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Principles of Development Management

Contents (Jump to)

1. Gulick' 7 Functions

2. Fayol

3. Management Theories

4. Challenges Handling People in Construction

5. Conclusion

6. Bibliography

Word Count number - 2070

1. Gulick' 7 Functions

In 1937, cultural researchers Luther Gulick and Lyndall Urwick (Paperwork on the Science of Supervision) describe seven "major activities and obligations of any higher expert or organisation". Since that time, the acronym POSDCORB has been used to spell it out the 7 functions of managers:

This essentially identifies the many steps or levels involved in an average administrative process. POSDCORB means:

  1. Planning: This essentially refers to establishing a broad outline of the work to be completed and the types of procedures required to put into practice them.
  2. Organising: Organising involves establishing a structure of authority, formally classifying, determining and synchronising the various sub-processes or subdivisions of the work to be achieved.
  3. Staffing: This involves recruiting and choosing the right candidates for the work and facilitating their orientation and training whilst keeping quality in their work and their environment.
  4. Directing: This comprises of continual decision making and delegating organized instructions and orders to implement them.
  5. Coordinating: This quite simply refers to planning and piecing mutually the various components of the task.
  6. Reporting: Reporting will involve regularly updating knowledge about the progress or the work related activities. The information dissemination can be through information or inspection.
  7. Budgeting: Budgeting involves all the activities that are categorized as Auditing, Accounting, and Control.

POSDCORB generally matches into the Classical Management movement, being classified as an factor of medical management. Gulick's POSDCORB principles were instrumental in highlighting the idea of span of control, or limits on the quantity of individuals one manager could supervise, as well as unity of order to the areas of management and open public administration.

For Luther Gulick, the central problem of administration was determining how to attain the coordination and control essential to accomplish organisational goals.

His solution was to establish a strong leader to counter the divisive aspects of increasing specialisation and section of labour.

2. Fayol

Gulick and Urwick built their ideas on the sooner 14 Key points of Management by Henri Fayol in his book Basic and Industrial Management (1918). Fayol described theory as "a collection of principles, rules, methods, and methods tried and inspected by standard experience" (Fayol 1918)

Fayols 14 Principles

  1. Division of Work
  2. Authority and Responsibility
  3. Discipline
  4. Unity of Command
  5. Unity of Direction
  6. Subordination of Individual Interest to General Interest
  7. Remuneration of Personnel
  8. Centralisation
  9. Scalar String (type of power with peer level communication)
  10. Order
  11. Equity
  12. Stability of Tenure of Personnel
  13. Initiative
  14. Esprit de Corps

Fayol's affect on Gulick is evident in the 5 components of management reviewed in his book. Fayol clearly assumed personal work and team dynamics were part of the "ideal" company.

  • Planning - examining the future and pulling up plan which areas of action
  • Organising - building up the structure (labour and materials) of the undertaking
  • Command- maintaining activity on the list of personnel
  • Co-ordination - unifying and harmonising activities and initiatives.
  • Control - experiencing everything that occurs conforms with procedures and procedures.

Fayol's five concept tasks (Plan, Organise, Command, Co-ordinate, and Control) of management are still actively applied today.

The idea of giving power with responsibility is also extensively commented on and is well utilized, though his rules of "unity of command" and "unity of path" are not honored in the composition of choice in many of today's companies.

3. 0 Management Theories

There are a number of important management theories which basically classified are as follows:

The Scientific Management School including the works of Frederick W. Taylor and Lillian Gilbreth's movement study,

The Classical Organisational Theory Institution including the works of Henri Fayol's views on administration, and Max Weber's idealised bureaucracy,

The Behavioural Institution with the work of Elton Mayo and his associates.

Management is the procedure of planning and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working jointly in groups, successfully accomplish selected aims (Koontz and Weihrich 1990, p. 4).

Theories offer an understanding of everything we encounter. A theory provides standards for what is relevant. Theories permit us to talk effectively and develop more and more complex human relationships with other people. Theories be able to keep studying our occupations with constant development.

Management Theories

Since the past due 1800's management ideas and scientific techniques have been made by a number of people such as Henri Fayol, Fredrick Taylor, Elton Mayo, Henry Gantt and Frank and Lillian Gilbreth. These people introduced the traditional and scientific strategies and over the years developed these guidelines through their working jobs. These styles have transformed, merged and stayed the same depending of the person employing their ideas and the sort of company they benefit.

The traditional classical approach started around the beginning of the 19th century and mainly focused on efficiency together with bureaucratic, technological and administrative varieties of management. The bureaucratic style of management will rely heavily on the structure of rules such as guidelines and procedures. While the scientific approach to management mainly targets "the best way to execute a job" and the administrative style really emphasises the stream of information in the procedure of the company.

Later towards the end of the 20th century the empowerment style was developed and consequently helped supply the employee a feeling of responsibility. This was done by offloading a few of managements work onto the shop floor and convert gave the employee a sense achievement and direction at the job.

Modern Ideas of Management, Individuals Relations

Douglas McGregor (1906-1964): Who's best known for his formulation of two pieces of assumptions- Theory X and Theory Y. McGregor argued that managers should switch their traditional views of man and work (which he termed Theory X) to a new humane views of man and work (which he termed Theory Y).

According to McGregor, A theory X attitudes man was sluggish and work was bad were both pessimistic and counterproductive. Theory X assumes that folks have little ambition, dislike work, want to avoid responsibility, and need to be closely supervised to work effectively.

Theory Y, suggested that man wished to work and work was good. Theory Y offers a positive view, assuming that folks can exercise self-discipline, accept responsibility and consider work to be as natural as rest and play. McGregor presumed that Theory Y encompassed the true nature of workers and really should guide management practice.

Fig 1. Douglas McGregor Theory X and Y.

Scientific management -

This type of management was presented by Frederick Taylor and targets the worker and machine marriage and because of this of this strategy helps increase productivity by increasing the efficiency of the creation processes and consequently of his research, Ford Motor Co. embraced this form of management. This type is also designed so that every member of staff has a given, well controlled job that may be performed as instructed.

Time and action -

Frank and Lillian Gilbreth developed this technique by concentrating on identifying the individual motions of an activity. These movements were combined to form both the ways of each operation and enough time it took to carry out each process. They assumed it was possible to design and time the technique of each activity in advance, somewhat than relying upon observation of trial and error.

Administrative Management -

Henry Gantt developed the Gantt chart, which is employed for scheduling overlapping duties over a period. Gantt graphs have since become a common way of representing the phases and activities of an operating project and breakdown the structure to allow them to be recognized by all.

Gantt's management strategy centered on motivational schemes and therefore emphasised heavily on rewarding staff for good are opposed to disciplining them over poor work. He also viewed the quality of management skills in building effective industrial organisations.

Motivation -

Abraham Maslow developed the individuals relations and behavior theory in the 1950/60s by distinguishing between what motivates visitors to do certain activities. His theory advised that people had to satisfy one level of need before moving onto the next and this in turn resulted in what finally motivates people / personnel. That is shown in the pyramid illustration as shown below.

Fig 2. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Empowerment -

This style of management is today's theory and was developed in the early 90's and in essence gives the worker a feeling of power at the job. This is carried out by the staff being authorised by their more advanced than perform certain duties without the need to seek acceptance from above. This type gives the staff a sense of responsibility and success while helping to reduce the workload of these boss and subsequently cuts down the amount of work the director has to do as they have delegated certain duties.

4. Challenges Handling People in Construction

As highlighted in various government and academic studies (Latham, 1994; Egan, 1998, Fairclough, 2002), the building industry is a sector of the economy which encounters many issues, especially in conditions of performance.

There a wide range of problems facing a engineering manager. Many troubles are due to construction operations, while some are a result of indirect activities. Several challenges aren't construction related issues but must be attended to and handled by the building manager. These issues include labor force/labour considerations, safeness, time, and the changing dynamics of development work.

The engineering industry generally is a labour intense industry and the role of structure manager is to manage people in a strategic and tactical way. One way of managing people would be a classical theory on real human behaviour / relationships such as Elton Mayo's on drive, as a group working dynamics will will have a direct effect on the jobs performance.

The term group working dynamics identifies the attitudes, energy and conversation of its group's associates and market leaders. The groups working dynamics will always be dependent on the entire efficiency and efficiency of the project depending on the coordinated efforts of personnel working along as a team.

Human tool is the most effective asset in construction industry. Human source practices are usually concerned with getting value through increased skills, production, contribution, and cost awareness and productivity will be the important factors influencing the overall success of any engineering project.

Human resource management is the process of finding out what people want from other work, what an organization wishes from its employees, and then matching these two pieces of needs.

Construction projects rely upon the knowledge and skills of planning and performing the work. The quality of this most important reference: people, which is exactly what differentiates one team or company from another. Having talented management on board to guide and lead a job is paramount. Having the right balance of skilled and unskilled employees to perform the task is a basic necessity. Finding and recruiting sufficient amounts of skilled, proficient people is becoming increasing difficult. You can find multiple reasons this is issues. One of which is building is generally seen as being one of minimal desirable industries in which to work. Naturally development is dangerous, filthy, hard work. Other industries out there offer preferred work surroundings that are cleaner, safer, and generally more attractive. Consequently, there's a severe lack of proficient people inclined to work in engineering.

In order to maximise long term performance, it's important to provide the training necessary to enlighten your workforce.

Leadership must be developed on the list of workforce to aid in effectively coordinating work activities by providing communication links between management and labour. This provides the ability for upward flexibility and gives encouraged people the opportunity to advance professionally. Empowerment causes high levels of commitment, excitement, self-motivation, productivity, and innovation. Benefits of this include emotions of appreciation, owed, and heightened self-worth.

Empowerment allows employees to make decisions for which they are accountable and in charge.

Empowerment of workforce is one of the secrets to improving structure performance.

5. Final result -

The management theories that contain been talked about, important because they are, need to be translated in practice by construction professionals, For practicality, all building managers must develop three collections of skills, namely; conceptual, complex, and real human ( Fleet and Perterson 1994, p. 25). A good construction manager should also have the ability to see members of the company as humans who've needs and mental feelings and thoughts.

The development of management theory requires the introduction of concepts, concepts, and techniques. There are plenty of ideas about management, and each one advertising to our knowledge of what managers should do. Each one has its characteristics and advantages as well as constraints. The functional, or management process combines each and systematically combines them.

The varieties of management suitable to structure are a mixture of all referred to above whilst aiming to motivate personnel using both the autocratic and democratic approaches because of the have to be one kind of employer with one worker and another with someone else. That is extremely prevalent when coping with health and basic safety where and autocratic authoritative style is a prerequisite to the success of lowering the risk of accidents on site. Therefore a director who makes definitive makes an attempt to convert theory into practice is more likely to increase efficiency than a administrator who chooses to work with the learning from your errors method of management.

6. Bibliography

Egan, J (1998) Rethinking development: statement of the engineering task make on the opportunity for improving the quality and efficiency of UK structure, DETR, London.

Fairclough, J. , (2002), Rethinking structure development and research: An assessment of federal R&D insurance policies and practices, Team of Trade and Industry, London

Fayol, H. (1949). Standard and Industrial Management. (C. Storrs, Trans. ). London: Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, LTD. (Original work printed 1918)

Fryer, B. (2004) The Practice of Engineering Management, 4th Ed, Oxford: Blackwell Posting Ltd.

Gulick, L. H. (1936). Notes on the Theory of Firm. L. Gulick & L. Urwick (Eds. ), Paperwork on the Technology of Administration.

Koontz Harold and Weihrich Heinz (1990) Essentials of Management, Fifth Edition, McGraw-Hill.

Latham, M. , (1994), Constructing the team, HMSO, London

Oxley, R. And Poskitt, J. (2007) Management Techniques Applied to the Building Industry, 5th Ed, Oxford: Blackwell Posting Ltd.

Winch, G. M. (2008). Taking care of Construction Projects, Oxford: Blackwell Posting Ltd.

Websites

Figure 1 extracted from - Beta Codex Network (2008) JUST HOW People Are [Online] available from http://www. betacodex. org/de/node/508 [Accessed Feb 2014]

Figure 2 extracted from - Maslow's hierarchy of needs [Online] available from [http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Maslow's_hierarchy_of_needs [Accessed Feb 2014]

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