Project management techniques

Project management is the use of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to be able to meet or go over stakeholder needs and anticipations from a project. In other term it's the willpower of planning, organizing, and handling resources related to a project to efficiently complete the specific goals and purpose of the task. A project is a non permanent thing which has a predefind goal and a precise begining. The non permanent nature of task stands in contrast to business as regular, that happen to be repetative, parmanent or semi long lasting functional work to produce product or service.

Job Management Knowledge Areas

Project management knowledge areas explain task management knowledge and practice in term of its component process. These proceses have been sorted out into nine knowledge areas as defined below-

Task Integration Management

Various types of procedures must coordinate the various component of the task. Task integration management integrate all those operations to fullfill the job goal. there are three major areas for job integration management:

Project plan development

Project plan execution

Overall change control

These functions are interact with other and with the procedure in the other knowledge areas as well. Moreover, integration must take place in anumber of other areas inorder to be successfully completion of the job.

Project Plan Development

Project plan development uses the outputs of the other planning functions to create a consistent, coherent report that can be used to guide both job execution and project control1. It can be used to guide task execution, document project planning assumptions, record task planning decisions regarding alternatives chosen, accomplish communication among stakeholders, define key management reviews as to content, amount and timing. It also give a baseline for improvement measurement and project control.

Job Plan Execution

Project plan execution is the principal process for carryign out the task plan. The job administrator and the project management team will corordinate with the other person uses the many technological and organizational interfaces that exists in the project. Project software areas directly have an effect on the task processin which the product of the project are in reality created.

Inputs of job plan execution are project plan, helping details, organization policies, creative action. General management skills, product skills and knowledge, work authorization, system, status review meetings, job management information system, organizational process are techniques used in project plan execution.

Overall Change Control

Overall chnage control is concerned with influencing the factors which create change to ensure that changes are benificial, the changes that has occured need to be determined, and handling the genuine changes when so when they appear. Inputs of overall change control are job plan, performace accounts, change requests etc. The techniques that are being used on overall change control are change control system, construction management, performance dimension, additional planning and task management information system.

Project Scope Management

The project opportunity management plan refers to the system that involves formalized document that can be used for the purposes of detailing exactly how the pproject opportunity will be described, what decision will be performed to build up the project opportunity, how the task scope will finally be varified and how all the components will be created and defined under work break down structure. Five major areas of the job scope management process are.

1. Initiation, 2. Range planning, 3. Opportunity definition, 4. Opportunity confirmation, and 5. Scope change control.

The project scope management plan also will provide information and assistance in identifying exactly how the actual opportunity of the project will ultimately be handled in the management process by the job management team and or the project management team leader. The actual job scope management plan, much like most task management components, can be considered a very officially written report, or it can be a much more informally written file. The information level may differ wildly as well, depending on precisely what the needs of the job dictate2.

Project Time Management

Project time management includes the prepared required too ensure well-timed conclusion of the project. The major areas of time management are identified inbrief in the following sections-

Activity Definition

Activity definition entails identifying and documenting the specific activities that must definitely be performed to be able to produce the deliverables from the job. Activity meaning uses WBS, scope affirmation, historical information, diferent constraint, assumptions as the inputs. Decomposition tools and tamplates are used as techniques. Activity list, supoprting details, and the improvements of WBS are the outcomes from this area.

Activity Sequencing

Activity sequencing consists of the identifying and documenting the activity dependencies within the task. The activity must be sequenced inoder to support the later development of a real world and achivable plan. Activity list, product explanation, dependencies, assuptions etc are being used as input in this area. Precedence daigramming method (PDM), arrow diagramming method, network templates are used to process the inputs.

Activity Length Estimating

Aactivity duration estimating involves ensuring the number of work periods apt to be had a need to complete each identified activity. Overall project duration is also estimating in this period. The inputs of this period are activity list, constraints, assumptions, source of information requirements, resources capabilities etc. Activity duration estimation, basis of estimations, and activity list revisions will be the outputs that we can get out of this period.

Program Development

Schedule development includes in determining the start and finish schedules for task activities. If the time schedule of any project aren't realistic, the task is improbable to be done as scheduled. Project network diagram, activity duration estimates, resource requirements, tool pool explanation, assumptions etc are inputs of this area. The outputs we acquired from this area are project schedule, supporting fine detail, routine management plan, resource requirement improvements.

Schedule Control

Schedule control is concerned with the factors which influence to make schdule changes to ensure that changes are benifical for the job, detemining that the agenda has altered and managing the genuine changes when and since they occur. Schedule control is included with the overall control process which really is a phase of task integration management. Job schedule, performance reviews, change requests, schedule management plan are the inputs to the area.

Project Cost Management

Project cost management includes the functions which are required to ensure that the project is completed within the approved budget. It consists of the following major areas-

Resources Planning

Resource planning includes identifying what physical resources like- people, equipment, materials etc. and what quantities of each should be utilized to perform job activities. It really is meticulously coordinated with cost estimating. WBS, historical information, range statement, source of information pool description and organization procedures are the inputs of the area. Experts will judgment with all alternatives that are discovered and give a total resource need.

Cost Estimating

Cost estimating includes to developing a possible estimation of costs of resources that are had a need to complete a project activities. WBS, source of information requirements, resource rates, activity duration estimates and graph of account are the inputs of cost estimation. There will vary tools that are being used in this technique. They are- analogous estimating, parametric modeling, bottom-up estimating, computerized tools etc. cost estimates, aiding details, , and cost management plan are the output of this area.

Cost Budgeting

Cost budgeting requires allocating the overall cost quotes to individual work items to be able to establish a cost baseline for measuring project performance. Cost estimation, WBS, and task schedule will be the inputs of cost budgeting. Cost baseline is the outputs of the stage.

Cost Control

Cost control is concerned with the factors which create changes to the cost baseline to ensure that changes are advantageous, whether the cost baseline has improved or not, taking care of the genuine change. Cost baseline, performance reports, change demands and cost management plan are the inputs of the area.

Project Quality Management

Project quality management includes the techniques required to ensure that the project will gratify the needs for which it was carried out. It includes all activities of the overall management function that determine the quality policy, targets and responsibilities. The next areas are the major part of job quality management process.

Quality Planning

Quality planning identifies the quality expectations which are highly relevant to the project and to deciding how to meet them. Quality planning, range statement, product explanation, standards and polices and other process outputs are the inputs of quality planning. Flowcharting, benchmarking, designing of experiments are the techniques used to process the inputs. The result out out of this stage includes quality management plan, operational definitions, checklists etc.

Quality Assurance

Quality confidence evaluates the overall project performance on a regular basis to provide assurance that the task will satisfy the relevant quality specifications. Quality management plan, consequence of quality control measurements, functional definitions are inputs of this process and quality improvement is the outcome from this process.

Quality Control

Quality control screens the specific project leads to determine if they comply with relevant quality criteria and identifying ways to get rid of factors behind unsatisfactory performance. Work final result, quality management plan, functional definitions and checklist are suggestions of the area. This inputs are processed by control graphs, praetor diagram flowcharting. Quality improvement, acceptance decisions, rework, completed checklists, process adjustments etc are the outputs out of this process.

Project Human Resource Management

Project human source management involves the process of using the individuals who is able to make the effective work to complete the project. All of the sponsor, customers, specific contributors are contained in human source of information management. The major areas are describing below-

Organizational Planning

Organizational planning includes determining, documenting, and assigning project roles, tasks and reporting human relationships. The inputs are task interfaces, staffing requirements and constraints. Themes, human resources procedures and stakeholder examination are the tools for finalizing the inputs. The role, responsibility project of individuals who are working on the project and also the supporting details are the result we've from this stage.

Staff Acquisition

The recruiting needed to be assigned and are working on the task are will involve in personnel acquisition. The staff acquisitions also take care about best resources which might be missing in most work environment. Staffing management plan, staffing pool information, recruitment practices will be the inputs of the area. Negotiations with staff, pre- task and procurement are tools which used in personnel acquisition. And consequently the project are certain to get the staff designated to it, and has a team listing.

Team Development

Team development includes improving the ability of stakeholders as well as the team which will work on the job. Project staff, task plan, staffing management plan, performance accounts and external feed is the inputs of the team development.

Project Management Techniques

There are a number of approaches to managing task activities. We only illustrate the Program analysis and Review approach (PERT) and Critical Route Method (CPM).


A group of activities are needed for complex project, a few of them should be performed sequentially and others can performed parallel with other ptoject. This randomness in activitiy completion times are allowed in the Program evalution and Review technique (PERT) which is like a network model.

The Network Diagram

Project actvities are the task that needs to be performed and the marking the conclusion of some important activities are called occurrences also referred as milestones. Every one of the predecessor activities must be completed before an activity starts. Activities and milestones are respresenated by arcs and nodes respectively in task network model. The activites are represented on the lines and milestones on the nodes, as PERT originally was an activity on arc network. The PERT char may have multiple pages numerous sub-tasks. In the next fig we've shown a straightforward PERT diagram.

The concluding nodes gets the higher quantity than the start node of an activity. Incrementing the volumes by 10 allows for new ones can be put without modifying the entire diagram. The activites in the fig are labeled with letters combined with the expected time that is required to comple the activity.

Steps in the PERT Planning Process

PERT planning involves the next steps:

1. Specific activities and milestones discovering.

2. The sequence of the actions properly established.

3. Build a network diagram.

4. Estimate the time required for each and every activity.

5. Determine the critical path.

6. Update the PERT graph as the project progresses.


PERT pays to because it supplies the following information:

  • The job will complete in expected time.
  • There will be a Probability of conclusion of the project before the specific date.
  • The conclusion time of a job are directly afflicted by critical route activities.
  • The activities which may have slack time and that can give resources to critical avenue activities.
  • Activity starts off and end times are also provided by PERT.


The following are a few of PERT's weaknesses:

  • The activity time estimates are relatively subjective and rely upon judgment. Where there is little experience in performing a task, the amounts may be only a guess. In other situations, if the individual or group accomplishing the activity quotes the time there could be bias in the estimation.
  • Even if the experience times are well-estimated, PERT assumes a beta circulation for these time estimations, but the genuine distribution may vary.
  • Even if the beta distribution assumption retains, PERT assumes that the probability syndication of the job completion time is the same as that of the critical avenue. Because other pathways can become the critical way if their associated activities are delayed, PERT constantly underestimates the expected project conclusion time.

The underestimation of the task completion time anticipated to alternate pathways becoming critical is perhaps the most serious of these issues. To beat this limitation, Monte Carlo simulations can be carried out on the network to eliminate this positive bias in the expected job conclusion time.

1. http://www. netmba. com/operations/project/pert/

2. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Pert


The activities and occurrences of a job can be modeled as a network using CPM method. In the following diagram we've shown the activities as nodes on the network and occurrences are depicted as lines or arcs between the nodes.

Steps in CPM Job Planning.

1. specific activities should be specified

2. Series of the activities should be determined

3. Bring a network diagram.

4. For each activity the completion time should be approximated.

5. Critical avenue identification (longest avenue through the network)

6. Update the CPM diagram as the job progresses.

1. Individual Activities should be specified

A listing of activities can be produced from the task break down structure of a task.

2. Collection of the Activities should be determined

Some activities are dependent on each other with regards to the completion of others. To constructing a useful CPM network diagram, a listing of the predecessors of each activity is necessary.

3. Get the Network Diagram

The CPM diagram can be drawn after defining the actions and their sequencing. CPM actually was developed as a task on node (AON) network, however, many project planners would rather specify the activities on the arcs.

4. For every activity Conclusion Time the conclusion should be estimated

The time required to complete each activity can be approximated using past experience or the estimates of knowledgeable folks. CPM is a deterministic model that will not consider variation in the conclusion time, so only one number is used for an activity's time estimate.

5. Critical Journey identification

The critical course is the longest-duration path through the network. The importance of the critical path is that the actions that lie on it cannot be delayed without delaying the task. Due to its impact on the complete project, critical way analysis can be an essential requirement of project planning [2].

6. Update CPM diagram

The network diagram should be up to date as the job progresses, all the job information that has completed needed to be including in the diagram. While project necessity changes the composition of the network diagram also change.


  • Graphical view of the task are available.
  • The required time needed to complete the task can be forecasted.
  • A set of activities that are critical to keep up and schedule are available.


CPM was developed for complex but fairly routine projects with minimal uncertainty in the job completion times. For less boring projects you can find more uncertainty in the conclusion times, which uncertainty limits the usefulness of the deterministic CPM model.

1. http://www. netmba. com/operations/project/cpm/

2. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Critical_path_method

3. http://hspm. sph. sc. edu/COURSES/J716/CPM/CPM. html

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