Posted at 11.23.2018
Although computer systems have been used because the 1970s in significant applications armed forces, civil, government, finance, business and so forth, unlike any engineering willpower the success rate of ICT tasks remains unacceptably low. Describe and discuss why ICT assignments are unsuccessful and what procedures can be taken to increase the potential for success.
ICT Task is the development and ahead of an ICT system where as an ICT system is a combination of computer hardware, software, source and outcome, activity data or information and the non-public that have to use it.
ICT Projects can bring changes and improve organizational activities. Business and procedures can become more effective and efficient by the use of information and communication technology (ICT) systems as in the event with engineering self-control but however successful people in other field like armed service, civil, government is still questionable even they are employed there since very long.
Performance evaluation of the task can also point the determination of victory or malfunction of ICT job. Also such evaluations cannot be justified nearly as good or bad without the successful execution of such project.
The main value of the ICT jobs can be accomplished to figure out its capability to support the organization in finding right result to its troubles. The adaptability of ICT system and its overheads can only just be reasonable if there are benefits accruing to it. Few of the benefits can be shown as below:
Escalating capacity of system
Efficient usage of data
Improved efficiency and outputs
Transparency & Simplicity
Lessening of Cost
Enhanced and effective decision making
Regardless of the successful experiences of ICT projects across the world, studies have proved high speed of ICT Project failure. These failure can be either job stakeholder targets or correspondence failure where the job failed to meet up with the specified goals such as enhancing efficiency, upgrading in resource usage, superior output etc. It can be process failure which refers to plan overruns, resources blowouts and it could be interaction failure where new system may be or was used soon and then terminate or occasionally used or not used whatsoever. Although benefits of ICT cannot be disputed but there are several issues and items about its successes as well as the approach in its execution. Triumph of any job can be examined or measured on different factors but success of information and communication technology (ICT) project depends upon well-timed completion within budget, trustworthiness (bug-free), ease of use, easy inexpensive alteration and maintenance in addition that this must meet features, goals and satisfaction of users.
In order to comprehend the amount of ICT inability, we need to grouped failures related to information systems that can be technical breakdown, job collapse, organizational crash, environmental malfunction, developmental stoppage and end user disappointment
ICT failing can be grouped depending upon the degree of its accomplishment or usage. It could be total failure where initially the ICT was never integrated or when a new system was apply but immediately discarded. It can be considered as incomplete inability as major goals are unattained or where there are major unwanted results. There exists another school of sustainability failing where an initial implementation was initially succeeded but is then neglected after a 12 months.
The inability factors which prevent simple execution of ICT tasks can either be Infrastructure, funding, poor data system, lack of compatibility, skilled workers, control styles, culture, bureaucracy and behaviour There are specific factors which may not prevent the execution or execution of tasks and can the hinder system improvement and its sustainability. Among them are End user needs, Technology, Coordination, ICT coverage, and Donor pressure.
There can be considered a number of reasons, which require a comprehensive and careful review to fully identify. ICT tasks are often too ambitious and too sophisticated as a result of mixture of the politics, organizational and complex factors missing top management prop up, insufficient resources of project, lack of individual input, poor task management, design problems, scarce training, unsuitable technology, and many more including imperfect requirements, changing requirements, technology Incompetence, unrealistic expectation. Therefore Tasks come across problems, they get a lot more expensive than budgeted, need more time than organized or do not deliver the expected results. Unfortunately, project failures can be related to lack of post-mortem probes across all sectors (private and general population). Organizations are neither interested to accomplish organizational erudition for themselves nor are they allocate their difficult experiences with others.
Vision without substance and a budget without perspective are two sorts of planning. Problems encountered encase of vision without element are ambiguity of future eyesight, insufficient organizational eyesight, current position and time. Budget without vision arises questions as to what problem is being solved, priorities and explanation of the roles and obligations.
Poor Task planning in organizations are due to insufficient risk management, business systems are not utilized and recognized completely and also insufficient concern & involvement from management.
Success or failure of any ICT project can be measured by identifying establishment "where we they are actually" and "where the new project is taking them". Success factors are those whose occurrence or absence set up the success of an ICT project. They could be individuals or enabler. A few of these are perspective and strategy, stakeholders support, exterior pressure and cooperation, consumer expectations, technological alteration, improving, and globalization in addition to useful task coordination and good procedures.
Degree of change is proportionally related to threat of job success. Bigger change might produces bigger organizational improvement at the expense of big threat of project catastrophe whereas small change might guarantee less degree of change at the price tag on less job risk. Thus we can say that there surely is a trade-off between menace and change.
ICT assignments can be designed regarding to types of anatomist and managerial principles. Drafting of complicated technical systems in a lot more perplex social area through development of local knowledge foundation systems can lead to avoid failures.
Review by local sections and organizations to determine the extent of ICT failures can even be very useful and productive methodology. These experts can make conclusive and detailed analysis and they can point out imperfections and make suggestion for the improvement of ICT jobs. Reports and lesson learnt should be accessible to other practitioners in other organizations for betterment of the projects.
Division of the project in smaller categories and managing subsidiary projects is way better methodology as changes through the project are sometimes or often unavoidable and difficult to manage.
Information systems attributes that happen to be achieved via effective ICT projects impact the recognized benefits. An ICT job implementation can be viewed as successful if the recognized benefits are driven and comprehended. ICT services quality can be analyzed after vigilant analysis of the infrastructure to establish technical functionality. For instance with reference to networking different departments, the point to check on is whether it might be has been achieved effectively or not. Therefore will involve a technological and user evaluation of the effective communication systems. Era of information can be assessed to find out efficiency of Information system quality for budgeting purposes, the question might be whether the information system can make exact and well-timed financial information and data or not.
Perceived benefits will be the end products you can use to judge the success of the whole system. When the perceived benefits like easier communication, networking, and system integration, timely, relevant, complete and useful information are not realized, then the system will be felt to have failed. Attributes of each element are shown for clarity and concentrate.
A familiar maxim says, 'if you cannot plan it, you do not do it'. Another maxim says, 'I never planned to fail, I just failed to plan'. Project planning begins as soon as job planning activities determine the organization's strategy and identifies the ICT jobs. Under the few limitations, job plans progress with the lifecycle. These restrictions are money and time so each job should have a define deadline and a good budget. Planning as a tool are a good idea in minimizing waste products by classifying the pre-requites conditions for successful ICT execution rather than hurrying into a intricate strategy. ICT needs careful planning, communication and coordination prior to implementation instead wise trial and error methods.
Clarify goals, focuses on and objectives will be established. These goals may form major role in planning process and ultimately help in the successful implementation of ICT tasks.
Improvement in the ability of those involved in the design, execution and management than it related projects will be enhanced to solve and tackle specific contextual traits of the institute, section, country or location where such ICT assignments will be applied.
Strategy and support will be the key areas which lead to success of any ICT project and at the same time finance and insufficient finance in addition to fragile infrastructure contributes to failure of such jobs.
Maximum benefits and result of ICT implementation can be achieved if there are no failure factors but it isn't possible but framework can be developed for the maximum output. This framework must cover and identify designs, prioritize activities develop program of action, categorize goal categories and in the ultimate level implement solutions
ICT assignments must be streamlined and founded while focusing following approaches.
Never underestimate sophisticated environment where ICT program evolves.
Get maximum output and benefits for the target group
Staff shall be re-skilled to cop up with changes
Identification and usage of new technologies
How institute procedures will fit in technology
Strong and supportive program management
Don't underestimate the full total cost of ICT task.
List the issues you experienced when you completed a recent task. Try to put these problems into some order of magnitude. For every problem consider whether there was some way where the problem might have been reduced by better organisation and planning by you.
Project plan was impractical
Identify the primary types of workers used in an ICT section. For each stage of a typical ICT development project, list the types of employees who are likely to be involved.
Business Analyst (who gathers requirements from consumer)
System Analyst (based on certain requirements, design the program)
Solution Architect (program is designed based on technical specification)
Software Developers (who develops the software)
Database creators (design and maintaining of DB)
Quality Team (who studies the developed software)
A public collection is considering the implementation of any computer-based system to help administer reserve loans at libraries. Identify the stakeholders in such a job. What might be the objectives of such a task and exactly how might the success of the task be assessed in practical conditions?
Following are the stakeholders for computer established library system:
Administrator/ Complex Board
Book Suppliers/ Volunteers
Friends of the Catalogue (Providing cash and assist with Library)
Educators/ Instructors (teach the usage of the machine)
Software House or company growing the computer based mostly system
Library Users (those who lend the catalogs)
Cataloguing (classification and indexing literature)
Compilation of literature and the stuff
Control of literature circulation
Efficiently validate the availability of books
Automate the collection loan system and make it computer based
System will be completely authenticated as it'll be solely predicated on computer
Issue and go back schedules will be catered by the system that will ensure that no choice is given to any public individual in case there is late go back.
Automation and authentication will be achieved.
Record of all the literature will be supervised and stored up to date
Success of the task will be assessed on the next parameters:
Productive system usage
Gradual rise in users will anticipate the success
Ease and comfort for public
Reduction of staff
Confidence of stakeholders on the system
Authentication and automation can be an important factor
Authentication i. e. more authenticated the machine is more will be its progress
4. A software house has developed a customised order digesting system for a client. You are a worker of the software house that is asked to arrange a training course for the end-users of the machine. At present, a end user handbook has been produced, but no specific training materials. A plan has become necessary for the project that may setup the delivery of working out courses. The project can be assumed to get been completed when the first program starts. Among things that should be considered are the following:
Training materials will need to be designed and created;
A timetable will need to be drafted and arranged;
Date(s) for the course should be set up;
The people attending the course will need to be determined and notified;
Rooms and computer facilities for the course will need to be provided for.
End users/ Client
Customers of customer (should not be an end customer)
Evaluation, planning and business handling within an useful manner.
Identify and develop contacts between sales, planning and purchasing (by using tools such as move charts and activity diagrams)
Create business to business environment by creating hyperlink with customers.
Encourage staff type to identify problems and solutions.
Handling customer's reviews.
Evaluation, planning and business handling: successful report era and boost the business.
Identify and develop links between sales, planning and purchasing: by comparison with past records
Create business to business environment by creating link with customers: steady surge of customers
Encourage staff type to recognize problems and alternatives: system improvement and personnel satisfaction.
Handling customers feedback: customers satisfaction
D. For each purpose, identify relevant sub-objectives or goals and who would be responsible for each and every of them
Handling customer's feedback: Quality guarantee department is in charge.
A company providing photography storage on the web needs a data source to support the site. Visitors to the site can register by giving personal stats including their email address, account. Once registered the user can create photo albums into which they can upload their photos (stored as documents on the business server) plus a appropriate caption and information. Users can truly add as much tags as they have to every one of their albums and their photographs to be able to classify them and permit meaningful searches. Design a databases schema that fulfils these requirements.
Username is foreign key in photo recording and albumID is international key in photograph
Convert your rational schema from question 1 into a physical schema identifying each feature data type.
A visitor has multiple image albums i. e. 1-n romance between visitor and image album
A photo record has multiple photographs in it i. e. 1-n relationship between photo recording and photograph
Write SQL statements which will execute the physical schema you created involved 2. Create some Put in statements which will populate your desks with example data.
INSERT INTO `photo` (`photographID`, `caption`, `tags`) VALUES
('photo1', 'caption1', 'label1'),
('photo2', 'caption2', 'tag2');
INSERT INTO `photographalbum` (`albumID`, `name`, `caption`, `description`, `tags`) VALUES
('album1', 'name1', 'caption1', 'information1', 'tag1'),
('album2', 'name2', 'caption2', 'information2', 'tag2');
INSERT INTO `visitor` (`username`, `password`, `emailAddress`) VALUES
('visitor1', '12345', ''),
('visitor2', '12345', '');
Using either the MySQL or Microsoft SQL Server database machines provided by the school implement your databases using the SQL statements you created involved 3.
CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS `photo` (
`photographID` varchar(30) NOT NULL DEFAULT '',
`caption` varchar(30) NOT NULL,
`tags` varchar(30) NOT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (`photographID`)
) Engine motor=MyISAM DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1;
CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS `photographalbum` (
`albumID` varchar(30) NOT NULL DEFAULT '',
`name` varchar(30) NOT NULL,
`caption` varchar(30) NOT NULL,
`description` varchar(30) NOT NULL,
`tags` varchar(30) NOT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (`albumID`)
) Engine motor=MyISAM DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1;
CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS `visitor` (
`username` varchar(30) NOT NULL DEFAULT '',
`security password` varchar(30) DEFAULT NULL,
`emailAddress` varchar(30) DEFAULT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (`username`)
) Engine unit=MyISAM DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1;
Write a SELECT assertion which will end result every one of the filenames within an recording with a tag matching 'punk' created with a person called 'Leibovitz'.
For each one of the pursuing questions you must describe your strategy and approach to responding to the question. Simply providing an answer is not sufficient.
1. In these designs there's a particular form and a particular colour in a way that the designs which has one, and only 1, of these features is called a PHOG.
If the Blue Diamond is a PHOG, could these other designs be a PHOG?
Answer: Since Blue Gemstone is a PHOG, it means that this condition is "Gem" or this colour is "Blue". Based on this observation, we can say that "Red Stone" (since it has the shape but not colour) or "Blue Circle" (since it has the coloring but not shape) are PHOGs.
2. Which of the hidden elements of these cards do you NEED to see to be able to answer the following question decisively?
For these credit cards could it be true that if there is a circle on the left there is a group on the right?
If above is purchasing of respective cards, we ought to check Card-A and Card-D. For Card-A, when there is a group on the right part and for Card-D, there is absolutely no circle on the kept side, we can conclude that: "When there is a circle on the left there's a group on the right. "
It is useless to check Card-B, because even when there is a circle or not, it shall not affect the conclusion drawn. Similarly for Card-C, if there is a circle on left part, our conclusion will be justified. And if there is no group on the remaining part, it shall not affect the conclusion.
3. There is a real truth teller (always says the truth), a liar (always sits), and one who sometimes right answers truthfully and sometimes is placed. Each person recognizes who is who. You may ask three yes or no questions to determine who is who. Each time you ask a question, it must only be aimed to 1 of the people. You may ask the same question more than once, but of course it'll count towards your total.
What are your questions also to whom will you ask them?
Answer: Why don't we call them TT, AL and TL to symbolize. Most of them shall say NO if they are asked if they're a Liar so: Ask TT: EASILY ask AL if he is a Liar, what would his answer be? If he says YES, TT is a Liar. If he says NO TT, is a Real truth Teller. Then ask AL: If I ask TL if he is a Liar, what would his answer be? If he says YES, AL is a Liar. If he says NO, AL is a Fact Teller.
And then ask TL: EASILY asked TT if he's a Liar, what would his answer be? If he says YES, TL is a Liar. If he says NO, TL is a Real truth Teller
4. Three boxes are all labeled incorrectly, so you must get the labels right. The labels on the bins read as follows:
[Box 1] switches [Package 2] coins [Field 3] coins and buttons
To gain the info you need to go labels to the right boxes, you might remove a single item in one of the bins. You might not look into the boxes, nor decide on them up and shake them, etc.
Answer: Since all labels are marked incorrectly, we realize that the Package 3 designated with [Cash or Switches] has anybody of the two items and not both. Take away the label from this Box 3, opt for one item out of this Container 3 (it must be a coin or a button), take away the particular label (depending after the item obtained) from other two bins (Bow 1 or Box 2) and wear it this Box 3. We now have Container 3 that gets the right label onto it.
Now there may be one Box without a label and the other Pack with wrong label. Remove the incorrect label because it is on the box that must be having both [Coins and Switches]. Put this label on the other Box and [Coins or Button] label upon this box.
In this way we have done the right labeling.
What are the products created by the Step Wise planning process?
Which of the following are not SMART aims and just why?
Market research Research similar products
User acceptance screening Investigate product requirements
User training Ensure that you Evaluate
Design database Put into action middleware
Improve network performance Strategy MTBF
SMART means Specific, Measurable, Acceptable, Realistic, Time Framed
Market Research: It isn't a SMART aim because it is Specific to a segment of market, product; and there is no time framed specified
Research Similar Products: It is not a SMART objective since it is not measurable regarding other products. Also there are virtually no time lines mentioned for this.
User Acceptance Trials: It is not a SMART aim since it is not time destined.
Investigate Product Requirements: It is not a SMART objective because the merchandise is not given; also there is no time line given for this.
User Training: It isn't a SMART target because the User training is not measurable and also there is no time frame described for it.
Test and Evaluate: It isn't a SMART objective since there is no measuring parameter specified for assessments. Also time frame is not available where this testing and evaluation is usually to be done.
Design Databases: It really is explicitly given that the repository of application is to be developed. But it is not really a SMART purpose for there is no time specified for this.
Implement Middleware: That is a particular, measurable and realistic objective however, not SMART because there are no timelines available for implementation.
Improve Network Performance: You can find no measuring elements that are brought up for this performance activity. Also time frame is not brought up for it. It might be specific and realistic but not a SMART objective.
Measure MTBF: Measuring Mean Time taken between Failures is not a SMART objective because there is no time lines mentioned to execute this task
For each of the targets in Q2 which are not SMART re-writes the target so that it can be considered as SMART. Clarify your reasoning.
SMART means Specific, Measurable, Acceptable, Realistic, and Time Framed
Market Research: "Perform Market Research in next 14 days to check on for need of any mobile phone that facilitates instant texting at university level and include students of age between 18-24 years. "
This is a SMART objective for this is specific about the task to be achieved, has time frame included into it, and is measurable, practical and satisfactory.
Research Similar Products: "Perform a Research Analysis among shop keepers of market in four weeks to check on for competition of Nokia 6300. "
This is a good objective for this is specific about the task to be achieved, has timeframe included into it, and is also measurable, genuine and appropriate.
User Acceptance Trials: "Carry out Software Examining with at least 50 students to check for recently developed Online Enrollment System in next 5 days. "
This is a good objective for it is specific about the task to be achieved, has time frame included involved with it, and is measurable, natural and appropriate.
"Have the least 5 meetings with client and put together SRS report of new Software to be produced by the end of the month. "
This is a good objective for it is specific about the task to be achieved, has timeframe included into it, which is measurable, realistic and appropriate.
"Arrange and ensure a single user work out for changes made in one of the modules. This training shouldn't be of more than two time. "
This is a SMART objective for this is specific about the task to be done, has time frame included into it, which is measurable, practical and suitable.
"Conduct thorough trials of new Recording solution after taking minimum of 100 telephone calls in a quarter-hour. Continue doing this activity 10 times at different timings. "
This is a SMART objective for it is specific about the task to be achieved, has timeframe included into it, and it is measurable, reasonable and appropriate.
"Develop the Middleware of Patient Education module in 2 weeks and participate maximum of 4 available programmers. "
This is a good objective for it is specific about the work to be achieved, has timeframe included involved with it, and it is measurable, sensible and satisfactory.
"Identify applications that contain higher network utilization and try to screen and configure them for next 24 hours to get 5% improvement in network performance. "
This is a good objective for this is specific about the work to be done, has timeframe included into it, which is measurable, sensible and satisfactory.
"Execute parallel applications and determine MTBF within 2 hours after connecting 10 users to it. "
This is a good objective for this is specific about the work to be done, has time frame included into it, and is measurable, sensible and appropriate.
4. Amanda works for the Management Services division of an area authority. She's been energetic in organising the development of a computerised payroll handling system. The system is in the final phases of development. What products must are present prior to the activity 'test program' may take place?
Information Objectives (source and productivity)
Functionality and performance requirements
What products does this activity create?
Planning & Monitoring
Execution & Production
Closing & End of program
5. You are going to embark on an assessed group project in your degree programme. Draft a list of the risks which might affect your task outcome. Separately classify the potential risks as high, medium and low. What you can do to reduce the impact of these risks on your project?
Following are the risks that can be faced during this project or academic assignment.
Scale: High Risk- H
Medium Risk - M
Low Risk -R
Budget risk can be reduced if the marketplace value and demand of the task is sold before.
Proper formal MS task plan can help reduce this risk.
Although it is an academic task and the personnel risk has low
1. The Agile Manifesto prices the items on the right, but places increased value on the items on the left
Individuals and relationships over Processes and tools
Working software over Comprehensive documentation
Customer collaboration over Contract negotiation
Responding to change over carrying out a plan
Discuss each of these assertions and create why?
To streamline existing businesses and to develop effective communication, it is very important to get well defined procedures and developed tools within an organization. But by the end of your day, individuals and their effective interactions are vital for the success of a task.
Documentation is considered to be an important advantage for software development. It offers assistance and ability
To retain and manage information about the software. But the more important advantage is the program itself. With strong documentation but lacking functionalities in a application, the amount of client satisfaction can lower to a larger extent. Hence, it is important to focus in the management functionalities of software.
Similarly contracts with customers are similar to an effort. They need to be retained as a token of agreement, but
The client satisfaction is far more critical for successful software implementations. Rather than staying adhere to the contractual terms, it is best to have a collaborative environment where customers can openly provide opinions and share their activities/concerns.
Changes are unavoidable and are certain area of the software process. In case there is any changes that are to be made, it is good to have a well drafted plan to communicate and follow up for changes. This plan can limit the client to
Focus over real changes that should be made. At the same time, the emphasis of developers should be to understand and put into action the change so that customer needs are well-timed met.
2. A software package is usually to be designed and created to assist in deal cleaning cost estimation. It'll input certain guidelines and produce initial cost estimates to be used at bidding time. A prototyping approach is to be
Used in the development. Describe and discuss the factors which need to be taken into account when deciding what classes of prototypes should be developed.
Answer: Prototype Model is the development of working model this is the subset of desired system. There are several factors that should be in factor while deciding on this working model. It isn't based on the rigid planning but instead on user response. An individual specifications must be clear to develop the prototype. Quantity of users should be interviewed to symbolize all respected departments/types of users. Users should be engaged in making the primary design of GUIs design for software prototype. The first prototype is to be developed from this design and users should completely examine it. After getting the feedback from users, the first prototype should
Be modified consequently. That is to be repeated for many following prototypes this enough time, a satisfactory
Development version is obtained. For every prototype to be developed, it is essential to judge it in real business domains.
3. An invoicing system is to have the next components: produce invoice, amend invoice, produce regular monthly statements, record cash repayment, and clear paid invoices from database, create, adjust and delete customer files. Identify the possible options in selecting a suitable process model if the proposed system is for:
(a) A big supermarket chain, Waitbury's
(b) A firm of solicitors, Wright Hassall and Twist
(c) An area plumber, Fawcett and Son
System for a big Super Market: For a Large Super Market System, we can decide for Increment Model. It should involve the department of complete system into several modules like Invoice Management, Cash Payment, and Customer Record Management. Each one of these builds offers a specific group of features and once all are deployed, the complete system need is fulfilled.
System for Organization of Solicitor: For a company of solicitors, a prototyping model shall work very well. Development team should develop an initial prototype of the machine, keeping because some of the top features of the system. Structured upon
The solicitors reviews, they ought to add and enhance additional functionalities into this system for following prototypes.
System for a Local Plumber: A Normal water Fall Model is good enough for this kind of application. There's a single individual involved who is heading to provide the complete system requirements. Once these requirements are well communicated and recorded, the development team can give attention to evaluation and development of system.
4. Extreme development dictates 12 routines including; Continuous screening, Pair programming, on-site customer and constant integration.
Discuss why these four techniques considered by Kent Beck to be beneficial in system development.
Continuous Testing: By developing Unit tests, programmers think about conditions where respective code can
Fail or there may be a breakdown. This means that once the code is written, there are no specific conditions where the code behaves abnormally. By doing comprehensive testing, the grade of programmer work rises as well.
Pair Coding: It can enhance team large coordination and communication. Along get back, one programmer can take into account the coding specific details where as the other can work over the bigger picture of solution.
On-Site Customer: Option of customers during development assists with getting timely response and immediate reviews. It enhances the development experience and increased customer satisfaction.
This week the application form risk management to software development jobs has been highly advocated. In practice however, managers tend to be reluctant to apply the techniques. What think might be the reasons for this?
Manager is an integral player in software project development. Managers are in charge to ensure that daily operations are provided and the project is completed with time. Project professionals usually does not completely practice risk management techniques because of their engagement in a number of alternative activities like management of resources, cost, agenda and quality etc. Also risk management is extremely critical where uncertainties are high. In those jobs, where business website is clear and team is theoretically equipped to endure development tasks thoroughly, risk of small scales may be studied because the respective loss shall be at suitable level. Completely taking care of risks might take lots of time and professionals can avoid this activity to provide jobs timely.
Fiona is a final year computing undergraduate scholar who in her third 12 months undertook a placement with the IT team of an insurance company as a support analyst and then a network manager. The placement year was very busy and worthwhile as the company observed IT as providing business benefits in that which was a very dynamic and aggressively competitive sector. The project that Fiona proposes to do in her last year use the insurance provider as a client. The proposed task will involve gathering requirements for an application that records details of change requests for functional systems created by users and then monitors the subsequent progress of the change. Having compiled the requirements the girl with to design the application form, then build and put into practice it.
Identify possible hazards in the proposed job of which Fiona should take bank account.
Project Scope: Recording Change Requests for Operational Systems and Traffic monitoring Improvement of Change
Fiona is working in networking team and Business Website and Project Scope may well not be clear to her.
There are not sufficient skilled workers available for this job.
Fiona has already been engaged in academics and work commitments and availability of time for comprehensive need gathering, system developing and implementation is a problem. Also she should think about having higher work load at different times credited to her multiple activities. This means that we now have higher likelihood of delay in task completion.
Fiona spent some time working as Support Analyst which is not having experience in system development and execution that can lead to several missing functionalities and compromised quality. We are able to say that she actually is not an experienced staff member for this job.
It is a task from real life and there are likelihood of changes in client requirements during development phases of the job. This shall lead to changes in design as well.
Insurance company might not share the genuine data related to its users so Fiona shall have to consider having incomplete technical data for tests purposes as well.
3. On a huge project it is is the duty of your team innovator to allocate tasks to individuals. Why might it be unsatisfactory to leave such allocations entirely to the discretion of the team head?
He might not be the expert in every the areas/departments.
It triggers dissatisfaction among other team members of same level.
He can be biased towards some other users of the group.
He is probably not well familiar of the know-how of the whole personnel to allocate them responsibilities.
In arranging her task, Amanda ignored the risks of absence scheduled to personnel sickness. What might she have done to estimate the likelihood of this occurring and exactly how might she took account of the risk when scheduling the project?
Instead of individually considering the threat of staff absence due to sickness, Amanda may have added few extra times/weeks to the job plan. Her assumption might have been that she shall get the task done through other available staff members in case there is any such occurrence. This is a risk that general has less probability of occurrence specifically for all employees at the same time. This observation might be founded upon the lack record of employees over last few a few months/years.
1. Draw a task network using either activity-on-node or activity-on-arrow network conventions for each and every of the next projects:
Choosing and investing in a pc;
Organizing and carrying out a review of users' ideas of a website.
2. Convert the example activity on node precedence network from today's PowerPoint slides into a task on arrow network.
Activity Duration (weeks) Precedents
A Hardware selection 6
B Software design 4
C Install hardware 3 A
D Code software 4 B
E Data import 3 B
F Write consumer manual 10
G Customer training 3 E, F
H Install and test 2 C, D
3. The activity networks below contain problems. Identify the errors and re-draw the networks correctly.
4. Draft a task precedence network for the next scenario:
The specification of the IT software is approximated as likely to take fourteen days to complete. When this activity has been completed, work can start on three software modules, A, B and C. Design/coding of the modules will require 5, 10 and 10 times respectively. Modules A and B can only be unit -tested mutually as their features is directly associated. This joint assessment should take about two weeks. Module C will need eight days and nights of unit testing. When all product testing has been completed, included system assessment will be needed going for a further three weeks. This evaluation will be based on the efficiency identified in the standards and will need 10 days and nights of planning.
(Times) 14 28 36 57 67
5. For the experience network in 4 above, derive the earliest and latest start schedules for each and every activity and the earliest and latest finish dates. Work out the shortest project duration.
6. There are a number of software tools which can help in project planning:
I) Microsoft Job, which will Gantt and network graphs but is a lttle bit rubbish.
ii) Microsoft Visio, which draws nice pictures but doesn't benefit the computations.
iii) Microsoft Excel or Start Office Calc, an acceptable spreadsheet to benefit the calculations and has some visual capability.
Research the application of these tools to project planning and use all three of these tools to execute critical path analysis on the following case.
Upload your answers in Week 1. 13
Directed unsupervised learning:
read Chapter 11 Managing people and arranging groups: R. Hughes and M. Cotterell, Software Task Management - 4th Release, McGraw-Hill
1. Identify three occurrences or times when you felt particularly thrilled or happy about something to do with your work or study.
Achievement in activities (Successful in extra curricular activities) Acceptance in class (Good grades in projects)
University Celebration or function (Gathering and get together)
Identify three occasions when you were particularly dissatisfied with your work or study.
Assignment not completed in time
Family Function during examinations
Unsuccessful in extra curricular activities
Compare your findings with those of your fellow workers and make an effort to identify any habits.
My design of satisfaction and dissatisfaction are quite a lot like my classmates but there is certainly difference among those who also do job and has some other activity other than study and activities because of different satisfaction and dissatisfaction factors.
Analyse your studies in conditions of Herzberg hygiene and drive factors. Since health and inspiration factors differ for different surroundings therefore we
find different design among colleagues included in different activities.
2. An organization has recognized low job satisfaction in the next departments.
How could these jobs be redesigned to give more job satisfaction?
Arrange friendly Meal / Tea party with team member to create friendly environment &
Reevaluate their complex know-how and interest and redefine job with satisfactory work pressure.
Should not force staff to work later or should not overload them.
3. Think about a team centered activity where you have previously participated and try to categorize each participant based on the Belbin classifications (Seat, Place, Monitor-evaluator, Shaper, Team worker, Implementer, Source of information- investigator, Completer-finisher and Specialist).
Which role or jobs have you take?
Were there any duplications or spaces in any of the functions?
Did this seem to be to have any impact on progress?