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Problems of creation industries

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1. 1. Track record of the problem

Today s developing industry is facing problems which have been growing in size and complexity over the last several years. Because of this, there can be an immediate dependence on steps or techniques in resolving various problems experienced in today s manufacturing arena without prolonged shutdown s or expensive alterations ( Clark, 1996). Materials managing equipment and the facilities it works can contribute to as much as 70 percent of the total cost of the produced product (Tompkins et al, 1996).

Facilities layout design is part of facilities planning (Tompkins et al, 1996). It's the arrangement of work area which, generally terms smoothes the way to access facilities that contain strong interactions. The primary concern with the plant center layout planning is to lessen the cost of materials controlling as poor materials controlling can generate business problems. To remain competitive nowadays a business must reduce costs by planning for the future

Material handling cost is a indirect costs and every company wants to reduce this indirect cost and it constitutes a major part of indirect costs in a service Therefore even small improvements in material managing costs makes a huge decrease in total indirect costs. The expense of material movement is a function of the distance the material is shifted between divisions called departments in a manufacturing facility. To reduce materials handling costs, it is essential to have an optimal design of departments to minimize the full total distance traveled

Tompkins (1982) projected that between 20% and 50% of operating expenses in making can be related to service planning and materials handling. Thus any cost keeping in this area can contribute to the overall efficiency of the creation system. Because of its wide selection of applicability, the center layout problem will still be the subject of research for many years to come. Graph theory and computerized software of center layout is a powerful tool which allows experimentation with various developing techniques and layout without actual execution.

Based on the aforementioned facts, it is apparent that layout optimization and improvement are two duties that are necessary to any facility planning and structure study.

1. 2 Affirmation of problem

JPM Cars ltd is an automobile component processing company situated in Gurgaon Haryana. The problem area for the reason that company is the departments aren't located to corresponding to making process; processes that have high interdependency aren't located close to each other. This cause distance travelled by the material is high in one department to some other department which direct result high material handling cost. Which have an impact on the overall efficiency of the company.

In respond to these problems, the need for facilities layout optimization is necessary. This dissertation proposes to use Systematic Structure Planning (SLP) as to improve the center layout of the business by graph theory and BLOCKPLAN software to improve the company performance. The business performance improvements are in terms of output increase, decrease in traveling cost and decrease in traveling distance.

1. 3 Objectives

The problem area in that company is of higher material handling, in-process inventory, poor interdependency of section and inflexibility etc. because of its improper layout. Based on the above fact the aims of the study are:

  • To conduct a detailed literature overview of the facility structure problems.
  • To analyze the existing layout of the business and do cost research of the existing layout.
  • To propose advancements in the existing layout by graph theory and BLOCKPLAN software.
  • To carry out cost examination of the prevailing and proposed designs.
  • Compare cost examination of the prevailing and proposed structure by graph theory and BLOCKPLAN software

1. 3 Concept of Facilities Planning and Herb Layout

A service planning is a sophisticated and broad subject matter that protects several disciplines. It includes civil, electrical, professional and mechanical engineers, as well as architects, consultants, managers and metropolitan planners. Facilities planning can be divided into two components: facilities location and facilities design. Facilities location is about keeping the center on a particular parcel with respect to customers, suppliers and other facilities. Facilities design includes the center systems design, the layout design and the handling systems design. The facility systems contain the structural systems, the environmental systems, the lighting/electrical systems and safeness systems. The layout consists of all equipment, equipment and furniture within the building structure. The handling system contains the mechanisms needed to satisfy the mandatory facility relationships for a manufacturing facility, the facilities structure, also called herb layout, involves the development areas, development related or support areas and employees areas within the building. Facilities' planning has become a critical component for companies to maintain with the existing market trends in the last few years. In the past facilities planning was mainly regarded as a science. In the current competitive global market place, facilities' planning has become a strategy, (Tompkins et al, 2003).

1. 4 Service Layout

In any flower, there are large numbers of finite geometric areas i. e. development, machine base area, space for inventory, design, development control and supervision are arranged on to the floor space of the building. The problem of organizing these areas in a powerful manner is the service layout problem

Francis et al (2006) define, service layout as a technique of locating machines, operations and seed services within the place, to be able to achieve the right volume and quality of product at the cheapest possible cost of processing.

The facility structure problem can be involved with an design of physical facilities, such as departments or machines, in certain areas to lessen a company's indirect costs. It's been predicted (Savsar 1991) that between 20 and 50% of the total operating expenditures within developing are attributed to materials handling, which is straight related to service layout. A terribly conceived layout can cause congestion and prohibitive material handling costs; and, on the other side, an effective structure can provide an environment for efficient production. Since indirect costs will be the largest portion of a company's total operating cost, the objective of a facilities design problem is to reduce both interdepartmental flows and the rearrangement costs of changing layouts between time periods. These costs are a function of the amount of material flow and the length the material is to be moved.

The main purpose of the center layout problem is to reduce overall cost, which is straight related to materials movement between departments. Generally materials move is represented by the merchandise of the quantity of material and the distance the materials is moved. The distance traveled is estimated using rectilinear distance between centroids of the departments. Constraints ensure departments do not overlap and departments are of proper size. Many computer algorithms have been developed for making designs, mainly for the design of departments within factories.

1. 5 Types of facilities layout

There are four types of flower layout from the idea of view of manufacturing

1. 5. 1 Product layout

Product layout is dependant on the processing series of part being produced at risk. Parts follow a fixed route through the creation resources. In product design, materials flow in one workstation to next adjacent workstation immediately. This sort of plant layout is useful when the production process is organized in a continuous manner.

Advantages of product layout

  1. Simple, smooth rational flow lines end result anticipated to fixes collection of operation.
  2. Small work in process inventories scheduled to work from one process is given directly into the next.
  3. Low cost of materials handling, credited to right and short option and lack of backtracking.
  4. Total creation time per unit is short.
  5. Since the machines are located so as to reduce distances between consecutive procedures, material handling is reduced.
  6. Little skill is usually required by operators at the development collection; hence, training is easy, short, and inexpensive.
  7. Simple creation planning control systems are possible.
  8. Less space is occupied by work in transit as well as for temporary storage

Disadvantages of product layout

  1. Whenever breakdown of one machine halts the entire line in the occurrence of enough manpower.
  2. Lack of process flexibility, because the layout depends upon the product, a big change in product design may require major alternations in the layout.
  3. Lack of flexibility in timing, as the product cannot flow through the line faster then your slowest job can be achieved unless that activity is conducted at several stations.
  4. Supervision is general, alternatively than special.
  5. Comparatively high investment is necessary, as equivalent machines (a few not fully utilized) are sometimes distributed along the line.
  6. Worker tiredness as workers may become bored by the countless repetition of simple duties.

Process layout

Process layout is also known as job shop structure where the layout for a process team is obtained by grouping of machines corresponding to operate of machine centers. Orders for individual products are routed through the various machine centers to obtain the required processing. This sort of plant layout is useful when the production process is prepared in batches. Machines are basic purpose, of their general function area, so that a wide selection of products can be taken care of.

Advantages of process layout

  1. A high degree of overall flexibility exists in accordance with equipment or manpower allocation for specific jobs.
  2. Smaller investment in equipment as duplication is not necessary unless volume level is large.
  3. The variety of duties offers a far more interesting and satisfying job for the operator.
  4. Supervisors for every single team become highly, knowledgeable about their functions.
  5. Better utilization of machines can bring about fewer machines used

Disadvantages of process layout

  1. Lack of process efficiency as again monitoring and long actions may occur in the handling of materials.
  2. Insufficient efficiency in timing as personnel must wait around between responsibilities.
  3. Problems of development planning and control
  4. Workers must have wide skills and must be paid higher wages than assemblage line employees.
  5. Comparatively large amounts of in process inventory as space and capital are tangled up by work in process.
  6. Lowered production as each job requires different setups and operator training.

Fixed position layout

Fixed position layout is normally associated with large, cumbersome product such as assembly of dispatch building, aircraft etc. In Permanent position structure workstation are taken to the material. Set position design is shown in fig. 1. 3

Advantages of fixed position layout

  1. Material movements is reduced, minimizes harm or cost of moving.
  2. Promotes job enlargement by allowing individuals or teams to perform the whole job.
  3. Continuity of businesses and responsibility results from team. This reduces the issues of re-planning and instructing people each time a new kind of activity is to begin.
  4. Highly adaptable; can support changes in product design, product combination, and product level.
  5. Freedom of development centers allowing scheduling to achieve least total creation time.

Disadvantages of set position layout

  1. Increased motion of employees and equipment may be expensive. The necessary mixture of skills may be difficult to acquire and high pay levels may be necessary.
  2. Equipment duplication might occur.
  3. Higher skill requirements for workers because they are involved in more procedures.
  4. General guidance required.
  5. Cumbersome and costly placement of material and machinery.
  6. Low equipment utilization as equipment may be still left at a spot where it'll be needed again in a few days rather than shifted to another location where it would be productive.

Product family layout / Cellular Layout

The layout for something family is based on the grouping of parts to form product family. Groupings are determined by the operations needed to perform help a set of similar items or part young families that require similar processing. A component family is a set of parts that require similar equipment, tooling, machine procedures and jig or fittings. The parts within the family normally go from raw material to finished parts within an individual cell.

Advantages of mobile Layout

  1. Low in process inventory
  2. Increase operator expertise
  3. Improved human relationships, job enlargement tend to occur.
  4. Supports the use of general purpose equipment
  5. Increased machine usage.

Disadvantages of cellular layout

  1. General supervision required.
  2. Higher skills level required of employees than for product design.
  3. Reduced shop flexibility
  4. Depends upon balanced material flow between product design and process design, in any other case buffers and work in process storage are essential.
  5. Lower machine usage than for process layout

1. 5 Structure Design Methods and Computer Packages

It is highly suitable that the ideal plant layout be designed. Regrettably, the magnitude of the situation is so excellent that true system marketing is beyond current capabilities. The approach normally used solving the seed structure problem is to try to find a satisfactory solution. Recently, facilities layout problems were solved generally by using iconic models. Then analytical methods were developed.

In general, flower layout problems can be solved by the following strategies:

  • Exact mathematical types of procedures.
  • Heuristics.
  • Optimal.
  • Graph theory.

A quantity of different types of procedures have been developed to aid the facilities planner in making layouts.

These strategies can be classified into two main categories: development type and improvement type. Structure type design methods basically entail developing a new layout from damage. Improvement procedures make layout alternatives predicated on an existing structure.

Based on the aforementioned two types of procedures, many algorithmic techniques have been developed. Some of them are Organized Layout Planning (SLP) process, graph-based development method, coding, network, Tabu search, simulated annealing and hereditary algorithm. Based on these techniques, many computer-aided layout routines have been developed. Some of them are CRAFT, COFAD, CORELAP, ALDEP, Globe, MULTIPLE, BLOCPLAN

1. 6 Methodology of dissertation

This dissertation is usually to be completed in 3rd and 4th semesters of my M. Technology duration of four semesters. The technique because of this dissertation is explained in Body 1. 1

The dissertation report is split into seven chapters as shown in figure 1. 3. The current chapter offers an intro of Facilities Planning and Flower Layout, Layout Design Methods and Computer Plans. In this chapter is also presenting Background of the trouble, Statement of problem, Objectives of the dissertation

Chapter 2 provides complete literature review which would be done throughout another semester.

This chapter includes the different type of facility structure problems and design design method and commercial software available for solution of center layout problems.

Chapter 3 introduces the details of Systematic Structure Planning (SLP) for generation of layout alternatives.

Chapter 4 addresses the company record. It covers the company profile, Organization framework of the company, products, esteemed customer and its own manufacturing process and its own policies.

Chapter 5 presents the case study in which existing layout is analyzed and new structure is suggested by GRAPH theory and BLOCKPLAN software and also offers a detailed cost evaluation of existing structure and proposed design.

Chapter 6 is made up of conclusion and future range.

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