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Power ,politics and conflict

POWER POLITICS AND CONFLICTS : CONTROVERSIAL OR OVERHYPED?

The words ability, politics and discord are enough to arouse questionable topics into dialogue. There's a expressing that "No knowledge is immune system to the problem of politics and corruption of power"(Jacob Bronowski, n. d). Conflicts will be the rivalries or the internal competitions within an organization.

Power and politics are the two factors of the same coin and one cannot exist with no other. Vitality concerns the capability of an individual to exert their electric power over others whereas politics are the techniques used to influence others unknowingly(Rollinson, 2008). Since both politics and vitality are concerned with forcibly taking ability conflicts are bound to develop.

So what are then the implications of electricity, politics and issues ?You can find four highly significant implications distributed by Rollinson;2008, the following: Firstly ability exists in all the organizations, so rather than trying to eradicate electricity or try finding alternatives for it people should figure out how to allow it. Secondly electric power is not always obvious. Because electric power is very appealing people tend to be fascinated towards it and folks at higher articles generally managers tend to exploit their position within an organization. Thirdly, politics tactics always require a risk. He/she should be cautious enough that people do not come to know their vested hobbies. Lastly issues in most organizations are unavoidable. In most of the conditions though issues are self stimulating and can increase like parasitic expansion.

POWER

It is an acknowledged fact that power is out there everywhere. The annals of corporation will be incomplete without the reference to power. Vitality can be identified in many ways. The thing everybody knows about power is that power is an attribute and can be defined in the following way "Power is the power of an person or group to impact over others to acquire their desires satisfied and never have to compromise to them"(Tawney cited in Rollinson, 2008). Rollinson, 2008:p mentioned that we now have many implications to force ie vitality cannot exist in isolation, and must exist between two different people or a group. Vitality needs an reason to can be found. Power is entirely situational and benefits people who take the benefit of power at the right time. Many feel they do not possess power but when they look strongly power does exist with them in a single form or other. For a long period authors have tried to use electric power and authority in the same framework nevertheless they were highly mistaken. There is a big difference between vitality and authority. Electricity is a separate entity in itself whereas expert is a kind of power. Authority can be employed by visitors to exercise power in some situations but can be challenged if it exceeds its limits. Ability can't ever be challenged. Authority is the most visible forms of electricity in an group.

BASES OF POWER

Power typically has two bases social base and a contextual foundation. In the interpersonal level vitality can be exercised professionally by one person over others. Social ability can be categorised into five types praise power, coercive ability, legitimate vitality, referent vitality and finally expert ability. The referent ability and expert power fall under the sub-topic of the non-public origins whereas the first three fall under the sub-topic of organisational electricity. Contextual electricity on the other hand is of seven types organisational culture, knowledge and information, external environment, resources, networks, organisational structure, and lastly decision making(Rollinson, 2008;p). As stated above we all believe that ability has two bases. However the fact differs as the difference between your two bases does not really exist and is on the superficial level(rollinson, 2008;p). In true to life both are equally used and are strongly connected. Vitality can be a highly misunderstood topic and will remain incomplete with no inclusions of a few of its misconceptions.

MISCONCEPTIONS OF POWER

One of the major misunderstanding of power is the fact that power can only just exist with people who have an increased position within an organization. It really is a true to a certain degree but not necessarily on a regular basis. Electricity can be and it is misused by people in the downward level mainly managers and their subordinates. There are many cases in the social base of vitality where ability is misused by them. For example expert power will often make a manager dependant on his/her subordinates whose assistance is vital. The next misconception is that electricity is a visible attribute. Power is visible but the invisible vitality has more vitality and is more potent(Rolinson, 2008). Look at a case study where ability is highly misused due to put and decisions getting manipulated by that.

CASE STUDY

This article represents about the dark area of possession and problem that comes combined with the high position(Osborne, 1994:24). In this specific article the author targets power and exactly how it can be misused by people regarding with their positional value. That is a case about a regional electro-mechanical contracting company that was running successfully for 25 years and was founded by two business associates. The writer mentions the way the companys circumstance changes when one of the business enterprise partner's boy joins the company. The son preferably spends the original a few months training and observing all the personnel. He also patiently listens to all or any his subordinates. But the instant he gets holds of the fifty percent partnership with his father he decides to increase his keep over the company. This is turned out by the actual fact that three out of five key holder resign within 18 months of his reign. The business suffers a great deal of loses and lastly is on the verge of individual bankruptcy. This article is a perfect example of misuse of legitimate power. This information proves that electricity can be highly misused at any positions. Electricity has been referred to as the available pressure or potential for achieving desired effects.

POLITICS

"Real politics is the possession and circulation of ability". (Benjamin Disraeli, n. d). Politics is the utilization of power to influence decisions in order to achieve those benefits (Pfeffer, 1981 cited in Rollinson, 2008). As stated earlier power and politics are two factors of same gold coin poilitics like electric power cannot be measured. Politics is one of the invisible attributes of electricity. It exists atlanta divorce attorneys organization, a lot of the managers have a poor view towards politics(Daft, 2007). The normal misconception is the fact like power, politics too are completed by top-level officers of an organization. Politics is not necessarily an open do for problems but, some issues can also be resolved with the aid of politics. Politics is the procedure of bargaining and negotiating that is used to overcome issues and distinctions of judgment(). Within an corporation oraganizational politics can be found and can thought as politics that are used to achieve ability and results as desired(). The most typical question is weather poilitics is logical or political?We are able to diffrentaite between rational style of politics and politics model the following:

RATIONAL VS THE POLITICAL MODEL

Joseph and Pfeffer (1989:108-8, 1981:31) describe that: According to the rationalist model the goals of a business are coherent. In the political model goals can get distorted as authority is given most importance over success. Within this model individual hobbies tend to be more important. Why don't we look at the table below which points out the rational model and the politics model at length.

The sober strategy of the rational model led many to challenge it. Many examples led to the advertising of the politics model. Now we know for sure political behaviour exists atlanta divorce attorneys organization.

POLITICAL CATEGORIES

So what are the factors leading to political behaviour and why does it are present in an firm?(Chanlat, 1997 cited in Daft, 2007) distinguished political behaviour in three categories. Specifically personal, decisional, structural characteristics. While recruiting individuals for a firm jobs, the recruiters always look at the individual qualities and his love related to the utilization of power and political behaviour. Thus the selection process itself offers rise to politics behaviour. The Personal charcacteristics are of two types. One important kind of personal attribute is Machiavellianism. This is actually the ability of men and women to engage in political behavior and make use of electric power. Machiavelli was a sixteenth hundred years Florentine philosopher. He developed a set of guidelines for rulers to secure and maintain governmental electricity. He advised that the most simplest method of obtaining vitality is by manipulating others. His supporters mainly liked to control people, would say what others wanted to hear. In addition they assumed that it was wrong to trust someone completely in an organization. He presumed in the fact of hiding the facts until compelled to show you.

The second feature of political behavior are decisional characteristics. You will find of two types structured and unstructured. Structured can be solved using decision rules. Unstructured more common cannot be solved using decision rules. Political behaviour is most likely to occur in the unstructured decisions. The unstructured decision will not follow any rules and therefore all the rules utilized by the mangers are self made. The managers make sure that they use every tactic properly by carefully deflecting the amount of resistance of others, winning individuals support etc. The third attribute is the structured characteristics. In organizations we see that the work assigned is different to everyone. That's where the term differentiation comes into the picture. This brings about the differences of goals between a business it also causes the difference of information obtained by each department. In this folks in the organization may agree towards attaining the same goal but dissimilarities may appear in their ways to tackle those goals. The combined effect of each one of these factors causes the advancements of conflicts within an organization. Political behaviour thus is inevitable in structured feature.

POLITICAL TACTICS TO WORK WITH POWER

To utilize political tactics to get electricity can have many ways, one political tactic you can use is to assign faithful people at top positions. This is used so the top level executive does not lose his position. A top level exexcutive should always hire people who consider his views. Political electricity can reduce someone explicitly boasts it. Political ability is most beneficial to be unseen.

CONFLICT

The word issue can evoke a general idea about its so this means. Conflict can exist everywhere, whether it be interpersonal relationships, in organisations whether it is in interpersonal romantic relationships, in organizations between two countries etc. Our major focus here is to review conflicts in organization. Just how do we determine discord? "Conflict is the behaviour of an individual or group that purposely pieces out to prevent or inhibit another group (or individual) from achieving its goals. "(Rollinson, 414). Turmoil and competition go hand in hand. To obtain competition with someone is when both will work into the same goal and also to have conflicts is when one purposely blocks the other from obtaining that goal.

STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESS OF CONFLICTS

Like almost every other attribute issue has its pros and cons. As mentioned early conflict exists almost everywhere, so conflict can't be avoided and needs to be managed or solved.

WEAKNESS OF CONFLICTS

People generally stay away from turmoil as they see discord as something unsafe in an business. Turmoil can lower morale and constrict communication. Low morale contributes to poor performance and directly impacts companies business. Discord can restrict the information flow between people of an organization. (Milcovich, 2005).

STRENGTHS OF CONFLICTS

Conflict can be a boon for many organizations if it is taken in the right manner. Discord can form managerial skills and knowledge. Good conflict helps people to grow and solve problems more effectively. Good conflict can also activate creativeness and problem handling. (Bacal, 2004).

TYPES OF CONFLICT

There are four major types structures of reference on conflict. They can be labelled as unitarist, pluralist, radical and interactionis. (Fox, 1996;1973). The unitarist the theory behind this framework of research is that each company isnpeaceful and the occurrence of turmoil can distort the organizational goals. The pluralist framework of reference views the organization as a assortment of groups and so the occurrence of discord is known as to be normal. The interactionist structure of guide considers conflict to be performance booster for an organization. Finally the radical body of guide views turmoil to be inevitable results of capitalism. (Fox, 1996;1973).

EFFECTS

Conflicts can have undesireable effects on a business. It can lead to unsafe working atmosphere in the organization. The organization may go through business losses because of its co-workers being over a strike. We can consider a good example of Preston Mill employees hit (Literary Encyclopedia ;printed 25 Jan 2008)

It is a Lancashire egyptian cotton mill, where many individuals were provided employement. In the year 1847 an enormous financial meltdown was observed. This crisis influenced the salary of all workers and there is a 10% pay cut. The owners of the company promised restoration of the salary after the condition upgraded. As years passed there is no sign of the staff restoration of salary. The personnel went on a attack and conflict took place between the personnel and owners in 1853. Mills were shut this led to the loss of jobs for about 20000 staff. This conflict went on for per annum was finally been able after the staff decided to satisfy the workers needs. So in cases like this the turmoil was managed and may not be resolved.

CONFLICTS: SOLUTION OR END OF PATH

Conflicts can be maintained or resolved. You will find two types of solutions to conflicts is when conflicts can be fixed and second when issues can be monitored. ()If we consider an example of School which itself can be an business we see conflicts between the students and staff members. We also notice internal conflicts between students and workers among themselves. Let us consider a scenario where the students are requesting expansion in their task deadlines if the individual professor does not oblige there will be a conflict between your students and the professor. A simple solution because of this problem is that the professor extends the deadline and the matter is resolved but in case he/she doesn't then your conflict cannot be managed. There are cases where conflicts can't be resolved but can be been able. If we take up a large organization internal issues are bound that occurs between the people of the organization for just about any reason whether it is someones know-how or knowledge, position etc. In cases like this conflicts can't be settled as this is a inner matter and everything do not know about any of it so in this case conflicts need to be monitored as all know they need to work together as neither want to lose their jobs because of the conflicts.

GENDER THEORIES

BATTLE FROM THE SEXES:THING OF Former OR PRESENT ?

The battle between women and men in an company have been existing for ages now. Right now when so many women are referred to as working women they remain reported to be working in a "mans world". There have been issues between your two sexes regarding pay, their position etc. Although technology and globalization is increasing there is no sign of changes in behavior towards ladies in organizations. Recent studies show that even though women are successful and growing in their respective career it cannot be in comparison to their man counterparts. (Boyle and Barr, 2001;Elston, 1993; Evetts, 1996;Gjerberg 2001;Greed, 2000;Riska 2001;Williams 1999). Besides the changes in organizational framework, the inner working of an organization has still continued to be traditional and displays traditional hierarchy(Kuhlman, 2003). We can take notice of the difference between the two sexes more obviously by the exemplory case of the glass ceiling effect.

THE GLASS CIELING EFFECT

The term "glass ceiling" was first used to refer to the invisible barriers that women came across in their job progression. (Hymowitz and Shellhardt, 1986).

EFFECTS

The women always got less pay when compared with males. There existed a huge difference between your positions, job game titles in women and men. Despite having more experience, skills and skills women were given inferior jobs. AMERICA census bureau statistics showed that each women makes about 75. 3 cents to 1$ per guy. Studies uncovered that customers preferred male customers rather than feminine (Heckman, 2009). Further shocking studies discovered that feminine customers too preferred male customers. This led to the organizations to be more stereotyped. The options of females getting offers were remote. Women were only restricted to a specific field with their group. Womens skills were often viewed as luck somewhat than giving them credit for his or her skills. (Lyness and Thompson, 1997). To prove the theory of the goblet ceiling effect let us consider a research study which shows the lifetime of gender pay difference in producing countries (Jamali, Sidani and Kobeissi, 2008).

CASE STUDIES

Women have made significant impact in organizations in conditions of labour management, educational qualification, competence in their own domains etc. But we observe that the graph of womens successes aren't levelled against their occupation conditions. Women do not obtain fair and equal pay. This theory proves that glass roof effect still exists. The main reason for this article is to examine the difference in salary between your two counterparts. The main problem area is the fact that unfair treatment is directed at females in organizations, they are given less income. Females also do not obtain proper benefits. Females get less promotions. It is seen that when a male and feminine joins a particular company they get identical pay but as the seniority increases the pay value decreases for females even though both have the same seniority.

SOLUTION

To solve this never ending concern organizations should create recognition about this issue. The first step towards this to avoid prejudice against female workers. Customers of an organization should get training to resolve this matter. Strignent laws should be made against organizations inducting in unfair treatment toward females. The effect for this will be a fair and a just working atmosphere for working women.

CONCLUSION

To summarize the aforementioned explaination we can observe that the primary of an organization is produced by the help of organizational power, politics and issues. These can help the business in ways or ruin it in another way. Even as say you can run but you cant conceal the same can be said about organizational politics, power and issues that you can avoid it but cannot disregard it, it prevails in an organization in one way or another.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • Andrzej Huczynski and David Buchanan (2001) Organizational Behavior: An introductory words.
  • Derek Rollinson(2008) Organizational Behavior and Evaluation:A Approach.
  • Daft Richard L(2008): Firm Theory and Design.
  • Wikipedia: Glass ceiling effect(1987).
  • The Literary Encyclopedia:Preston Mill workers Strike(1853-1848).
  • D. Jamali, Y. Sidani, A. Kobeissi: The gender pay distance revisited: insights from a producing country framework.
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