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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Circumstance Study

Question 1

  1. i.

In Victor's circumstance, he is likely to be experiencing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Panic Disorder. PTSD is thought as a continual maladaptive effect that lasts much longer than a month after experiencing distressing events. PTSD may develops by weeks, years or even prolonged for decades, however in some situations, PTSD may only start expanding after many months or years of traumatic situations experienced by the patient (Nevid, Rathus & Greene, 2014).

Victor had immediately experienced traumatic event that open him to threatened death and serious injury, and he was haunted by the event for 5 years without seeing specialized help and that triggers major disturbance in his life. By Victor's information on his condition, he fits in 7 out of 8 standards of PTSD from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder - Fifth Release (DSM-5) (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).

  1. ii.

Looking at DSM-5, diagnosis of PTSD is based on 8 criteria. First of all, Victor ties in the standards of contact with threatened fatality and serious damage, which includes the following 4 components:

  1. He had straight experienced the traumatic event, where 5 years before he and his good friend, John were actually attacked by three equipped robbery.
  2. Victor got also observed John being dragged and struck multiple times by two of the equipped robbery.
  3. During the distressing event, Victor had learned that he and John might be killed by the ruthless robbery.
  4. Victor was reported experiencing repeated exposure to unpleasant details of the traumatic event. Victor was experiencing panic attacks many times a week by reminders of the assault after he and John made a police report.

Second, Victor was presented with DSM-5 requirements of PTSD of intrusion symptoms related with the traumatic event, starting following the distressing event where

  1. He suffered from intense psychological problems (e. g. , panic attack) at exposure to internal or external cues about the traumatic event.

Third, Victor fits in the conditions of persistent avoidance of stimuli in relation with the traumatic event, beginning after the traumatic event took place, as recognized by following components:

  1. Victor made attempts to avoid exterior reminders (e. g. , situations, activities and items) that trigger distressing memories, thoughts or thoughts that are related to the traumatic event. He was reported avoided driving or going out at night for the last 5 years after the distressing event.
  2. Victor also made work to avoid distressing memories, emotions and thoughts about his child years traumatic events. He refused about childhood distressing experience (e. g. , experienced serious physical maltreatment and neglected as a child), and known record of mental health problem in his family.

Fourth, Victor ties in the conditions of PTSD of negative changes in cognitions and ambiance in relation with the distressing event, starting or worsening following the traumatic event, as identified by pursuing components:

  1. Victor was struggled by exaggerated negative values about himself (e. g. , feeling worthless)
  2. Victor likewise have persistent negative psychological state (e. g. , easily irritable, timid and stressed)
  3. He had reduced interest in participating activities with relatives and buddies, such as avoiding going out during the night time.
  4. Victor's matrimony was disrupted as his wife feel detached ever since Victor refused to go out during the night for 5 years long.

Fifth, Victor also possess from the conditions of marked changes in arousal and reactivity in relation with the distressing event, as supported by pursuing components:

  1. Victor has difficulty with attention.
  2. Victor also rest disruption (e. g. , trouble falling asleep)

Sixth, Victor fits in the criteria of length of the disturbance (Second, Third, Fourth, and Fifth criteria mentioned) which is much longer than four weeks. Victor was reported suffering from PTSD for over 5 years after the traumatic event occurs.

Lastly, Victor's disruption is not added to physiological aftereffect of a material (such as liquor or medication) or other condition.

  1. i.

According to Stipancic, Renner, Schјtz & Dond (2010), Neuro-Linguistic Psychotherapy (NLPt) is a special software of Neuro-linguistic Programming (NLP) in the area of psychotherapy. NLPt is a powerful remedy method that helps people in resolving emotional difficulties, enhance perception of quality of life, and foster new learning and personal development. A complete of 106 psychotherapy clients were allocated arbitrarily to a remedy or control group. Organized Clinical Interview for DSM-4 Personality Disorder (SCID II) and Croation Range of Standard of living (KVZ) were used to examine the outcome. As a result, there was a significant decrease in clinical symptoms and upsurge in standard of living in the remedy group, as compared to the control group. Hence, the researcher also found significant conclusions on significant increases in the perceived quality of life with clients after remedy, when compared with the control group in waiting list.

  1. ii.

According to Birocco, Guillam, Storto Ritorto, Catino, Gir, . . . & Ciuffreda, L. (2012), Reiki is a natural treatment treatment which is performed by laying of hands and moving energy from the Reiki giver to the recipient. In the pilot analysis of Birocco, et. al (2012), the use of Reiki were looked into on 118 tumors patients on the management of stress, pain and global wellbeing. A numerical score range conducted by the Reiki professionals, Visual Analog Scare (VAS) and information of physical emotions of patient were registered during each session of Reiki treatment. As a result, it was reported that the Reiki classes are helpful in enhancing relaxation, treatment, sleep qualities, well-being and minimizing anxiousness level. Hence, Reiki remedy is able to respond to patients' psychological and physical needs when they are going through chemotherapy.

b) iii.

Mindfulness-based Cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a organized training curriculum in merging mindfulness meditation with cognitive-behavioral methods. Relating to Piet & Hougaard (2011), MBCT is chosen to help major depressive disorder (MDD) patients to lessen symptoms of relapse or reoccurring. The meta-analysis review is measured by electronic databases and 593 participants from six randomized managed trials were reviewed. As a result, MBCT were reported significantly decreasing the risk of relapse of MDD patients with 34% in set alongside the control group. Generally, the therapy was also demonstrated as effectual as maintenance antidepressant medication.

b) iv.

According to Brien, Lachance, Prescott, McDermott & Lewith (2011), homeopathic assessment process has clinical benefits in patients that are rather more effective than the holistic remedy. In the analysis, they examined 83 arthritis patients in randomized treatment and control group and located them in either natural appointment or non-homeopathic discussion. Result implies that patients getting a homeopathic discussion significantly improved inflamed joint count up, current pain, each week pain and negative spirits. Hence, homeopathic assessment is in relation with medically relevant benefits for patients.

b) v.

b) vi.

According to Zhang, Chen, Yip, Ng & Wong (2010), acupuncture remedy is usely alternatively way of dealing with depressive disorder, especially major depressive disorder (MDD) and post-stroke despair (PSD). In the research, the effectiveness of acupuncture was compared to antidepressants by retrieving 207 scientific studies of acupuncture for despair. Result shows that acupuncture remedy is superior to antidepressants when compared with control group in significant enhancing of symptom intensity and response of PSD. Hence, acupuncture therapy is rather a safe procedure in treating both MDD and PSD patients.

b) vii.

In year 2011, a study conducted by Scheeringa, Weems, Cohen, AmayaJackson & Guthrie (2011) said that trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) is useful for treating children with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In the study, 64 children were arbitrarily allocated in TF-CBT treatment group or 12-weeks put it off list control group. As a result, the procedure group improved significantly more on symptoms of PTSD. Hence, the study recommended that TF-CBT is a powerful approach for reducing PTSD symptoms and benefits from certain comorbid disorders.

b) viii.

A research conducted by Youssef, S. (2013) reviewed the effect of hypnotherapy as cure for depression. The analysis includes two randomized controlled studies and a research study and was measured by Beck Unhappiness Inventory (BDI- II), Beck Stress and anxiety Inventory(BAI), and Beck Hopelessness Size (BHS). As a result, hypnotherapy shows significant improvement in major depression, nervousness, and hopelessness results in the manipulated group. Meanwhile, the study also implies that the therapy is more effective than antidepressant treatment on unhappiness. Hence, the analysis demonstrated that hypnotherapy is a powerful treatment for depressive disorder.

b) ix.

According to Raboni, Alonso, Tufik & Suchecki (2014), Eye Motion Desensitization Reprocessing (EMDR) is an efficient approach in dealing with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) patient. In Raboni, et. al (2014) review, out-patients with PTSD were allocated randomly to short eclectic psychotherapy or EMDR and the study was measured by clinician-rated PTSD, stress and despair as well. End result demonstrates EMDR significantly reduced PTSD symptoms more than quick eclectic psychotherapy and therefore cause faster recovery compared to the brief psychotherapy.

b) x.

According to Abbass, A. A. , Rabung, S. , Leichsenring, F. , Refseth, J. S. , & Midgley, N. (2013), Short-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy (STPP) is a successful approach in dealing with common mental disorder on children and adolescents. In the analysis, Abbass, et. al (2013) meta-analyzed handled final result studies of STPP trainings. Because of this, they found that the outcome were suggesting that the procedure may succeed, as there is an effect increased in follow up in comparison to post treatment.

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