Posted at 10.30.2018
Speaking regarded as the main and difficult micro-skill of the four skills in foreign language learning. Most adult non-native students of British in the UK especially Asian students face a great deal of troubles when they speak British plus they sometimes get frustrated when they could not understand or be understand by native speakers of English. Therefore, they come across the same issues that confront any students learning in a foreign culture, such as sentence structure, pronunciation, listening comprehension and different cultures. Also, it is problematic for them to change to the British language in particular when they speak it. They could have a problem understanding class lecture, making them feel hesitant to take part in class discussion, seminars and lessons. This essay will first explain and evaluate only one issue that face adult Asian students in UK when they speak British which is British pronunciation. Therefore, pronunciation is a difficult aspect in words learning for adult Asian students which lead to real barriers to communication and can contribute to motivation with indigenous English speakers. This essay will examine what exactly are the most frequent difficulties experienced them in English pronunciation, the factors that affecting the pronunciation of non indigenous students of British, some answers to surmount the difficulties of mispronunciation among Asian adult students and finally it will put some light on the implications of terms teaching.
Teachers of English as a FL or a L2 know so well how important pronunciation is. Nevertheless, sometimes it has been obvious a professor has been paid little focus on the students' pronunciation in the process of second words learning and teaching. Celce & Goodain(1991) says that over the past years, there were different views about the value of educating pronunciation in words teaching and they reported that the cognitive methodology and grammar translation reading centered method which utilized by teachers add no importance to pronunciation.
However, in the immediate approach, pronunciation is considered important. In addition, Jack and William (2002) reported that pronunciation is no longer considered as an essential aspect in a spanish teaching. Corresponding to Beebe (1984, 51), `"Most current textbooks in English as another language either disregard the teaching of pronunciation or rely generally on old stand-bys-to coach non-native learners to pronounce British accurately". Trammell (1993) also shows that teaching in pronunciation has been deemphasised due to the new coaching methods like the Communicative Way.
Communication can be an important need of in daily life and it ought to be the primary purpose of dialect learning and teaching. Therefore, teaching English speaking to non-native students of British how to speak English accurately and fluently with indigenous speakers of English is one of the general goals of the foreign language teaching. Corresponding to Yule (2006: 33), " language is primarily speech and it is more basic to language than the written form". Knowles (1987) dispute that written vocabulary is long lasting and looks imperfect version of the spoken language whereas spoken Terminology is more elusive. It is clear that people all speak and listen to the may seem spoken in our environment first before we write or read. For example, child before goes to school, he'll speak before write because he will acquire his first Terms from his family when he imitates what they said.
It is seem that as long as one can talk to others in the next language, everything is fine however the questions is, how can talk to people fluently if your pronunciation is wrong?
Beebe (1984) insists that pronunciation always have an effect on what we talk and exactly how well we speak it, and therefore it should be take very seriously. Weeren& Theunissen(1987: 109) described:
"Firstly, good pronunciation allows someone to be better grasped. It offers the speaker's dental development a certain redundancy. And this can help to get a note across better as a learning purpose because of computer is high pay off. The number of sound, audio clusters and intonation structure in a Language is finite, as is the alphabet. After the system has been mastered, it could be used, thus giving it fundamentally an infinite scope. Thirdly, a deviant pronunciation means that a person is immediately 'marked' as non-native in another country".
Harmer (2007) suggests that if students desire to be able to speak fluently in British, they have to have the ability pronounce phonemes correctly and appropriate stress and intonation. Pronunciations of students need to be sufficient to speak the message so that it is known by other audio speakers of British. Therefore, most Asian adult students have problems to pronounce words or phrases correctly which can be a major reason behind misunderstandings. They have difficulties in recognize sound of English, phrase stress( which part of any word tend to be more heavily stressed that is spoken louder and much longer), word stress( which part of any sentence can be more heavily pressured), appears in connected speech( how to link the sounds collectively in a word), and finally in intonation(how our tone rises and comes at a certain point of the sentence). From my very own experience as a tutor in a secondary institution, most students have potential pronunciation problems when they speak British. They have problem with stress and intonation that they struggling to place the right focus on the right part of the expression. Also they have problems with vowels bends and consonants mixes as well. For example, appears like"ea" and "ou" can be perplexing them since when they pay attention to the audio recordings, it can be very difficult to allow them to pick up the subtle blends of several vowels. Also, In consonants blends, they may have problem with "th" audio because they're not accustomed to putting "t" and "h" alongside one another to create "th" sound to reproduce.
It is clear that pronunciation is so difficult to learn. The first terms of most international students effect on learning the second language.
Most Asian adult students work and analyze hard to be very fluent in English. However, there are many different varieties of spoken British and non-native students may have achieved fluency such as knowing accurate sentence structure and knowing a big amounts of vocabulary particularly when they have been taught by non-native speakers however they have a non-standard accent which make the use of English difficult for native loudspeakers of English to understand.
Celce-Murcia, Brinton and Goodwin (1996) states there are different types of vowel looks in English pronunciation. Firstly, received pronunciation. It offers twelve monophthongs (sole or natural vowels). Subsequently, eight diphthongs (double vowels) and two thriphthongs (triple vowels). therefore, some of in Asian students like Arabices, Japan and Chinese language have fewer vowels in their first Words which lead to have problems with reading and pronouncing these distinctions of vowel sounds. For example, Japanese language has only 5 vowels /i/, /e/, /a/, //, /o/.
According to, Kenworthy(1987) there are five vowels words which are (a, e, i, o, u). They map to 13 different noises. For instance, the letter" is pronounced in different ways in what: boat, shoe, out and hot. This is one of the issues that experienced by Asian adult students in pronunciation subject matter. They have got problem with the /a/ audio (e. g. at) because it is challenging for them to listen to and pronounce this sound. Also, they could not differentiate between the long sound/a/ and the audio/e/ (e. g. paper-pepper). There is also problems in differentiating between the long/e/ and the brief /i/ (e. g. eat-it).
Furthermore, diphthongs in British are difficult to learn and definitely tribal markers in English. . Also, they are very easy for native audio system of English to identify but not easy for non-native audio system of British. So, speech may seem which entail a slide in one vowel to some other is the largest problem which face Asian adult students when they speak British. For instance, the"ou" audio in the term "out" is a mixture of /ah/ and /oo/. Many of diphthongs are peaceful delicate. For instant the long /ee/ sound in the words "feel" and "fear" is a mixture of /ee/ and /ah/ as (fee-ah). Celce-Murcia, Brinton and Goodwin ( 1996 )
Kota(2006) stats that British consonants are less difficult than vowels. Most languages have the looks which are represented by the characters" d, t, s, and z". Nevertheless, some dialects do not use certain consonants that can be difficult for non-native sound system of British. For good examples, the "r" and "l" tones are not employed by Japanese and Korean indigenous sound system. Then, the so- called "ra-la variation" is particularly problematic for them. They also have difficulty to tell apart between /b/ and /v/ tones. The /th/ sound is not only to make use of it in the nave vocabulary. It could be difficult for Vietnamese students. Therefore, they substitue a /zh/ rather than /th/ such as:
/zh/ese problems may be triggered by air pollution.
Also, he contributes that there are more consonants in British than in Japanese vocabulary. Therefore, the /f/, /v/ /o/, A/, /s/, /3/, /ts/, /d3/ do not exist in the Japanese consonantal system.
In addition, Munro((1993) says that some Arabic terms do not use separate may seem for /b/ and/p/. then, they have difficulty to distinguishing and pronouncing "b" and "p" may seem just as : do not bark while I park the van. The difference is quite simple. They may mistake "z" with"j". These problems cause misunderstanding by native English sound system when they communicate with each other
From my own experience as a Libyan scholar at Leicester University or college in the united kingdom, I had a vehicle accident in university highway because the weather was slippery and snowing which cause that the brake of my car was out of the control. After that the police came up if you ask me and asked me some questions about the car accident. I said to him "Personally i think slippery". The challenge here, the authorities published in the statement "driver feel asleep" but he did not write what I said "I feel slippery". I think that was a misunderstanding between your law enforcement officials and me because of my words. He misunderstand me because of his linguistic constraints especially his greatly -accented English.
Other problems which face Asian adult students, is shedding medical ceased consonants. A few of them are inclined o drop discontinued consonants such as, sounds /p/ and /k/ from the middle of poly syllabic words. For instance, Chinese students tend to drop the difficult "c" from the word of "success". They say/ suh'sess/. Also, some indigenous speaker of English pronounce the word "accessory" as/ examine or ee/ instead of
/ ack-sess-or-ee/. (Dalton, 1994)
According to Joanna & Heather (2003), British permits in syllable framework a cluster of up to three consonants before the vowel and four consonants after the vowel as with the words straw and glimpsed. Therefore, the structure of syllabus cause issues for sound system of many dialects. For example, Japanese students usually try to in between the consonants (e. g. table-/desks/) becomes "desukusu" or in the term "milk tremble" / mIlk ‰eIk/ becomes " mirukushku". Kota(2006) there are two types of syllable in English which are open syllables( CV) and sealed syllables( CCCVCC). On the other hand, Japanese only allow one type of syllable which is open up syllable. For instance,
Ke wild hair CV
Kare sweetheart CVCV
So, Words in Japan do not end with consonants and it Japanese does not allow both original and last consonants.
Knowles (1987) retains that some Asian students who first languages result in vowels, they often tend to make all English words result in vowels. For instance, they pronounce the word "make" as /meIk / instead of/ meIk/. Also, they sometimes think it is is so complicated when local speakers of British may drop consonants in the more complex mixes (e. g. the term "months", they state /mns/ rather than / mnos/.
Brown (2001: 121) pointed out that "cadence is the design of stresses within a sentence and tempo identifies the "master" syllabus. If each one were designated by tapping fingers on a desk: rat a-tat-tat-tat TAT of this". He gives that the primary issue that trips up Asian adult students that British English are stress timed whereas most Asian dialects are syllable timed. Stressed syllables are roughly equidistant with time plus they like the audio of the mechanised tat-tat-tat-tat of weapon machine with similar span to each syllable. However, indigenous English speakers stretch syllables at exactly the same time like putting emphasis on some syllables rather than others. For example, "hi. Wonderful to see u again". They state this sentence like this "hiiiii woooood' fl to seeeeeee yu a'gaiaiainn". This mean, "won- see- gain" is both emphasized and lengthened but other syllabuses in the sentence are so casually and shortened spoken.
According to Kota (2006), stress amount of time in English is one of the condition that come across Asian students specifically for Singaporeans students. They speak in the manner which is very difficult for English audio system to comprehend.
Roach, (2002: 50) identifies intonation as "the rising or dropping pitch of the speech while pronouncing words or syllables". He is convinced that intonation allows speakers to express their thoughts and behaviour when they speak. The best problematic section of pronunciation for most Asian students is intonation. They find it extremely difficult to listen to "tunes" or identify the various patterns of rising and falling tones. Therefore, some Asian dialects have less pitch variation than English especially Japanese vocabulary. They use pith changes to tag stress on the term level which direct result the so-called "monotonous" intonation. Wong(1987) shows that British as a tonal language(not using shades). We can understand the words in isolation but if we put them together in sentences, the meaning of the phrase may change by way of a shift in shade. For example, "Will you the catalogue?(low-then-high on expression library) but if u wondered which of two individuals agreed to find the list of books, the same words would have another emphasis " Are you going to the collection?", and the firmness for "you" would be alternatively "deep" which differs from the first question.
Jack and Willy (2002) bring in other problems in British pronunciation. First of all, difference between spelling and tones. There are lots of words in English language that have silent words. Therefore, most Asian students specifically Pakistani students pronounce these silent words unknowingly which make them mispronounce
the words. For instance, knowledge, kneel. These two expression have "k" silent notice which they shouldn't pronounce it at all. Secondly, multiple looks of the same letters are also one of the issues that come across Asian adult students. This mean there a wide range of letters and mixtures of words which produce numerous noises at different place. For example, the notice "c" produces two appears like "s" and "k" (e. g. circle, car) and also "ch" letter produce three sounds as "ch", "k" and"sh".
Every language on the globe has different accent and varsities is true that non native speakers speak the target language in different ways. Sometimes, they speak highly unique of native speaker systems of British do. Avery& Ehrlich (1987:9) telephone calls the foreign highlight "the nature of which is determined to a large extended by a learners' native terms. Then, native terms of presenter may affect on the pronunciation of the prospective dialect. Jack and Willy(2002: 184) says that" the way we speak is a part of our identity, that is, phonemic differences between terminology cause, a aim for language which is spoken with a foreign language". Some Asian students specifically Turkish adult students have difficulty in some English tones or words that are not can be found in their first language. For example, the sounds// and / / aren't can be found in Turkish terms which lead Turkish students to face difficulty to pronounce these tones when they speak English. So they produce these noises under the influence of their first terms. Then, the effect of native words is unavoidable.
2-The factor old:
This is the main element in learning British pronunciation. If someone wishes to pronounce a spanish with a indigenous like accent, he/she should learn to learn it during his/her youth. For instance, children who start learn English language in spanish speaking people environment. Because of this, they have more advantage than the children who learn the next language in
their motherlands. Krashen (1988) mentions that folks who expose their second terms during youth, they achieve higher spanish proficiency than those who beginning as adults. It seems that age is the main factor which effect on adults British pronunciation. They are really difficult for them to learn English language after puberty. Therefore, it is better to learning it in a nutshell run and really should be were only available in puberty.
According to Jack and Willy (2002) remarked that some people who have a good hearing, they be capable of discriminate between your two sounds accurately. So, learners' phonetics capacity affects the development of their pronunciation. Kenworthy(1987) believes that the influence of age is an efficient factor for phonetics ability. Since it is so hard for adult students to have significantly more capacity in pronunciation than immigrants children who start their learning process in another vocabulary speaking environment.
3-The Amount Vulnerability:
Many non indigenous speakers never have opportunity to practice the English words in their motherlands. British also do not only found in the classroom. In case the learners reside in an English- speaking country, the learners will have opportunities to listen and speak with native sound system of British. Conversely, there will no advantages for learners if indeed they are in a non British speaking country. Kenworthy (1987) insists that coverage can be considered a contributory factor but it isn't necessary factor for developing adult learners' pronunciation. Learners should employ it is opportunities, if they're aware of the need of being exposed to the second words. When the learners do that, they'll be more successful in case there is bettering their pronunciation.
5- Personality and Attitude
This factor impact the pronunciation of all Asian adult students in a terrible way if the learners have negative attitudes for the English environment. learners or they are simply introverted students. From my very own experience as students in the united kingdom, I am one of the students who are introverted or shy. Therefore, I do not take part in classroom activities; training seminars and lessons. Whereas extrovert students have more chance to improve their pronunciation. Brown (2001) states attitude of the students toward the new words have an effective role in pronunciation learning. Also, if the learners have a positive attitude for the prospective culture, they can develop their pronunciation accurately. If the learners involve some prejudices on the next language and its world, this event will effect their approach to the dialect.
It is clear that these above factors are effective in the learners' pronunciation and also exert much influence on the adult learners. So, teachers play a substantial role for helping adult learners to build up their British pronunciation. Also, they must pay attention to the students' matter for pronunciation because they are unaware of just how that they speech. Therefore there are lots of methods and types of coaching English pronunciation that assist Asian adult students to beat the difficulties of computer. They'll also help them to acquire an accurate pronunciation and enhance their speech.
Pennington (1996) preserves that jigsaw is a form of information space. Students work in pairs or small group to switch their information. They make an effort to incorporate words with each other to create phrases. These sentences consist of words that the learners have a problem to pronounce these words. For example, in the word "rise" which includes the characters "s" that they must pronounce it as "z" and producing /raIz/ e. g. I got surprised that the raisings go up!
This kind of activity helps adult Asian students to say difficult content so quickly. Celce-Murcia (1987:55) stress that "there's a little copy from practice to natural information. But, if it is needed and necessary, they could be used".
Example: Paul piper chosen a peck of pickled peppers.
There are tons of drills which helps adult Asian students to boost their British pronunciation. They are incredibly useful for instructing the correct pronunciation of the words and sentences.
A- Saturation drill
Wong (1987) proposed it is vey ideal for all position of the difficult sound. For example, the sound /s/ as a problem sound. It can be drilled in its three positions
See leasing peace
Seem medical center purse
Dalton (1994) says that drill can be applied by substituting any sound rather than other sound. For example, /t/ sound instead of // and /d/ in place of //( e. g. this is skinny/tin. )
It is clear that we now have different ways helps learners to conquer troubles of pronunciation. First, mass media which give to the students positive edge especially when they watch standard British news channel like BBC. Second, is practice. Students should practise British with native presenter or non local speakers of British to improve their English speaking
To summarize, instructing pronunciation is one of the key areas of spanish teaching. Most abroad students especially Asian adult students encounter troubles when they make an effort to communicate with native speakers of British. Then, communication should be the primary purpose of language learning and teaching. One essential part of effective communication for Asian adult students to grasp is: pleasantly intelligible pronunciation. They have got certain challenges such as produce appropriate sound and acknowledgement of English does sound, understanding of stress and intonation, difference between spelling and may seem and other problems. Therefore, it should be studied in the first age (from puberty) to remove these problems and to conquer the negative influence from the first terminology interference. Instructors must be considered a ware of the techniques that assist students enhance their pronunciation according to their age, capability, needs, attitudes and expectations.
Generally, pronunciation is absolutely complicated process in foreign language teaching. There are a few of sounds that have similar does sound but have different meanings. This can be causing much misunderstandings to the learners. Therefore, most ESL students have problem with English pronunciation when they speak English. From my very own experience as a instructor in Libyan supplementary school, I used several ways to instruct pronunciation which may be profit all learners. Firstly, presenting phonemes. because the largest problem that faces them is the distinguage between does sound. For instance, in what" extra fat, mat, cat, sat", the words /f/, /m/, /c/, /s/ are the phonemes which will be the beginning letters of these words. Phoneme makes the particular difference between similar words. From then on, students listen closely and repeat these different does sound and then identify them. To discover the best result, I create phoneme in pairs. (e. g. the /f/ and/v/ may seem). They pay attention and speak them and also repeat simple words like( fat-vat)Secondly, training phonemes to make the sound accurately. I drew pronunciation diagrams on the blackboard because they help them to learn how to hold the tongue and lip area. For example, the acoustics /th/ in #the phrase "this" and "thank".
Anxiety is usually common amongst students when they lean pronunciation. Then, I usually use some verbal games such as, handclap rhythms and jazz graphs which can help them to improve their speaking and reduce a lot of pressure.
Students listen to audio recordings and they practice what they listen to because recordings get them attuned to stress, intonation, pitch and phonological distinctions. For example:
Listen and say what term you listen to: could it be from column (a) or column (b)? Some words are abnormal.
Listen and make the stressed syllable.
Daughter- orbit-planet- computer- indicating- handle-homework- medical center - derision.
2-Read these sentences and mark the pauses with " / " and indicate the intonation design with " " and " "".
1- Individuals who look not the same as others in some way are interesting.
2- The main one who looks bored is my sister.
3- The latest design, with Compact disk player is very costly.
4-A tidy, conventionally furnished room with everything in its place is boring.