical requirements for infrastructure jobs in order to improve productivity, efficiency and quality of life (Malaysia Federal government, 1996a).
These wide-ranging strategies will then provide a standard guidance for point out governments to formulate their transport sector-base research in the structural plan.
3. 2. 2 Framework Plan
In the state of hawaii level of planning hierarchy, the STATE DEPT. of Town and Country Planning is given the responsibility to get ready the developments plan (structure plan and local plan).
Normally, the program should have a time horizon of 5 to twenty years and include a key diagram rather than map and cover the non-metropolitan area. The targets of framework plan are:
to ensure that the provision for development is natural and regular with countrywide and regional plan;
to provide the strategic policy framework for planning and development control locally;
to secure uniformity between local strategies for neighboring areas;
to establish the broad construction for planning at the local level; and
to determine the location of action area strategies.
The process of prep of the framework plan is similar to the rational extensive planning system (Amount 3. 2). STATE DEPT. of Town and Country Planning will first determine the study area. Secondly, they'll translate the general proposals and broad policies proven in the Country wide Planning (Five-year Plans) into in depth sector-based studies which includes the travelling sector. Main and secondary data predicated on sector-based studies will be accumulated and examined. After analysis level, planning office will make the draft technical record. The completed draft technical survey will be exhibited to the general public, and the general public is allowed to give their comments and opinions. The look section will compile the comments given by the public. However, the compilation has been done in the way to merely match the requirements of the framework plan.
After the exhibition period, the division has to prepare a draft composition plan. The completed draft composition plan again must be published in local paper and exhibited to the general public. The general public is allowed to express their views through the exhibition of the draft composition plan. However, it is merely done in an administrative manner. The division has no determination to be responsible and attentive to public opinions. Which means, the public are cured only as consultative bodies with no power to influence your choice. Following the plan is fine-tuned, it will be forwarded to convey Planning Committee for authorization. This committee is chaired by Chief Minister of Johor State which is sensible to determine the criteria regarding the conservation, uses and development of land in Johor Declare that should be based on national policy; functions as an advisor to state administration and helps in the publishing of the program. Normally, when there is no other amendments, the program will then be approved and forwarded to State Government. Finally, STATE will gazette the program as statutory plan to be able to guide status development and planning.
Figure 3. 2 Framework Plan Preparation Procedures
D:\LJ -PSM\MY Thesis\1234. jpg
Source: Johor Express Framework Plan 2020
Normally, after structure plan has been well prepared, it will translate into more descriptive level in local plan. The local plan will be used as a information for creating a more comprehensive general public move plan, and again this course of action will be changed into operational programs such as open public bus plan.
3. 2. 3 The Local Plan
In the context of Johor Bahru City, the first ever local arrange for the district was gazetted in 2002. Therefore, this specific plan has been used to aid general population bus plan in Johor Bahru City and has been used to steer of the most day-to-day planning decisions.
The procedure for preparation of the local plan is similar compared to that of the structure plan as there's also the prep of draft as well as exhibition period to encourage the public to participate in the process (refer to Determine 3. 2. 1). Unlike the structure plan, there is a more technological aspect to the article as it is more detail oriented and requires the prep of the complex report. The neighborhood plan recognizes the outlines provided in the framework plan and its own statutory characteristics and translates it into a far more physical detail structure to assist the look process. That is particular important as it acts as a thorough guide especially in the framework of public bus planning as it proposes the provision of routes as well as all the infrastructures related to bus services such as bus stations.
Figure 3. 2 1 Structure Plan Prep Procedures
Source: Johor Bahru Districl Local Plan 2002- 2020
In standard, local plan provides a guide for transportation planners in the formation of a public bus transportation plan as well as helping the bus bus providers in the in their daily functional plan. The prep of public bus plan in Johor Bahru City will be detailed in the next section.
3. 3 Community bus Planning Process in Johor Bahru City
In Johor Bahru City, short-term open public bus plan is completed by bus operators themselves. This short-term public bus plan will determine daily procedure methods for bus providers to provide bus services within the region of Johor Bahru City. Normally, bus operators will bottom on the Johor Bahru Region Local Intend to formulate their short-term open public bus plan. This short-term plan has the targets to provide new bus course services, to increase the level of service, etc. within a period of 3 years (personal interview with En. Che Joha, 2010).
In Johor Bahru City, the departments which can be related to public transport planning are extremely unclear. Although there's a Road Transport Act, 1987 (Function 333) and Commercial Vehicles Licensing Plank Work, 1987 (Action 334), they do not state obviously which team is responsible to get ready the public transportation plan and how public transportation plan should be completed (Wahab, 1991). At the same time, Johor Bahru City still doesn't have a single transportation department to cope with general population bus planning. Currently, there are three departments mixed up in system which can be Product Traffic of Johor Bahru City Council, Commercial Vehicles Licensing Table and Road Work Office. Normally, Street Work Team is accountable for the look, design, engineering, management and maintenance of highway in Johor Bahru City. When there is a new highway provided by Highway Work Department to web page link the central business district with new real estate estates, bus operator (their appropriate workers, planners, technicians, schedulers, etc. ) first must make the short-term public bus plan to be able to send to Unit Traffic of Johor Bahru City Council for approval. This short-term open public bus plan will include the proposed new bus routes, agenda of frequencies, hours of procedure, fare changes, etc. Unit Traffic of Johor Bahru City Council will scrutinise, determine and evaluate whether the suggested services is suitable for improving the quality of public transport services in Johor Bahru City. In the event the proposal is in line with the public transport policy stated in structure plan and the routes suggested comply with the existing local plan, it will be approved by Device Traffic of Johor Bahru City Council.
Notwithstanding, the submission has to be forwarded to Commercial Vehicles Licensing Panel for their final decision. The Board has the following obligations (Ab. Rahman, 1987):
to consider all applications for licences for general population transportation services;
to add conditions to licences and licence holders, such as fare rates, option schedules, stops, volume of passengers for public travelling services, etc. ;
to cancel and revoke of licences given if the conditions attached to the licences are not honored, or when licences aren't use with the objective under which it was given;
to fix the period of licences;
to make changes to the conditions attached to licences such as titles, functional area, etc. ; vi. to renew of licences;
to consider application for additional travellers and substitution of vehicles; and
to formulate proposals for the improvement of the transportation system, every once in awhile.
Normally, the Panel may attach conditions to any licence granted if indeed they think fit. In case the contents of short-term public bus plan are complied with certain requirements distributed by the Table, bus operator will obtained the Licensing Permit to use for the reason that new area. On the contrary, if the plan cannot fulfil the conditions enforced, the application form may be refused by the Board. However, the candidate may post their charm to Minister. In the event the charm is approved by the Minister, the candidate may obtain the licence, normally the applicant has to resubmit the application form if the charm is not approved. After applicant has obtained the Licensing Permit, he'll operate and implement the new system. Thereafter, road transport officials and police force are responsible to research and monitor the assistance provided. If bus providers fail to adhere to any of the conditions mounted on the licence, the holder of the licence shall be guilty of an offence. Additionally, if the licence holder cannot provide an effective transport service relative to the terms and conditions of the licence, the Plank has the power to refuse for renewal of licence (Act 334, Section 21 (3), p. 145).
The applicant for the give or renewal of the licence who's aggrieved by the decision or any conditions imposed by the Table, may appeal to the Minister. The Minister then may appoint a committee of two or more individuals to consider an charm. There will be no oral reading of the charm and the committee will only based on the foundation of the documents relating to the appeal to do the judgement. The decision of the Minister will be binding and shall be last and conclusive (Function 334, Section 29 (3), p. 148). It's the general process of making open public bus plan in Johor Bahru City (Shape 3. 3).
In the context of open public bus service planning process in Johor Bahru City, the national and structure strategies are for sale to reference and the neighborhood plan will serve as an instrument for guiding transfer operators to get ready their daily operational programs. However, the role of the Commercial Vehicle Licensing Board as the final decision manufacturer is somewhat debatable and grant the whole process of planning irrelevant.
Figure 3. 3: EVERYONE bus Plan-Making Process in Johor Bahru City
D:\LJ -PSM\MY Thesis\Public bus plan making process. jpg
Source: Modification from personal interview with En. Che Joha (2010)
3. 4 The Stars Model in Johor Bahru City Context
Base on the prior section, various players get excited about the city's general public bus planning process. They may be technical celebrities, community actors, political actors, private providers and users.
3. 4. 1 Complex Actors
In Johor Bahru City, technological actors who involve in the formulation of public bus plan comprise two categories. They may be salaried civil servants and move experts in foreign consulting firms. Since transport ideas are designed through two tier degrees of programs, again the salaried civil servants can be split into two categories. In local levels, they will be the government officers in the Traffic Product of Johor Bahru City Council. They are really responsible for the look and provision of open public vehicles facilities such as bus and taxi cab stands, terminals and other related facilities; the planning and company of bus routes within metropolis and the encompassing home areas to enhance the public travelling services; and everything activities for enhancing the quality of public transportation services to accomplish a `modal break up' well suited for Johor Bahru City (Ab. Rahman, 1987). Whilst, in countrywide level, they will be the government officers in EPU and Government or State Town and Country Planning Team. In EPU, they are simply responsible for co-ordinating the programs and activities of the ministries, taking a look at the entire development in the country, circulation of resources as well as monitoring improvement and accomplishment in light of the broad National Policies (Ab. Rahman, 1987). They are simply responsible also for setting up the path and policy for the government on the transfer aspect and responsible to the federal government not the public. In Federal government or Point out Town and Country Planning Division, technical actors react an consultant to both the federal and status administrations who do not have the staff or capability. These technical stars would use their technological approaches to make the plans in order to help the politicians. However, they work in just a shut down system because they believe that public interest are available easily through appropriate scientific types of procedures.
Another kind of technical actors are transport experts in overseas consulting firms. They are really liable to help authorities officers in EPU and Federal government or Talk about Town and Country Planning Office to prepare the programs. In Malaysia, most of the ideas have been prepared by foreign consulting firms on agreement to international development organizations. These plans have been criticised as "consultant plans" which do not explicitly adopt government insurance policy (World Lender quoted in Malcolm, 1976, p. 107).
3. 4. 2 Community Actors
There will vary citizen or community organizations that are considering government insurance policies especially the ones that affect their passions. As long as a certain move coverage arouses their passions, these categories will send views to the federal government to take some lobbying strategies. In Johor Bahru City, there's a community acting professional or pressure group: Johor Bus Operator Connection (JBOA) (Body 3. 4) which includes already been setup since the 1950s. It operates as a representative channel for bus operators expressing their business passions also to provide information to federal government during plan-making process (personal interview with En. Che Joha, 2010).
Notwithstanding, it is not very well organised and because the relationship only concerns using their business interests, hence, it is JBOA cannot act as a proper channel to help users or the general public to express their words. Hence, Johor Bahru City still does not have any pressure teams to assist users to voice out their interests.
Figure 3. 4: Company of Johor Bus Operator Relationship (JBOA)
Source: Personal Interview with En. Che Joha (2010)
3. 4. 3 Political Actors
In their state context, political celebrities are headed by a Key Minister with a State Exec Council comprising only nine participants appointed from among the government members of the State Assemblage, and three ex-officio participants (Point out Secretary, Express Financial Official and Condition Legal Adviser) (Rani, 1979). These politics actors are the highest policy decision-making body at the state of hawaii level. Through the plan-making process, their state Main Minister will play a command role as chairman of the state of hawaii Action Committee comprising of both Talk about Security and Development Committees with the state of hawaii Development Official as its secretary. The inclusion of all State Executive Council members in the State Action Committee, members of parliament and Point out assemblymen in an area Action Committee is designed to permit local politicians to be officially and immediately mixed up in plan-making process. They are expected to oversee, take part in discussion, add towards resolving problems, co-ordinate their work as representatives of the people who have those of federal departments, and ensure the simple implementation of development programs and assignments relative to state and countrywide planning objectives (Rani, 1979). In Johor Bahru City framework, even though significant issues can be better recognized through the participation of amenity categories and the general public in the plan-making process, political actors are more willingly to generate the inputs and commentary given by consultants rather than by the general public throughout the complete process. It is because most of the political celebrities have very little knowledge or knowledge on travel service and for that reason they have got always relied after the consultancy system for giving them advice.
3. 4. 4 Private Operators
In Johor Bahru City, private operators play an important role in short-term general public bus planning. They would provide the suggestions and information to technicians during the plan planning process. They might also propose some recommendations, for an example: new bus course is proposed by transport operators for distribution to Product Traffic of Johor Bahru City Council for acquiring the approval. Normally, Device Traffic would consider their views and passions in order to keep stable and continuous move services provision. After the submission is approved by Device Traffic, it'll be approved to Commercial Vehicles Licensing Panel. The purpose is designed for obtaining the Licensing Permit in order for them to operate the new service. Now, there are five main private bus companies run in Johor Bahru City which provide 58 bus routes in metropolis and around 62% of the bus routes are offered in the area of Johor Bahru City Council. They can be Handal Indah Sdn Bhd, Syarikat Pengangkutan Maju Berhad, Transit Link Sdn Bhd, Syarikat Pengangkutan S&S Sdn Bhd. and Triton Sdn Bhd.
3. 4. 5 Users
In Johor Bahru City, although there is a statutory requirement of public contribution prior to or through the development of draft plan, the general public are involved at the very last stage of the plan-making process when all the major decisions have been made. That means, the general public only could voice out their views through the exhibition of the draft plans. This is because the centralized government is willing to withhold information from the public and they have always relied upon the consultancy system for giving them advice. This may lead to ineffectiveness in information dissemination. Because of this, the public don't have any chance to participate in the early stage of the plan-making process.
Nevertheless, critics and comments could be published to government through the exhibition of the draft strategies. It is criticized that although the general public could submit their viewpoints and passions to planning department, there is no obligation to allow them to explain to the public why the viewpoints and interests aren't accepted. Thus, the public are only cured as a consultative body, but not decision forming associates. The general public still cannot play a dynamic role atlanta divorce attorneys levels in plan-making process, nor have power to bargain and make a deal with the energy holders (Stand 3. 1). If the planning process does not consider the public or users' pursuits, the suggested insurance policies will not reveal the actual interests of the complete society. This can further decrease the quality of the general public bus services provided and cause users to put up with.
Table 3. 1: Assessment of Stars Model in United Kingdom And Malaysia (Johor Bahru)
Actors Model - Give (1977)
Actors Model - Johor Bahru Context
Technical Actors - salaried officials in the look department
Technical Celebrities - salaried civil servants, carry experts in international consulting firm and transport professionals
Community Stars - local organizations, entrepreneurs or pressure categories in affected areas
Community Actors - users of citizen categories or business corporation, Johor Bus Operator Association
Political Actors - political get-togethers users in council
Political Stars - Key Minister with a State Executive Council comprising only nine people appointed from among thegovernment members of the state of hawaii Assemblage, and three ex-officio people, etc.
Private Operators " Handal Indah Sdn Bhd, Syarikat Pengangkutan Maju Berhad, Syarikat Kenderaan S&S Sdn Bhd, Transit Website link, Triton Sdn Bhd and City Hyperlink Sdn Bhd.
Users - cannot play a dynamic role in the every phases in plan-making process, nor have power to bargain and work out with the powerholders
3. 4. 6 The Interaction Among Major Celebrities in public areas bus Planning in Johor Bahru City
Among these major stars who are involved in general public bus planning system in Johor Bahru City, political actors and specialized actors are the most crucial actors. These stars involve in the planning and monitoring phases in the general public bus system. However, their romantic relationship are not so closed since technical stars always use their scientific methods to defend the plans and unwilling to change their policies. Issue usually takes place between these actors especially when the choice is determined bottom part on political stars' interests. The second most important actors in the system will be the bus operators. Since bus operators have the responsibility to provide bus services to the general public, they have to work tightly with technical celebrities and political stars in order to get the licensing permit. Their marriage is close, even sometimes they have some controversial issues in terms of business passions. This is because all open public bus services in Johor Bahru City are handled by private bus companies which their main interest is viability. That means a private bus company's income must go beyond operating costs and that sufficient funds need to be made available to permit any future investment.
Like bus providers, JBOA, really the only community stars in Johor Bahru City also offers interaction with technological actors and politics actors. The connection also has an in depth and maximum relationship with bus operators since their common pursuits are to safeguard business interests. They will join forces to deal with for the normal goal, if it is affected. The connection is shaped for the purposes of exchanging views and perspectives among the private bus companies on an over-all public transport insurance policy things as well as sharing experience in public bus planning, procedure and management. They'll consolidate their position on public travel issues before have a discourse with the politics actors.
Notwithstanding, since the association has the characteristic which is only worried about bus providers business passions, therefore Johor Bahru City still does not have any representative programs to help the general public expressing their views. In addition, political actors are dependent upon consultancy system to provide them advice throughout the whole process. The public will just play a passive role during the preparation of ideas. They do not have any chance to involve themselves in the first level in plan-making process. Also, they are the most unorganized group and do not have the energy to deal and make a deal with the energy holders. The relationship between the consumer and others stars is little and in conflict since interaction is bound among these major actors. As a result, what have been made and advised in the general public bus plan cannot reflect the actual interests of the whole community and will reduce the quality of the program.
3. 5 Conclusion
After the discussion of the public bus planning system in Johor Bahru City, we find that the performances and characteristics of today's system are somewhat different from the perfect case. This gives us some ideas that today's system might have some problems, and these problems might possibly have an impact on the grade of the general public bus services provided. However, judgement on if the present system is inadequate or inefficient shall not be given until we also look at the users' viewpoints on the general public bus services provided. In Section Four, the current open public bus performance level in Johor Bahru City will be looked into.