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Psychology Theories on how best to Study

How to review Matching to Cognitive Psychologists

All around the world, learning is generally characterized by cycles of classes and lectures alternating with checks and tests. These assessments are mainly done after every three weeks or per month. Most students and lecturers do not take these lab tests really and view them as a throw away of hard work preferring the end-semester exam only. However, research activities completed on student research methods appear to prove otherwise- that regular and frequent testing improves the training experience. This article will attempt and analyze different research results and think of a valid and prepared conclusion.

For ages now, memory testing have grown to be one of the most frequent ways of learning whether students bear in mind what they are taught in class. These tests are completed in the form of picture and phrase lists. Research targets two methods to mastering; repeated-study system and repeated-testing program. Each method has its band of students with an alternative schedule. Results that have been extracted from these studies have shown that students who studied repeatedly perform well in tests given immediately after studying but failed in later lab tests. Alternatively, students that underwent frequent testing were left with good long-term memory and had positive results in assessments that came up even following the research was over. (Wheeler et al, 2003). Continuous assessment not only increases the learning experience but also reduces the rate of forgetting significantly in lab tests delayed as long as forty two days and nights (Carpenter, Pashler, Wixted and Vul, 2008).

Ebbinghaus (1885/1964) completed memory space research using nonsense syllables that are comprised of alternating consonants and vowels. He read and re-read a list formulated with these syllables until he perfected all of them and then he established the length of time it lasted for him to relearn it after some time. His results exhibited that the longer the time taken after learning, a lot more he forgot. However, more forgetting actually occurred the first couple of days of after learning and then became gradual and slower as time passes. This is explained further by the use of the forgetting curve. These results can be integrated in the normal learning experience by ensuring instructors and lecturers administer testing after soon after learning to allow them to obtain positive results. Regarding to Bahrick students taking many lessons in the same disciplines are more likely to retain their remembrances for a bit longer. This is because the courses highlight repetition of major and central ideas of the discipline ensuring that students have a constant reminder of whatever they learnt several years ago. Also, the performance in a certain course does not influence the rate of forgetting of the course articles (Bahrick and Hall, 1991).

Some folks have the notion that overlearning will produce good grades. Contrary to this belief, studying excessively has proven to boost short-term memory space. Long-term retention was however, poor. People who study consistently for extended hours and sometimes for a number of days are better off when encountered by immediate lab tests as they may have the advantage of reading the same thing again and again. On the other hand, people who only read small parts every couple of days experience great success as it pertains to delayed tests. It is because overlearning fills up and tires the mind jointly has no resting time to relax and reflect on the content learned. This makes these to forget things that they learned previously as they concentrate on acquiring new knowledge. Learning should be accompanied by small period of time intervals that permit the brain to relax and organize the information learnt. Failure to do this can be catastrophic as the learner will finish up remembering only things that he/she read most recently. However, overlearning has its advantages too; it is advisable for someone wanting a test in the afternoon to be sure that he/she utilizies the whole morning to study. Another example is a person going to a new place for a short time. He/she can read a terms translation dictionary overnight and travel in the morning. This will help him/her to remember the new content during the trip (Rohrer, Taylor, Pashler, Wixted and Cepeda, 2004).

Most mathematical textbooks used in classes today have topical ointment questions at the end of each chapter. These assessments only concentrate on the recently learned materials. Experiments completed to determine the effect of these checks on long-term storage area have proved that this method, in comparison to checks comprising of arbitrary questions from all learned topics, produce substandard results. This is because in the normal format, students who failed to grasp the examined topic will perform terribly and will not have another chance to review and repeat the tests. However, in the shuffled format, a student has an benefits for the reason that he/she may have grasped arbitrary knowledge from the tested topics and thus can answer questions derived from these sections. Also, the shuffling method allows the educator to create future questions from previously tested topics and therefore the students will be able to recognize and remember these questions and answer them efficiently (Rohrer and Taylor, 2007).

A person's disposition make a difference one's memory ability. A study completed by Hertel and Hardin (1990) implies that stressed out people or people who have generally low moods have less storage retention that normal happy people. Within their review, they used homophones to create phrases that either induced a unhappy feelings or were neutral. Results from a identification test administered following the phrases were read to the individuals revealed that most them did not bear in mind homophones from sentences that were associated with a depressive mood. A possible reason for these findings can be that normal happy people automatically developed a strategy for remembering as the depressed group would have to be taught a technique before they could put it on to boost memory space retention. Depressive disorder or low moods thus, have a great effect on long-term memory space retention capability of a person.

Nowadays, potential students are captivated by institutions offering short-duration courses. This is partly because most people are in a rush to get out of the training system and sign up for the working school. However, such kinds of training have their own limitations. Most of these courses rarely have mid-semester exams and only concentrate on the main exam. This means that lecturers instruct non-stop to meet the restricted deadlines and students only indulge their brains during the exam period. This sort of learning is bad as it does not offer learners enough time to read and revise whatever they have got learnt and by the finish of the semester, they have to run back again to their catalogs to even keep in mind the introductory part. Such kind of system will not encourage long-term memory space retention of information as it generally does not offer students the task to review regularly. Review time that is sent out across the semester produces more positive results that a one-time research activity. This is known as the spacing result ( Seabrook, Brown and Solity, 2004).

People generally tend to remember enjoyable things more than distressing ones. Regarding to Metcalfe (1998) people have a tendency to overestimate their accomplishments almost in all respects of life. This result, known as the overconfidence effect, also is important in long-term memory retention. This is because people, especially students is only going to tend to bear in mind the areas or chapters that they think they comprehended and neglect others that were in their view, difficult.

The spacing effect can also be analyzed in another way. Shorter and much more frequent teaching consultations produce greater results than long consultations occurring once in a while. It is because the shorter periods give the learner just a little amount of content to study and therefore the student can read and understand the lessons taught faster. On the contrary, long and spaced lectures leave the students with a lot of content to review and they conclude straining in order to be prepared prior to the tests. This has an overall effect on the performance in that most students will perform inadequately as they'll not be able to remember the content in the countless number of pages perused during revision.

It continues to be not known why people do not choose these new study methods with all the current research proving that they are better compared to traditional typical methods. Most people view the new review methods as too difficult or impossible to follow. The expense of changing the old research methods with the new alternatives is particularly low as the institution does not have to buy any new materials. The instructor is the only person expected to assist in this change by launching these alternatives slowly to the students. As time passes, the students will have modified o the new methods such as arbitrary and repeated trials. Such alternatives are beneficial in that they provide more performance and don't come at any extra cost. Writers with the standard conventional mathematical books may also be mixed up in change by presenting these aspects in their next release of their magazines.

However, these alternatives also present some troubles. Students examined in the new methods produce more errors during the learning experience regardless of the good performance in the exams. This can be attributed to the fact that lots of students aren't ready to review constantly but still hate the thought of having testing regularly. Most people view studying as a consequence by the school and thus are not open to the idea that increased and arbitrary tests can better their performance. Some classes and organizations also view their current teaching methods as acceptable to produce normal grades as they are only considering the financial benefit from tuition fees alternatively than overall academic excellence.

In realization, the new alternatives methods of learning are way much better than the old normal methods. If these methods were to be integrated into the training experience, all companies will display increased performance in lab tests and exams. However, in a natural way people are resilient to change and therefore some of these alternatives won't be utilized. The new methods used to execute the experiments have significantly more advantages than down sides and so should be advised to the relevant expert so as to be contained in the curriculum. These new methods improve long-term retention of ram which is advisable to all institutions to adopt and inculcate them in the training experience. Students will benefit from these new methods by showing greater results in their checks. This kind of system will also produce more experienced graduates and professionals for the job market and thus the grade of products and services in the market will be better. If learning is carried out in the approved methods, students and teachers will enjoy a simple and stress-free analysis environment.


Bahrick, H. P. , & Hall, L. K. (1991). Lifetime Maintenance of SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL Mathematics Content. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Basic, 120, 20-33.

Carpenter, S. K. , Pashler, H. , Wixted, J. , & Vul, E. (2008). THE CONSEQUENCES of Assessments on Learning and Forgetting. Memory and Cognition, 36, 438-448. Print.

Ebbinghaus, H. (1964). Storage area: A contribution to experimental mindset. New York: Dover. (Original work posted 1885).

Hertel, P. T. , & Hardin, T. S. (1990). Keeping in mind without awareness in a stressed out mood: Proof deficiencies in initiative. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 119, 45-59.

Metcalfe, J. (1998). Cognitive Optimism: Self-deception or Memory-based Heuristics? Personality and Public Mindset Review, 2, 100-110.

Rohrer, D. & Taylor, K. (2007). The Shuffling of Mathematics Problems Improves Learning. Springer Research and Business Press. Print.

Rohrer, D, Taylor, K, Pashler, H. , Wixted, T. J. & Cepeda, J. N. (2005). THE RESULT of Overlearning on Long-Term Retention. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19: 361-374. Print.

Seabrook, R. , Dark brown, G. D. A. , & Solity, J. E. (2004). Distributed and Massed Practice: From Laboratory to School room. Applied Cognitive Mindset. 19: 107-122.

Wheeler, M. A. , Ewers, M. , & Buonanno, J. (2003). Different Rates of Forgetting Pursuing Research versus Test Studies. Memory, 11, 571-580. Printing.

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