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Primary and supplementary research

This chapter will be checking out the many types of research strategies you can use for both principal and supplementary research, considering the strategy and procedure that best suites the acquisition of information and analsis of data highly relevant to the subject subject.

This statement is aimed at exploring the value of stakeholder management as an effective tool in the wealthy oil and gas Niger-Delta region of Nigeria, drawing from former and present research on its relevance to the disputing region.

Research is the organized collection, interpretation and clear classification of data (Suanders et al, 2007). Research strategy can be split into quantitative and qualitative research strategies (Bryman, 2008). In the context of the article research strategy represents the means through which research can be carried out.

Quantitative strategy: This signifies a deductive procedure strategy used to check theories from an objective point of view, quantifying collected data, measurements and analysis.

Qualitative strategy: This symbolizes an inductive strategy strategy that mainly utilizes a subjective orientation in the formulation of theories and arguments.

Table 1. 0 provides detailed distinction between quantitative and qualitative research strategies whatsoever phases of a research life circuit.


This presents a cultural research strategy that examines solitary or collective social phenomena. Review is a way of data collection whereby information and data are collected through asking relevant questions in the form of organised interviews and the use of well organized questionnaires (questions and answers written documentation) (Sarantakos 1993). This method is aimed at studying relationships between variables. The questioning in this approach can take the form of in person interviews, mail questionnaires, self-administered questionnaires, electronic questionnaires ( using the internet as a marketing), telephone interviews etc. In executing surveys a great deal of questions orally or in writing are focused on the average person or organizations that constitute the thing of the study. For example, in a study research on the conditions of international students learning in the Robert Gordon School, it is the students that will be asked the questions since they are the people that will have in-depth knowledge on the subject matter.

As a result of the structured character of questionnaires and interviews in quantitative research, it gets the deficiency of having a lack of penetration and depth in to the individuals or organizations being asked the questions. For instance,

The response to the united kingdom increase on income taxation

(Please circle the correct number)

Very sufficient 5 4 3 2 1 Very unsatisfactory

From the aforementioned example the organised questionnaire already has a set of organized answers that will inevitably limit the answers of the individual or groups seeking the questionnaires, there by eliminating more info into why the decided on answer was chosen.

Official statistics

The adjective 'information' goes back to 1589 launched by the Italian scholar Gerolamo Ghilini (Corbetta, 2003). Formal statistics unlike studies that are concerned with a unit of analysis represents a quantitative explanation of large amounts of data produced by geographic locations such as, places, societies, countries etc undertaken by officials, governments or academia of parts to enhance the overall knowledge of the area that they govern. Examples of official statistics include the following; populace census, residence statistics, birth statistics, marriage, divorce information etc. It is a method that handles the quantitative description of the primary features of a land.

The gatherings of this data are mainly done by public agencies due to their direct hyperlink with everyone. For instance on approval of the visa to the uk all non-immigrants will be registered with the united kingdom border agency, these details when effectively gathered can serve as valuable data 'standard statistics' in measuring the quantity of non-immigrant students within the united kingdom. The benefit of this technique is that it eliminates the expense of data collection since data can be sourced from administrative files. The disadvantage is that standard data are gathered for specific purposes consequently, may be insufficient in disclosing other social happening in mind.


The scaling approach was first applied in the 1930's (Corbetta, 2003), scaling in a interpersonal research signifies the 'measurement' of information, humans, group and (or) a culture. In communal sciences the scaling of ideas are relatively difficult due to the high level of subjectivity in just a communal system, such as; measuring depression, optimism, religious devotion, social issue etc. In order words 'scaling' is a systematic structure that utilises a couple of coherent indications to measure standard concepts. For instance scaling can be utilized in the way of measuring of frame of mind, in using the scaling strategy it could be said that frame of mind is the general principle and the thoughts of people in the test test are its indications.


'Sample' represents a part of a whole. 'Sampling' is a research technique that involves the analysis of the 'part' to get information about the 'entire' or 'complete body' of something, some of the terms found in sampling include;

Sample structure: This involves a detailed set of all the the different parts of the complete body or system the sample will be taken from.

Representative Test: In the selection of an integral part of the entire body the researcher must ensure that the particular sample must be considered a true representation of the primary body. In order, words representative sample is a sample that will effectively mirror the entire body that has been considered, for example in taking the opinion of 5000 students on a particular subject, it is likely that scheduled to money and certain constraints it will not be financially practical appointment all 5000 students, as a result a representative test in this case will be considering an amount from the 5000 that will be considered a representation of the possible views of the entire 5000.

Sample bias: That is a misrepresentation in the representative test that can occur when components of a sample body are not contained in the sample.

Sample mistake: These are errors that can occur when the conclusions of the representative sample is not really a true representation of the key body.

In the selection of an example a probabilistic or non-probabilistic procedure can be studied (Bryman, 2008).

Probabilistic methodology: This is the random selection of all the the different parts of a sample from the key body. That is a widely used system in communal research to be able to ensure that the conclusions of the selected components are a genuine reflection (representative test) of the primary body. A good example of this would be tests for sodium in a baking container of soup.

Non-probabilistic way: That is a sample not collected arbitrarily, in this approach there's a high inclination that more the different parts of the test will be collected from some areas when compared to the areas.


This represents the various techniques that are commonly used in doing a qualitative research;

Ethnography and Participant observation

Qualitative interview

Ethnography and Participant observation

This is a method that has been in existence for centuries used primarily to comprehend cultures, groupings and countries. Ethnography is the study of cultures, while participative observation is a qualitative research that utilizes a similar methodology in the collection and analysis of data. It entails intense contact between your subject matter who studies and subject matter being studied. In both techniques the researcher is immediately involved by being immersed in the group under scrutiny for a specific time frame (usually a long length of time). The researcher participates by requesting questions, watching behaviours and hearing what's said in the conversations (Corbetta 2003, Bryman 2008).

It involves a wide range of data collection to support findings and an in depth knowledge of the observed group to be able to describe their actions and motivations. To be able words the researcher recognizes the globe from the sight of the themes. A major task of this approach is accessing a social setting and group that is of relevance to the research topic.

Some limitations of this approach include;

high degree of subjectivity: From the definition it is no question that studies of the research is solely at the mercy of the emotions, environment and thoughts of the researcher since there aren't any objective methods to measure interaction between the researcher and the discovered group. For instance, a researcher from a culture were women are not imagine to wear trousers is to execute a participative observation founded research in another culture were women wear trousers, in his thoughts and opinions predicated on his cultural back ground he could produce the conclusions that the ladies in that region are irresponsible while in the true sense they might be more responsible than those in his region.

Non-generalisation: Ethnography and participative research are centered on particular groups, cultures and areas, hence the conclusions unlike quantitative techniques cannot be generalised to other regions

Non-Standardisation: Because of the specific nature of the research to a specific subject matter, the operations and method of carrying out the study is at the mercy of the researcher involved, quite simply there's no standardised framework that depicts how ethnography and participative observation should be carried out.

Ethnography and Participative observation like tasks' are unique activities with obviously defined start and end dates associated with particular case studies or incidents. These techniques over years has facilitated the change of the world into a worldwide village (Bryman 2008) by giving knowledge on ethnical beliefs of regions and countries, rendering it simpler to factor the knowledge into tasks, business strategy etc. The good thing about these techniques is that in actively participating in the principal research, it gives the researcher an in-depth knowledge on all the factors that can, will and are affecting the subjects in mind, offering something that is invaluable to the cultural research community, "experience".

Qualitative interviews

Qualitative interviews are a non-structured approach to interviewing individuals and categories on particular subject matter. Interviews when compared to ethnography and participative observation that entails very long periods of observation are definitely more flexible, requiring a lesser duration of connection with the topics. Unlike the set up approach used in quantitative research were answers could be defined like "true or wrong" for the interviewee to pick from, in this process the interviewer offers an open field for the interviewee to express their thoughts on the asked questions. Qualitative interviews can be sub-divided into unstructured and semi-structured interviews.

Unstructured interviews: That is more of saved or documented conversations between the interviewer and interviewee, with the interviewer asking questions and allowing the interviewee freedom to answer easily.

Semi-structured interviews: This are interviews were the interviewer has a list of topics or portions to be covered by the questions that will be asked, still allowing the interviewee freedom expressing their perspective. Interview of concentrate groups typically are categorized as this category


From the break down of quantitative and qualitative research although there are variations between them, they have a great deal of similarities to the other person (Bryman 2008, pp. 394) they include;

They are both fundamentally concerned with providing answers or answers to questions and problems related to sociable reality.

The studies of both research techniques emphasise links with already established literature on the study matter i. e. before a researcher proceeds to the accounts findings or arguments, the experts using quantitative and qualitative techniques will review previous literature and theories which have been written about them matter.

Both techniques acquire huge amounts of data to see the validity of the results also to effectively present these details in a concise or easily recognized doc, will converge all gathered data into results and deductions.

They are both worried about exploring versions within something i. e. both techniques are keen on uncovering versions and exploring the causes of identified variations.

Quantitative and qualitative research emphasis transparency in the procedure used to acquire data, analysis it and the way the findings were came at

The research subject matter was inspired by the void discovered working in the coal and oil industry in the Niger-delta. With brain storming technique used to sharpen ideas into a subject with specific, measurable, achievable, genuine and time-bound targets.

This statement is primarily utilises a qualitative approach in the collection, formulation and research of data

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