Posted at 10.06.2018
The following essay will analyse the Psychodynamic theory founded by Sigmund Freud. It will give attention to the the different parts of the mind including the Conscious, the pre-conscious proper and the Unconscious. It'll then study his contribution into the structure of Personality with regards to The' Id', 'Ego' and 'Super-ego'. Following this, the essay will discuss Freud's proposal of periods within his 'psychosexual development'. The essay will then focus on the Humanistic theory of Carl Rogers. It'll explain his concept of the 'Actualizing inclination' and integrate his masterpieces of 'Personal idea', the 'Organismic do it yourself' and the 'Ideal personal'. To be a contribution to Roger's work, the article will also emphasize the 'Hierarchy of needs' by Abraham Maslow. Both theories will then be compared and contrasted. This article will concentrate on the individuals developmental level of youth.
According to Freud there are three levels of Consciousness within the mind. 'The mindful, this supports thoughts and feelings that people are fully alert to at any one time, it could be verbalised and logically thought about.
'The pre-conscious proper' holds memories that only when they are believed of can they be brought back into the 'Mindful' part of the mind. Information is easily shared between the conscious and the pre-conscious proper.
Finally the 'Unconscious'. Materials here is deemed too painful which is 'repressed' (locked away) yet still has the strength to influence our actions. 'We have conscious thoughts that we know about and unconscious thoughts that come in our mind in the form of dreams. Moreover, what happens in our mindful mind in turn influences what thoughts filtering through to our unconscious brain' (Gross, The Knowledge of Head and Behaviour, 2010) (Ingleby, 2006, p. 7)
Freud related this notion to a model of an Iceberg. The end acts as 10% relating to the Conscious as only this is visible, the others being submerged performing as the Pre-conscious and the Unconscious. (Kazlev, 2004)
Freud furthered his idea of personality of which he proposed was devised into the 'Id' or intrinsic drive, the 'Ego' and the 'Superego'
The 'Identification' obeys the pleasure rule. It holds no morals and looks for instant gratification filled with mostly intimate or hostile impulses. ''a cauldron packed with seething excitations. . . it is filled with energy. . . but. . . has no company. . . only a striving to bring about the satisfaction of instinctional needs at the mercy of observance of the pleasure basic principle'' (Freud, New introductory lectures in psychoanalysis, 1933, p. 73)Within the id is the Eros (life or pleasure drive) and Thanatos (loss of life intuition). Eros ''helps the kid to survive, it directs life-sustaining activities such as respiration, eating, love-making and the fulfilment of other physical needs'' On the other hand Freud assumed ''Destructive functions such as arson, fist fights, murder, warfare and even masochism were outward expressions of the death intuition'' (R. Shaffer, 1946, p. 43)
The Ego Functions as the mediator between your Id and the super-ego. It is the rational part of the mind. It is governed by the 'reality theory'. Freud Created 'defence mechanisms' in an attempt to protect the 'ego' from continuous hazard from the 'super-ego'. Included in these are 'Repression' meaning re-directing mental poison to the 'Unconscious '. Aswell as 'Projection' this being the shifting of blame or thoughts and emotions onto someone or something less intimidating. '' The thought of mental defence itself was not problematic; it was a standard operation of the human mind faced with unpleasant incidents. But normal defence did not generally lead to total forgetting: though usually absent from awareness, unpleasant memories could be recalled by fresh perceptions''. (Freud, The origins of Psychoanalysis, 1954)
The super-ego acts as the negative father or mother. This is learned from others and viewed as the internalisation of cultural morals. It criticises decisions made by the ego and makes negative judgments. (Freud, The roots of Psychoanalysis, 1954) (Gross, Mindset- The Technology and Mind of Behavior, 2010)
According to Freud, sexuality is obvious in babies from labor and birth allowing sexual pleasure and aggravation. The progression of the 'Psychosexual stages' will depend on the natural maturity but is affected greatly by how folks are treated, most of all by their parents. If increased stress or gratification occurs during a stage, the average person will remain fixated. (Gross, The Technology of Brain and Behaviour, 2010)
The Oral level (0-1yhearing) Delicate nerve endings in the oral cavity and lips permit the baby to get pleasure from Sucking and swallowing. Disruptions throughout this level will lead to Oral fixation such as thumb sucking or over-eating
The Anal stage (1-3years) Muscles of the colon are the way to obtain pleasure. Whilst potty training, the parents love becomes reliant on the child's actions. The child is in control of where so when it defecates.
The Phallic level (3-5/6 years) introduces a new way to obtain pleasure in the genitalia. The kid targets their opposite-sex father or mother. In males the 'Oedipus conflict' suggests a young boy gains sexual thoughts for his mother. In females the 'Male organ envy' or 'Electra complex' suggests intimate feelings for the daddy where time she is jealous of the mom. '' a tragedy of future. Its tragic impact is thought to rest in the compare between the supreme will of the gods and the vain attempts of mankind to escape the evil that threatens them. . . It is the fate of most folks, perhaps, to lead our first sexual impulse towards our mother and our first hatred and our first murderous wish against our daddy''. (Freud, The interpretation of Dreams. , 1900)
The Latency Period (5/6 to puberty) consists of the drop of sexual intuition. The traumas of the phallic level are repressed thus allowing sociable skills to develop.
Finally, the Genital stage. The earlier intimate thoughts have been repressed; however the concentrate on the genitalia returns, enabling the control of the Identification and its own heterosexual needs. (Gross, Psychology- The technology of Brain and Behavior, 2010)
The Humanistic strategy founded by Carl Rogers was a primary a reaction to behaviourism and psychoanalysis, with the idea that both ideas related more to the evaluation and the treatment as opposed to the perceptions/interpretations of the individual's exterior stimuli. (Gross, The technology of the Mind and Behavior, 2010)
In accordance to the, Rogers created the 'Person Centred theory'. Thus being truly a theory established more on your client and their potential for personal expansion. He adopts a holistic strategy, considering all aspects of the average person and exterior stimuli. He stipulates a person's equilibrium is based upon being congruent; However outdoor influences can cause incongruence (an unbalance in one' do it yourself).
''not from the point of view of simply receiving the standard view of knowledge as postulated in myriad academics texts, but instead of creating a newer view of technology as a individuals endeavour which calling overall person rather than just on the intellect'' (Rowan, 2001, p. 291)
Rogers thought each living being possessed the capability to develop and reach their maximum potential. This unveiled 'The Actualising Trend'. Rogers developed this idea whilst observing a bin of potatoes stored in the basement during his child years. Within the unfavourable conditions the potatoes started to sprout, frantically achieving toward the light from a small window. Thus giving the example that regardless of the conditions, everyone and everything can make an effort to 'self actualise'.
''the mainspring of life. . . it is the desire which is noticeable in all organic and human being life- to extend, lengthen, become autonomous, develop and older'' (Rogers, 1961, p. 193)
Rogers submit his idea of personality, categorised into 'The self principle', 'The Organismic home' and the 'Ideal do it yourself'.
'The self theory', described as how we perceive ourselves and the environment. This is obtained through child years and can reflect on the health care given during such time.
'The Organismic personal' is who we truly are with the ability to act how we please once clear of judgement and social conformities.
'The Ideal self' is continuation with the home concept. It really is something we desperately want but will never achieve as after the goal is reached a new one is created.
''the organized consistent conceptual gestalt composed of perceptions of the characteristics of 'I' or 'me' and the perceptions of the connections of the 'I' or 'me' to others also to various areas of life, alongside the values mounted on these perceptions. It really is a gestalt which is open to awareness though not necessarily in awareness. It is a liquid and changing gestalt, a process, but at any given second it is a specific entity'' (Rogers C. , 1959) (Gross, Mindset- The technology of Mind and Behavior, 2010) any given minute it is a particular entity. at any given minute it is a specific entity. the organized steady conceptual gestalt made up of perceptions of the characteristics of 'I' or 'me' and the perceptions of the interactions of the 'I' or 'me' to others and also to various areas of lifethe organized constant conceptual gestalt made up of perceptions of the characteristics of 'I' or 'me' and the perceptions of the connections of the 'I' or 'me' to others and to various areas of life, alongside the values mounted on these perceptions. It really is a gestalt which is open to awareness though not necessarily in awareness. It really is a substance and changing gestalt, a process, but at any given point in time it is a particular entity.
In conjunction with Rogers, Abraham Maslow launched the 'Hierarchy of Needs'. He devised a model in the shape of any pyramid into levels of real human development. Before progressing to a higher level, the previous needs to be fully achieved, beginning with the building blocks which include basic Physiological needs such as food, air and sex. Other levels include basic safety needs, love and belongingness, Esteem needs, cognitive needs, aesthetic needs and finally Self applied actualization, this being the best a person might become. However it can only just be gained through experience as opposed to the prominent biology found in the low levels. (Gross, Psychology- The Technology and Mind of Behaviour, 2010)
With regards to similarities between Freud's Psychoanalysis and Rogers Humanistic Procedure both theorists include a section of personality. Freud's 'Identification' can be in comparison to Rogers 'Organismic self applied' in the sense that the Organismic home is who we truly are, this however is comprised once in public areas, much like the 'Identification' of which the wishes are manipulated by the 'Ego', both related to the true self and what it wishes.
Much like Freud's 'Ego', Rogers 'Personal Strategy' is reasonable and the part of personality both designed by exterior stimuli built from childhood.
The 'Eros' Within Freud's concept of the 'Identification' is comparable to Rogers 'Personal Actualising Tendency' for the reason that the 'Eros' directs 'life sustaining activities' permitting us to advance and develop to fulfil our life potential.
Both are male perspectives and could be biased, most notable in Freud's idea of 'Male organ envy', implying that not having a penis makes women feel poor.
In regards to the differences, Freud's notion of the development of personality includes psychosexual periods, these directly relate with childhood and uses specific ages throughout, whereas Rogers disregards time as an importance and concentrates primarily on the individual in a all natural manor.
Rogers's concept of 'Home Actualization' pertains to all living beings from humans to potatoes; however Freud only concerns himself with humans.
Freud believes babies are given birth to with bad psychic energy to be able to meet basic needs referring to them as a ''Seething cauldron''. However Rogers portrayed the procedure of 'becoming a completely functioning person' so this means the way they become is all that is relevant.
This essay has discovered key areas of both Freud's Psychodynamic theory into personality and also Carl Rogers Humanistic theory. It Focused on Freud's conception of the 'Brain' like the 'mindful', the 'pre-conscious proper' and the 'Unconscious'. As well as his composition if personality shattered into the 'Id', the 'Ego' and the 'Super-ego' and finally the stages into his conception of the 'Psychosexual periods'. The article then centered on Carl Rogers Humanistic theory, describing 'The Actualising Tendency', the three 'Self's' and also briefly highlighted the task of Maslow as a continuation to Rogers theory. Whilst focusing on Childhood it done by emphasising the similarities and distinctions within the two theories. However it can be prominent to believe ''the happenings of its first years are paramount importance for its whole succeeding life''. (Freud, An Outline of Psychoanalysis. , 1949, p. 283)