Posted at 10.07.2018
Procurement is a very wide term, but there's a consensus from scholars and procurement practitioners that the strategic importance of procurement is directly related to the percentage of overall value a firm's suppliers bring to the formula. Example, in retailing, the procurement function (normally called mechanizing) is considered the most important function of the business. What they buy is the principal component of their strategy. Alternatively, it might be difficult to justify procurement as a key strategic function in any organization. Business enterprises perform eight basic functions specifically, the management function, the production function, the human resources function, the fund function, the marketing function, the communication function, the info function and the purchasing or procurement function.
Each of the functions has independent contexts but each also influences the business all together. A blunder in a single function oftentimes jeopardizes the whole operation of the business. The management function is generally worried about planning, staffing and directing the whole organization. It really is made up of top-level management like ceos and managers. The production function is responsible for transforming recycleables into prepared products for consumers. The individual resource function grips concerns of the staff like selecting, selection, transfer, campaign, separation, benefits, etc. The money function consists of accounting and bookkeeping tasks as the marketing function can be involved with the methods on providing stations for the done products to attain the marketplace. Furthermore, the communication and information functions are similar in characteristics. They may be focused on establishing relationships between the business and the outside corporate world. Finally, the purchasing or procurement function, which is the matter in this research, is concerned with providing sufficient materials, goods, services and works, that happen to be required for the continuous operation of the business enterprise. The procurement function is often not given prominence it deserves but only known as a clerical function which is often done by any Tom, Dick and Jerry. Concisely, hardly any attention is accorded to procurement function as compared to other support functions. Michael Porter (1985). It is imperative in the business to totally understand why important aspect of procurement function because many businesses have little realization, understanding and acknowledgment of the worthiness an efficient procurement system can have on the performance of the business.
Today governments across the world have received significant amounts of attention as providers of essential services, such as health, education, protection and infrastructure. To be able to meet the demand for these services, government authorities purchase goods and services from industry. In other words, governments are purchasers of works, items and services from the open market, positioning their needs alongside those of the private sector. The business operations of governments in the marketplace or general population procurement have thus both monetary and politics implications. Yet, until not too long ago, the subject of public procurement would have received little attention by educational researchers and insurance policy makers, because it was considered an administrative function too mundane to worry about (Wittig, 1986).
Before 1974, open public procurement in Kenya was generally undertaken by international organizations like the Crown Providers on behalf of the Government. This was because the needs of the colonial masters and the unbiased Kenya were basically met from international sources because local resources were still not ample. However, individual ministries assumed the role and function of procurement of goods and services. The first major change came in 1974, when the treasury via a circular changed the secretariat from the ministry of works to the treasury and transferred the chairmanship to the treasury.
In an attempt to streamline procurement strategies, The East African Community (EAC) developed rules under the title East African Resources Manual for use in procurement. This manual in effect changed the functions of the Crown real estate agents. While using collapse of the East African Community in 1977, Kenya developed its own products guide in 1978 to be used alongside the E. A. C. Manual. In 1980, the federal government moved the Central Tender Plank (CTB) from treasury to the office of the president and located it under the Case affairs. The move sought for the re-union for the second time of Central Tender Panel and the materials branch. The role performed by both unbiased departments was boosted by the fact that they were now answerable to 1 accounting official and moreover the one responsible for Cabinet affairs. During the Federal government restructuring between 1989 and 1999, this found many changes for example:
The Central Sensitive Board was separated with the Products branch with the past heading back to Treasury as the latter returned to the Ministry of Public Works. With these reforms, it became clear the CTB role was instrumental in the honor of contracts and the eventual execution of the same hence the necessity to give it the necessary support to use successfully.
The 1999 reforms found the management of the CTB surge to the amount of the Everlasting Secretary as opposed to the earlier preparations when junior officials controlled it, at the same time the regular membership also evolved and it included the private sector giving the chairmanship while other associates were attracted from the ministries with large procurement finances. The Central Tender Panel was done away with in 2001 when its tasks were devolved the respective procuring entities. The 1999 found also the overview of countries general population procurement techniques hence there was need to have a rules to govern the procurement system in public areas sector and an independent establishment whose responsibility is always to oversee that public procurement is performed relating to the said legal provisions. This saw the establishment of Public Procurement Directorate as a company of Federal government under the Exchequer and Audit (General population Procurement) Restrictions 2001. THE GENERAL PUBLIC Procurement Directorate was the central organ for policy formulation, implementation, individual source of information development and oversight of the public procurement process in Kenya.
Finally, due to massive corruption and lack of proper authoritative recommendations and manipulation of procurement methods, the government with the World Loan provider initiated an activity of looking at the procurement regulations with a view to dealing with these ills. An activity force was shaped to attempt this work in consultation with the government, development lovers and the private sector. A monthly bill was drafted for issue in parliament in line with the task force's advice. This therefore found the enactment of the general public Procurement and Disposal Work 2005 (PPDA) which came up to drive on 1st January 2007, and it legislation of 2006. The legislation provided clear interpretation or implementation guidelines for clearness.
The performance of the procurement function in the general public sector is one of the key requirements for the attainment of perspective 2030 goals. The enactment of the PPDA 2005 and the laws 2006 as well as the establishment of the public procurement oversight power (PPOA) are a few of the recent developments that serve to market efficiency, performance and accountability in public areas procurement. In spite of these, the general public sector continues to be plagued with rampant inefficiency, problem and non-compliance. Despite the potential for producing local industry through open public procurement, many local and international organizations do not participate in public procurement because of a perception (and at times the reality) that government authorities are poor payers, difficult to work with, or have their own preferred suppliers for deal awards. In addition to these standard complaints, there is also a feeling among suppliers - based on anecdotal studies - that problem plays a part in agreement decisions. Some "corrupt" activities could be triggered by insufficient knowledge of the best practices in public areas procurement. This research seeks to ascertain the key factors that constitute hindrances to effective and reliable procurement function in the public arena and just why, despite major attempts made in reforming procurement systems in Kenya, problem continues to be rampant or common in procurement departments.
The reason for this research is to determine and understand the factors that contribute to inefficiency and ineffectiveness of the procurement function in the general public sector in Kenya with a view to recommending the guidelines to suppress these inadequacies in public areas procurement.
To determine how the positioning and setting of the procurement office plays a part in its efficiency and effectiveness
To build whether there is compliance or non-compliance of PPDA (2005) and its rules (2006), and create reasons for non-compliance, if any.
To assess the capacity of PPOA and other oversight body to oversee effective implementation of PPDA (2005) and its own polices (2006).
To determine real human learning resource related factors that donate to inefficiency and ineffectiveness in the public procurement function.
Does the position and setting of the procurement function in the business affect its efficiency and efficiency?
Do government establishments comply fully, with the provisions of PPDA (2005) and restrictions (2006), and what factors contribute to non-compliance if any?
Do PPOA and other oversight bodies have sufficient capacity to oversee the execution of the procedures of PPDA (2005) and its own regulations?
What human resource related factors specifically hinder the efficiency and effectiveness of the procurement function?
The study will contribute greatly to the data on effectiveness of the public procurement function in Kenya. Among the key beneficiaries of the results of this study are: the government and its own regulatory agencies, general public corporations and the general public.
The government will be better prepared in formulating procurement related procedures. It will also be able to package with the loopholes in the execution of its procurement procedures and polices as identified by the study.
The PPOA, in discharging its mandate, will be better up to date on the critical areas that require closer monitoring.
The Kenya Institute of Items management, KISM, will profit by knowing areas of deficiencies, how procurement function is supervised in the general public sector and requirements of personnel manning procurement office buildings in the public sector.
The review will expose loopholes resulting in corruption and make suggestions on preventive actions that can be undertaken to lessen chances of corruption. Additionally it will determine the amount to which procurement specialists sign up to ethics from professional body.
The time allotted for the analysis is quite short to allow a thorough country wide study. However the quality of the analysis will be made certain by purposively choosing the representative test in Nairobi.
The cost of data collection is likely to be high if a correspondingly large test will be chosen. However, in mitigation of the, the researcher will decide on a small test purposively while making certain all variability in the population is adequately symbolized.
Due to the type of the task of procurement officials, some of them may not get time to complete the questionnaires. In addition, because of the general belief about open public procurement in Kenya, some respondents especially the general public procurement officers may shy off in responding to the questionnaires objectively for concern with unearthing various unethical techniques, which may lead to closing the loopholes following the research. This may not be to their interest. The researcher will design the questionnaire so really needs short, succinct, non- self-incriminatory and easy to comprehend questions. This will likely ensure that the respondent is curtailed and discouraged by the mere size of the questionnaire upon receipt. To allay these doubts, the researcher, will assure the respondents as part of the questionnaire clear instructions, that the "information searched for by him, will only be utilized for the purposes of academics ventures".
Public procurement is broadly defined as the purchasing, hiring or obtaining by another contractual method of goods, engineering works and services by the general public sector. Community procurement is alternatively defined as the purchase of commodities and contracting of structure works and services if such acquisition is effected with resources from status budgets, local specialist budgets, state groundwork funds, domestic loans or foreign lending options guaranteed by the state of hawaii, foreign help as well as income received from the monetary activity of state. General public procurement thus means procurement by way of a procuring entity using public funds (World Lender, 1995). The things involved in general population procurement range from simple goods or services such as videos or cleaning services to large commercial jobs, like the development of infrastructure, including highway, power stations and international airports.
Public procurement is different from private procurement, because in public areas procurement the economic results must be measured against more complex and long-term conditions. Furthermore, open public procurement must be transacted with other factors in mind, aside from the economy. These things to consider include accountability, non-discrimination among potential suppliers and value for international responsibilities. Therefore, public procurement is subjected in every countries to enacted laws, in order to safeguard the public hobbies. It is worthwhile noting that unlike private procurement, general public procurement is a small business process in a political system and has therefore significant thought of integrity, accountability, countrywide interest and efficiency (Wittig, 1998).
In his article, entitled General public Procurement and the Development Agenda, Wittig says that, Community procurement is a business process within a political system. Inability to properly balance these elements can lead to wasted effort and poor development results within the most important single market in growing countries. He further records that Consumer procurement remains a huge part of the economy of developing countries, accounting for an estimated 9-13% of these gross domestic product. Nevertheless, it can be an area in need of attention since resources are not being properly handled in many countries, regulating administrations in developing countries can experience benefits from superior management with their public procurement systems. With a more focused procedure on the control of resources within this large interior market, higher value can be achieved in national finances while developing local industry.
In days gone by, purchasing was regarded as a clerical function with purchasing operating as the "transaction accountant" between your buyer and the company. However, the purchasing director has now turn into a manager of inter-firm information exchanges with responsibility for the selection and maintenance of the whole supplier value string (Spekman et al. , 1994). The dealer network is currently viewed as playing an important role in the bigger value adding network of the purchasing company with the impact and value that the supply network can add in the delivery of products/services to the ultimate customer being accepted (Macbeth, 1994; Ellram and Carr, 1994). Together with the changing competitive framework of many business and the necessity to be more flexible in an environment of changing consumer preferences, companies have noticed the importance of experiencing an effective resource base. For example, with some 75% of the main the different parts of its aero engine unit being outsourced, Rolls-Royce realizes that the performance of its suppliers is vital if it's to compete with its rivals and this appropriately focused performance options are central to its success (Synon, 1995). The purchasing function influences directly the ability of a firm to contend through its effect on quality, cost, technology, and dealer responsiveness.
The purchasing function is dealing with a more proper role in many organizations. An appearing view is that the purchasing function should be on an equal degree of importance in the business with marketing, human resource management, financing, and the production/operations functions. Purchasing is leaving the original adversarial approach between your buyer and dealer towards collaborative associations. The make or buy decision is being given more account due to its strategic implications. Purchasing plays an integral role in commercial strategy through the selection and development of suppliers that support the organization's competitive position. An understanding of the real cost implications of the purchasing process can make a significant contribution to the accomplishment of lower costs.
In their analysis published in the federal government Financial Review (USA), McCue and Clifford (2001) searched for to recognize the patterns of change taking place within municipality purchasing. Specific areas examined included the structural agreements of local government purchasing, who's in charge and under what subject, and what are the responsibilities of purchasing professionals when performing the purchasing process in government authorities. In addition, local government chief purchasing officials were asked to identify trends in the next decade that will impact the purchasing function in government.
In their report, McCue and Clifford (2001) remember that as lots of talk about and local government authorities explore new ways to reduce costs, provide flexibility to service delivery managers, and assimilate their decision-making functions, many are evaluating their purchasing function as a potential area for increased efficiency.
They further note that it is commonly thought that changing the purchasing process in federal can generate considerable cost benefits and donate to overall efficiency by reducing red tape, providing service delivery professionals with versatility, and eliminating the amount of reporting channels necessary to procure goods and services. As lots of talk about and local government authorities examine their purchasing departments, a standard question that arises is: Should the purchasing function be centralized, decentralized, or should a revised purchasing structure be applied?
A central purchasing specialist has long been thought to ensure purchasing integrity, fix accountability, and offer for the effective changeover of goods and services between the supplier and the buyer. Further, a central purchasing specialist was suitable to limit the power of the company, to assure professionalism and reliability, reliability and accountability in the do of public business, to give maximum procurement planning, to standardize the purchase of widely used goods and services, and also to link diverse organization needs in order to take benefit of economies of scale.
Recently, the centralized purchasing paradigm has been challenged by the decentralization paradigm. Under the auspices of the "Reinventing Federal government" movement, many contend that purchasing, especially in authorities, must be decentralized to be able to provide more responsive support to get rid of users, eliminate pointless and procedural hurdles to program versatility, improve inter-departmental coordination, and empower service delivery professionals to procure what they need without impediment by a centralized company.
The federal government's re-engineering process initiated large changes in Federal government Acquisition Regulations offering more specialist to program professionals to procure needed goods and services. Over the talk about and local level, the National Institute of Governmental Purchasing (NIGP) reported in 1996 that only 40 percent of the respondents to its twelve-monthly review considered their authorities purchasing authority to be centralized (A WRITTEN REPORT of Procurement Tactics, 1996, NIGP). In 1999, the guts for Advanced Purchasing Studies revealed that 39 percent of review respondents reported centralized purchasing responsibility (Purchasing Performance Benchmark Study of American Municipalities). Thus, it would appear that the traditional model of centralized purchasing might not exactly represent what is found in practice.
Heather Rodgers (2007), the top of HR team at English gas contends that it is only by the procurement office setting itself as an integral part of the business strategy so it can run more effectively and effectively.
A good purchasing team maintains a concentrate on three key imperatives: people, processes, and technology. You can't have one minus the other. In the same vein, purchasing departments that contain succeeded in impacting underneath line have done so with advanced tools, executive-level support, and cross-company commitment. The cross-company way is exactly what really drives purchasing leverage and in the end bottom-line impact (MacKinnon, 2005).
Kagwe (2006) notes that there is common non-compliance of PPDA (2006), especially related to public officials participating in private organization that lead to issue of interests. As the objectives of the Public Procurement and Disposal Act (2005) are to: boost current economic climate and efficiency; promote competition and ensure that rivals are treated rather; promote the integrity and fairness of these strategies; increase transparency and accountability in those types of procedures; and, increase general public self confidence in those procedures, there are loopholes that must definitely be attended to. Kagwe (2006), determined the next loopholes:
First, it has been argued that the Take action does not categorically state that all procurement information are public yet the entities are general population institutions. Second, areas on disclosure criminalize whistle blowing. Third, the Function gives the minister unfettered discretion in constituting the Public Procurement Oversight Advisory Plank yet this is actually the Body that will determine the potency of the whole procurement process and real execution of the legislation.
Furthermore, it's been argued that we now have challenges in implementation, where for example, some public officials would claim urgency as an excuse to award a single service provider without competition; disqualify potential suppliers through improper pre-qualifications; interfere incorrectly in the work of evaluators; restricting information about contracting opportunities; and breach the confidentiality of suppliers' offers among others. Generally, up to now, the procurement process remains opaque, unfair, and anti-competition and riddled with corruption, if one new law replaces another indicating that the problem runs deeper.
Dr. Crispin Odhiambo-Mbai traces the origin of the problem menace in the public sector to early 1970's. The rainfall started defeating Kenya when the Ndegwa Percentage, appointed in 1970, looked into the appropriate structure and remuneration of the general public service. Although it recommended that open public servants be permitted to own private corporations and therefore run business, it also advised that any office of ombudsman be set up. The latter had not been done, as the former was permitted, which resulting in widespread problem and misuse of public office which may have prolonged to plague Kenya since then hitherto.
Various people and accounts criticized the above even before five many years of implementation were over, but the government was slow to react, if at all. For example, in 1975, the Habel Nyamu stated: "up to 1970, it was a required requirement that civil servants didn't take part in trade or any other business since the Ndegwa record broke this necessity and allowed civil servants to own any sort or property, no person can stand up and claim that the efficiency of the individual civil servants who needed uncontrolled benefit of this relaxation of the tradition had not been affected slightly adversely". In this respect, professionalism was thrown out of the home window while integrity was shown the backdoor.
Similarly, the Waruhiu Report of 1979 further indicated: "we've received overwhelming proof to the effect that some public servants utilize administration facilities to be able to benefit themselves. Some are thought to tender for authorities facilitiesothers are reported to be in the habit of receiving rewards for work they may be paid to do by the federalit in addition has been recommended that in the filed of buying, commissions are paid into bank or investment company accounts managed by general population servants overseas. " This is absolutely tragic, but given that nothing has evolved to date, helps it be more tragic!
As recent as last year, when the department of open public procurement and the European Union conducted a report, the Report suggested that investigations and amounts lacked in the complete procurement process. The Survey also observed that there was inappropriate software of procurement method and authorization in the procurement process. Further, that some goods paid for were never sent and that there is large embezzlement of general public money under the pretext that the procuring agents were buying from the cheapest bidder / dealer!
Kagwe (2006) concludes thus, "From the foregoing then, how would Kenya get out of the cul-de-sac, the useless end as they say? Although it is appreciated that there are watchdog corporations; however lame, and that we now have codes of polices; however mysterious or applied; not forgetting the legal provisions, however desiring; there still lacks bonuses once and for all performance and political will. Generally, there's a selective application of sanctions where the "big seafood" rarely get imprisoned. Admittedly, the existing Executive Director of KACC once explained that "big fish, have a lot of money, have big friends, and have big attorneys" indicating that KACC is traveling against a wave of "sacred cows".
Locally, the existing constitutional dispensation and its attendant laws and regulations cannot give Kenyans the dosage with which to stem problem unless altered for the better. The unfettered powers in the Presidency, its interior circles and the ones close to the energy would like to maintain status quo. That is, the ruling and politics elite prefer to maintain the position quo than to truly have a procurement system that could put them on a level learning field with other competition - whether in opposition or in federal.
Thus, as Prof Abdalla Bujra, in Democratic Move in Kenya, says: "since our vocal elite and politicians (especially those out of electric power and sitting on the sidelines - for another election) also shout as loudly [as donors], we become even more dubious that there surely is a common curiosity about using the problem of problem as a 'whipping-boy' to be able to divert people's attention from other serious problems facing Kenyans". That is, as Michael Holman argued, a "dance-of-make-believe". The real agenda of the donors and their local "dancing companions" is to hold to the economic, politics and socio-cultural status quo in Kenya. In this regard, await no 'saviour' from the political elite or donor community; it is citizens themselves who can change.
The integrity and transparency of the general public procurement system rely on a number of control mechanisms, including a powerful control and audit system, an efficient appeals mechanism, a comprehensive information sharing system enabling civil contemporary society and interested stakeholders to carry out cultural audit, and effective ethics and anti-corruption procedures. Without such control mechanisms, imperfections in the procurement system might not exactly be recognized and addressed.
PPOA (2007) conducted an analysis of the public procurement in Kenya. The analysis identified lots of factors, that have contributed favorably to strengthening the control systems of Kenya's procurement system in recent years:
Firstly, Sound inner audit mechanism founded and complied with: The Internal Auditor Standard (IAG) is responsible for the internal audit function across federal, including in the area of procurement. The task of the IAG is governed by the general public Financial Management Function of 2003 (PFMA), to which Laws have still to be issued. However, the IAG is applicable its Internal Audit Manual of 2005. The IAG undertakes internal control in all general population entities, excluding parastatals, which are controlled by their state Corporations Inspectorate reporting directly to the Office of the President. Internal audit is carried out on an on-going basis throughout the FY and relative to the required gross annual work plan, thus providing the basis for a sound internal audit device. Based on the AIG, internal audit recommendations are usually complied with as they are directly linked to the budget performance record.
Secondly, a well-functioning and unbiased problems review and appeals system has been established: The grievances review system is obviously referred to in the PPDA and Polices and provides exact conditions and timeframes as well as clear enforcement mechanisms. The Appeals Review Panel (ARB) constitutes the first avenue of complaints, and the PPDA provides for ARB decisions which are based on information highly relevant to the case, that happen to be balanced and unbiased, which are at the mercy of judicial review, and provide for relevant remedies. Judicial review is conducted by the High Court. ARB decisions can be further appealed within the standard judge system. The establishment of the well-functioning and independent appeals device is a key achievement in guaranteeing a performing and credible procurement system.
On the other palm, Kenya's control systems are also seen as a certain weaknesses, the most important ones being: Firstly, Undesirable enforcement and follow-up on external audit advice: External audit is completed on an annual basis by the Kenya National Audit Office (KENAO), which derives its mandate from the Constitution which is further governed by the general public Audit Work of 2003 (PAA). The KENAO conducts financial audit, systems audit and performance audit. Procurement is roofed in the last mentioned. Unfortunately, implementation of KENAO tips remains flawed and extended. The KENAO records to the Public Accounts Committee of the Parliament, and the Parliament then develops a set of recommendations. These are in turn passed on to the Treasury, which issues a Memorandum, which is the instrument upon which implementation of KENAO recommendations is based. The past set of recommendations used by Parliament related to the KENAO statement for the FY 97/98.
Secondly, procurement audits are non-existing: While both the IAG and the KENAO undertake audit of procurement, nothing of these corporations can or view it as their clear-cut mandate to carry out procurement audits. Thus, at the moment, procurement audits aren't being conducted. The PPDA provides the PPOA with the mandate to examine and audit procurement agreements, and includes in the functions of the PPOA to monitor the general public procurement system and report on the overall working. However, the PPDA does not confine any specific responsibility or right on the PPOA to perform regular procurement audits, hence leaving the machine with a serious gap.
Thirdly, lack of procurement skills among auditors: Both interior and external auditors are been trained in procurement as part of their regular in-house training. However, they aren't procurement experts, and presently procurement specialists aren't called in to form part of the control and audit clubs. In place, the audits conducted are reportedly not necessarily adequately very sensitive to procurement related issues.
Fourthly, limited usage of ARB decisions: While review of complaints generally takes place within the lawfully established time frames, access to PPRCB decisions is bound. Although complaint review decisions are available at the PPOA/ARB premises, they may be thus presently not published in any formal gazette nor on the PPOA website or any other government websites. Used, this helps it be very difficult for interested celebrations (or anyone else) to access the ARB decisions and seriously limitations transparency of the ARB.
Fifth is bound public access to procurement information: In order to promote public access to procurement information, the PPOA has established an online site (http://www. ppoa. go. ke) with the intention of publishing a broad range of information about the procurement system, including legal and insurance policy documents, procurement figures, and procurement plans, notices and contract awards. During writing, however, the sole data on the website is home elevators contracts awarded. The PPOA needs to update and launch the web site in the near future. As public access to all relevant procurement information is a cornerstone to the development of a transparent procurement system, this should be considered a key top priority to the PPOA.
Finally, no Code of Ethics addressing procurement related issues: While the Public Officers Ethics Act does provide a standard Code of Ethics for Open public Representatives, this Code will not include specific provisions for those officers involved in general public financial management, including procurement. Instead, the PPDA mandates the PPOA to concern a particular Code of Ethics for procurement officers. Such a Code hasn't yet been granted.
In its recommendations following the examination of procurement system in Kenya, PPOA admitting to the restriction of its research on capacities, recommends a full-scale capacity analysis of the individual, organizational and permitting environment capacities of PPOA be conducted in the near future, with a view to establishing tactical capacity development areas for the organization in the returning years.
Understanding the user needs is of great significance to successful procurement. This especially pertains to high-tech products like those used in IT. To have success in IT purchasing, the procurement officials must be conversant with the IT lingo. If they're not well versed with such terms as NAS, SAN, and WAN they can not effectively participate in the procurement process. If purchasing departments speak the terminology, they are better able to effectively participate in the buying process. Another key to IT purchasing success is regarding top-level management in the creation of common goals (MacKinnon, 2005). .
Competence development needs are not adequately dealt with: Inadequate competence levels are often cited as the most important blockage for further advancements in the procurement system. A couple of, however, great disparities across authorities. Some ministries have highly professional items and procure for large amounts on a yearly basis, whereas others are in dire need of assistance. Additionally it is expected that once municipality procurement is further assessed, extensive needs for competence development will be diagnosed. The PPOA has a mandate to ensure capacity development initiatives across administration (central and local). During writing, though, no complete training and capacity development strategy is in place, although preliminary sensitization trainings for government and private sector members have been presented. The PPOA happens to be in the process of developing a thorough capacity building strategy, including training programs. A tactical element is to link up with already established training institutions across the country.
Steps have been used towards creating a professional procurement labor force: As the procurement job still is suffering from lack of sufficient procurement competencies (see pillar II), important steps have been used recent years to determine a sound basis for a professionalized procurement self-discipline. One example of such a step is the launch of the Revised Design of Service for Source Chain Management Staff issued by the Office of the Leader in which clear procedures for the certification, skills and experience required for appointment of procurement professionals at various levels are made. This System is systematically applied in the selective recruitment of procurement staff led by the Public Service Commission rate. In another area, procurement training programs at BSc and MSc levels - generally targeting the public sec-tor recruitment - are now offered by a number of general public and private institutions. This long-term training source is broadly considered to match the needs of the public sector, and the course content is regularly updated based on demand and reviews from the general public servants enrolled on the courses. The consistency of courses is also re-ported to be sufficient, the main hurdle being high admission fees often payable by the students out of their own pouches.
Among the most predominant weaknesses related to procurement procedures and market practices are:
Firstly, the available know-how at PE level does not meet the need for specialized procurement knowledge: Regardless of the above-mentioned steps used towards creating a professional procurement workforce, the overall lack of procurement knowledge remains a significant weakness to the efficiency of procurement functions. It should be noted that the need for additional (or any) procurement expertise varies between different types of procuring entities, with major pro-curers often having the necessary competence levels, while local level PEs frequently have little or no access to interior procurement expertise. Considerable upgrading of skills through training as well as an increase in the way to obtain specific graduates will be asked to fill this difference. In addition, procurement personnel retention strategies will be needed in the foreseeable future to handle the severe brain-drain of procurement capacities apparently taking place in these years.
Secondly, short-term procurement training is in short supply: The PPOA happens to be not offering training programs, although some sensitization sessions concentrating on both open public and private sector participants have been placed. Many stakeholders article that this kind of information programs is an issue. In light of the reduced option of procurement expertise at PE level (see above), having less short-term procurement training takes its key obstacle to the continued professionalization of PEs' procurement methods.
This is the composition of research. It is the scheme, outline or plan used to create answers to analyze problems (Orodho, 2003). It is the conceptual framework within which research is conducted. It constitutes the blueprint for the collection, way of measuring and research of the info (Kothari, 2003).
a descriptive research design will be adopted for this review. It involves dimension, classification, analysis, evaluation and interpretation of data (Kombo and Tromp, 2006). It really is a way of collecting information by interviewing or administering a questionnaire to an example of people (Orodho, 2003).
This design will be used since the study includes collecting information about the factors hindering effectiveness of the general public procurement hence more appropriate to the study. Both major and secondary data will be utilized. The primary data will be obtained using questionnaires and supplementary data will be found using books, publications, and internet amongst others.
The society of the analysis will contain the all departments of the government of Kenya as well as quasi federal organizations which constitute Procurement entities (PEs).
The major federal government corporations and parasatatals and quasi establishments are shown in the table below:
Table 3. 1
This is the process of choosing the group of respondents from the larger population such that the preferred group consists of elements consultant of the characteristics found in the whole group (Orodho and Kombo, 2002). Purposive sampling strategy will be used in order to select the organizations with information whose results will be representative of the others. Some of the major standards to be utilized for selection will be type of firm (i. i. whether fully authorities held or quasi administration), size and category.
Both primary and secondary resources will be employed. Major data will be obtained using semi-structured questionnaire administered in person; the questions were produced from research aims.
Primary data resources are normally considered appropriate credited to some advantages such as, confidentiality upheld, information can be collected from a sizable test and diverse areas, it will save time, and there is bound chance of biasness, among others. Despite numerous advantages associated with this data resources, it entails a great deal of shortcomings as; response rate can be quite low, there is no direct conduct to deal with misunderstandings, no further opportunity to shop around in addition to the answers given, no clear reasons will be given for incomplete replies.
Secondary sources may also be an essential source of information to the analysis. This will include books, journals and internet.
The researcher will use a questionnaire in collection of primary data because they are simple in characteristics if well set up. The questionnaire will contain both open-ended and shut down finished questions covering issues on impact of fees on the production of employees. Open-ended questions will allow free replies from the respondents, without providing or suggesting any composition for the replies. The closed down questions will permit responses to be limited by stated alternatives. These alternatives will be made to maintain such a means as to be simple for the respondents to understand. This method will be employed because the researcher looked for to isolate the replies from external influences and ensure also that the respondents were no cost expressing their views and behaviour in neutral manner.
The respondents will rest assured about confidentiality with their responses. The questionnaires will be implemented from the worker work place or work station depending on their convenience. A polite deadline will be recommended after which the questionnaires should be gathered ready for the examination.
After the field work, but before analysis, all questionnaires will be adequately checked out for completeness. This will entail thorough scrutiny so as to minimize the variations due to absent reactions, multiple entries and blank questionnaires. The info will be codified and moved into into a spreadsheet and examined using SPSS (statistical bundle for communal sciences).
Exploration analysis will be first performed to ensure that the result is clear of outliers and the effect of missing replies will be at minimum amount. The quantitative examination will involve generation of descriptive information, namely; frequencies and percentages. Qualitative data evaluation will be performed through segregation of field records according codes, categorization of rules corresponding to similarities and company of data according to study topics that conclusions will be drawn.
The data will be provided using desks, charts and combination- tabulations.