This essay models out to give a summary of the psychosocial and social constructionist methods of 'id'. There are other theories. These two approaches can help us further our knowledge of 'individuality'. They provide some answers, to the questions, what identification is or is not? Kroger (1989/1993) argues that 'personal information' has 'specific as well as communal elements. Phoenix et al. , shows that 'individuality' is a specific human issue'. Erikson's (1902-1994) psychosocial theory mainly handles an individual sense of personal information. Social construction theorist Kenneth Gergen (1970) yet others examine identification from a public constructionist perspective.
Erikson was main too create a psychosocial style of individuality. His eight phases of identification development examined the average person from delivery to loss of life. He considered adolescents a defining level, when young people would allow or reject adulthood. Erikson's work was influenced by his own childhood activities. Clinical psychologist James Marcia centered on Erikson's fifth level. He considered that this stage long from 13 to 25 years. Marcia's 'twenty assertions test' allows research workers gain understanding into how participant's think and use words. Asking the question, 'Who am I'? Helps us gain an insider view of personality. This indirect method is known as introspectionism. Phoenix et al. , (2005) "personal activities are only uncovered through discussion". An example of this, a person is brought into state care and attention. The case data file demonstrates parents neglected the young person. That which was taking place in the family? The young person will have thoughts. These emotions may lead too expressions of hostility. How will they be portrayed? The test requires terms understanding and consumption. The members must be ready participate. If not the study value will be limited. The 'twenty assertion test' will only collect data if the young person can use terminology effectively. This screening method can't be found in all situations.
Psychosocial theory is helpful in understandings personality? It acknowledges eight levels of development and the fifth as the time where different way of life are examined. Erikson suggests if we've experienced a 'crisis' it could influence how our id develop. An similarly plausible reason for this may be prevailing communal / monetary conditions. Engaging them make decisions. In post war Ireland and Britain young men and women got into the work power. They usually proved helpful in similar careers to grandparents and parents. This would suggest that the phases of development are less importance that financial and communal conditions. It could appear identification closure is really about success of the strongest. Should we recognise children as an important closure period. How can the theory address changes taking place later in life? Should we think of children only as a starting pad for future id expansion and development? It is accepted during children our brain under goes major physical restructuring. These neurological changes can present challenging behaviours. The historical framework too much of Erick Erikson's work was that of post battle Germany. He investigated in a period where life options were made at an early age. Most were set in careers in there 20s. This was resulted from high mortality rates. Life expectancy in the beginning of the twentieth century was 30 - 45 years. This year 2010 average life expectancy is 67. 2 years. These life span changes have allowed individuals greater choices and control over how personality develops. It really is difficult to make clear these inconsistencies. How after adolescents adults continue too change, companions, professions and appearance.
Social building theorists consider that personal information is socially built rather than obviously occurring. Each folks constructs our very own identities through sociable and personal connections and no difference is attracted between them. Terms can be used from the initial level of child development and significant. How we see the world. How we interact with others. Sue Widdicombe (1998) suggests that language is utilized as a learning resource in the introduction of 'personality'. Hall (1996) we look for life balance in telling and reconstructing our personal and public stories. These stories give a private and cultural representation of our own recent, present and how exactly we start to see the future. Phoenix et al. , (2005) Id has the characteristics to be multiple, decentred and changing rather than singular, centred and secure. Power relations are an important part of 'identity' change. This may be inspired by parental prospects, religion, cultural / public norms and beliefs. A good example of this is a 'university student' who seen by himself and peers in contradictory ways. He might be observed at differing times as exciting, a risk taker, studious, lazy, free spirited, exciting, a protester.
These fluid 'identities' become challenged when prevailing social, economic, ethnical conditions dictate. Kenneth Gergen (1970) discussions of how when technical changes happen we are forced too adjust our identities. We only maintain identities for so long as the conditions necessitate. When the effort becomes too much we change. Life activities can alter our view of self-identity. Identification helps maintain a feeling of who and what we could and is dependent promptly and social context.
Social Construction theory is effective in understandings individuality? It shows that our daily relationships combine to keep and notify new 'identities'. It is a combo of the non-public and social, however there is absolutely no variation between them. The method used by communal constructionists is 'discourse' discussing and thinking about identity. Why should our genetics makeup not impact about how our identities develop? This isn't addressed by interpersonal engineering theory. Our height is not determined by social development. Yet through out our lives it has an impact on how we are cared for in cultural situations. We may be perceived as having high or low social status. Tanner, JM (1986) 'a insufficient variation in height is definitely an indicator of public equality. This is not explained using interpersonal constructionist theory. The strategy presents the idea of interpersonal categories where there a wide range of communities some with high and low interactions of power. These inequalities may determine how our identities change as time passes. If we take a look at children with low reading and dialect skills they'll suffer inequalities through there lives. Reading and dialect skills are essential in how exactly we see ourselves. It is clear that cultural constructionist theory can in some way address how 'personality' is formed and maintained.
In this article I provided an overview for the psychosocial and sociable constructionist approaches too 'individuality'. Both of these approaches assist in furthering our understanding of 'individuality'. Nonetheless they cannot address all the issues.