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Psychological disorders: Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is one of the serious psychological disorders impacting on roughly one percent of the American populace. Statistics show that this affects men one. 5 times more than women. It is characterized by symptoms of thought, and behavioral problems. People who put up with this disease do not sometimes seem sensible when they are talking and could be delusional and sometimes experience hallucinations. The mental health disorder affect people and societies alike since the people who have the disorder cannot at times care for themselves neither can they retain employment thus depending closely on others. The disorder is treatable through medication as well as subconscious interventions. Researchers are using tools that understand the causes of the disorder to build up more effective medications.

Introduction:

Psychological disorders can be defined as habits of behavioral symptoms that influence various areas in people's lifestyle and create stress on those people afflicted (Laurie 142). Examples of psychological disorders include schizophrenia, phobias, nervousness disorders, obsessive compulsion, depression and post-trauma stress disorder. This newspaper focuses on schizophrenia.

Schizophrenia also known as divide personality disorder is a serious and severe mental disorder concerning auditory hallucinations, very disturbed moods or communal problems, thoughts and behaviours (Laurie 143). The issue of thoughts associated with schizophrenia is referred to as psychosis. A person suffering from schizophrenia has the kind of thinking that is completely out of touch with the reality. A person may for illustration could be reading nonexistent voices or viewing images that aren't there. For example in the film, "A LOVELY Mind", the star identity John Nash, experience both visible and auditory hallucinations. He views three characters in his life that are completely non-existent. These are: Charles (his roommate), Marcee (the roommate's niece) and Parcher (his manager from the US Defense Department). In one landscape, he leaves his son in the bathtub alone but he says that Charles is seeing over the kid. That is a visible hallucination. In just one more scene, he claims that Parcher is instructing him to eliminate his better half Alicia. This is an auditory hallucination.

Types of schizophrenia

There are five types of schizophrenia depending on kind of symptoms a patient exhibits during evaluation. They include paranoid, catatonic, disorganized, undifferentiated, and residual schizophrenia.

Under paranoid schizophrenia, a person gets preoccupied with one or more delusions or hallucinations but doesn't get disorganized. This sort of Schizophrenia is presented effectively in the film "A Beautiful Mind". Nash is very paranoid; he feels that Soviet agents want to destroy him because he apparently assisted in sabotaging one of the plots by picking out habits of information from newspaper publishers and publications.

In disorganized schizophrenia, one is disorganized in both speech and action but doesn't worsen to the magnitude of being catatonic. One of the talk disorders is schizophrenia is loosening of relationship.

Catatonic schizophrenia is a predicament in which a person displays two or more of the following symptoms: difficulty in moving, amount of resistance to movement, or excessive moving around, weird actions and imitating other's actions (echopraxia). Within an article from the journal "American Journal of Psychiatry", it is well elaborated how pronounced electric motor in coordination can be in schizophrenia. Carrying out a research, it was seen that in simple fact electric motor in coordination can be used to inform the neurodevelopment of Schizophrenia (Schiffman 1041). There might also be cognitive symptoms that are residual as in the case of the 22year-old man in an article by "Clinical Circumstance Studies" (Sass and Nelson 489).

In undifferentiated schizophrenia, a person can do several of the things or symptoms done under paranoid, disorganized, and catatonic types of schizophrenia. However such a person categorized under undifferentiated schizophrenia doesn't specify to be diagnosed of the three former types.

Lastly is the residual kind of schizophrenia. Under this kind, positive symptoms affecting patterns that is beyond normal such as hallucinations, sensitiveness, and paranoia are absent. Instead, the patient has negative symptoms that are mainly about reduced functionalism, quietness, withdrawal and not being thinking about things or events.

Causes of schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is not an expressly hereditary mental disorder but instead a mix of genetic, psychological and environmental factors (Dryden-Edwards 232). Environmentally, the risk of expanding the disorder may begin prior to labor and birth if for example a person's mother experienced some infections while pregnant with the person. Other examples of factors that can result in the development of schizophrenia disorder are: physical and/ or psychological neglect, sexual mistreatment, physical abuse, psychological mistreatment, bullying, and difficult child years life (Walsh and Fahy 124). Another factor that has been explored on is representation of the minority in a group especially ethnically (Dryden-Edwards 235). In cases like this, ethnic minorities are more likely to develop schizophrenia if not well symbolized in a community.

Symptoms of schizophrenia

The symptoms of schizophrenia can be either positive or negative. Positive symptoms are those that are visibly psychotic such as delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, disorganized habits, and catatonic characteristics. This is clearly depicted in an article posted by the journal "Clinical Case Studies" where a 53 year-old man suffering from paranoid schizophrenia presented with auditory hallucinations and persecutory delusions (Hatzipetrou and Oei 339).

Negative symptoms on the other hand are less openly psychotic such as lack of speech, less determination and inhibited cosmetic expressions.

Diagnosis of schizophrenia

Practitioners often gather extensive medical, family, and mental health information to identify this disorder. Some of the information collected include: gender, ethnical, religious and cultural background, intimate orientation and economical health or financial position. Physical exam and laboratory tests may be included to find out patient's health status.

Treatment for schizophrenia

There are medications known as antipsychotics that assist in lowering the magnitude of psychotic symptoms. These medications are generally prescribed solely or coupled with other psychiatric medicines. Examples of antipsychotics are Chlorpromazine (Largactil or Thorazine), Olanzapine (Zyperexa), Risperidone (Risperdal), Ziprasidone (Geodon) and Aripiprazole (Abilify). These cases are the newer versions of antipsychotics also known as second-generation antipsychotics that work quickly compared to other psychiatric medications. It is important to note that not absolutely all antipsychotics that treat people are highly recommended for administering in children.

The side ramifications of antipsychotics include sleepiness, dizziness, increased desire for food, weight gain due to high blood sugar, increased blood lipid levels and increased prolactin level. More mature era antipsychotics such as Perphenazine (Trilafon) could cause muscle rigidity and tremors. These aspect effects can be so serious as to hinder patient's day to day activities. For instance, in the film "A Beautiful Mind", a few of the side results Nash encounters include impaired mental function which strains his relationship and lowered intellectual capacity which frustrates his work. To counter the medial side ramifications of antipsychotics, are other drugs such as

Another classification of medication is Mood-stabilizer for example Lithium, Carbamazepine (Tegretol) and Lamotriqine. They treat feeling changes but might take a longer period to work in comparison to antipsychotics. Regarding to Country wide Institute of Health (2009), they require close monitoring of blood levels and may cause birth problems when administered to pregnant women.

Besides medication, emotional interventions are important in treating schizophrenia. These interventions include family psycho-education, assertive community treatment, drug abuse treatment, sociable skills training, recognized job, cognitive behavioral therapy and weight reduction. These interventions are essential to avoid the risk of patient defaulting medication especially due to side results such as is the situation of Nash in "A Beautiful Mind". This leads to a relapse as was shown in the film.

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