Posted at 11.18.2018
Positivism was made in the later eighteenth century, which is part of traditional western traditional viewpoint factions. Positivism is comparative hook up with Enlightenment, given that they both created a similar opinion about natural research and social worlds. Positivism has a tendency to give emphasis to real human comparative real experience; therefore the positivism is also relatively connected with the empiricism. Moreover, Positivism emphasizes happening studies for idea assignment. It begins with trend theory point of view. Positivism thinkers consider that they could obtain medical principles from occurrence studies, therefore they reject mental factors. In addition, positivism is partially associated with the Empiricism, because Positivism and Empiricism both pay more attention on phenomenon and fact description. Moreover, there were three different methods affect on natural and cultural science in early nineteenth hundred years. From 1830 to 1842, Auguste Comte boasts his Span of Positive Philosophy. Positivism could be described that it's a useful and practice theory knowledge, as well as, it also could ensure a member of family satisfied environment to real population. Furthermore, Positivism also could understand exactly like others relative simple themes. Positivism will relate school of thought and science mutually in the same way its theoretical central point. Furthermore, these try to keep the idea knowledge into research world. Because of this, there could be found some similar rules between the theory of positivism and regular empiricism theory.
Firstly, it is absolutely essential to understand the development of positivism. Through the development of the positivism, there are three main positivism thinkers which should be described. The three people are Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer and Emile Durkheim. Firstly, from 1798 to 1857, Auguste Comte became the most crucial person for positivism, since he was the first teacher to apply the professional term which was sociology (______). Because of this, Auguste Comte was the most famous person in the early positivism field. Comte trust that humanly sensory experience is real, useful and accurate, therefore it could be possible described by empirical aspect. On the other hand, rational and psychological sense is untrue, pointless and imprecise, since it could not prove and it is non-empirical. Furthermore, the positivism can be an especial system of empirical knowledge; therefore it could break from the metaphysics. It also can overcome and empty one-sidedness situation of the idealism and the materialism, therefore the positivism becomes relatively truely new idea. Also, Auguste Comte also boasts that the positivism should predicated on sensory experience through observation, experimentation and comparative methods to explore real technological knowledge. In addition, many positivism thinkers assume that there have three quite different aspects, which are the theological, the metaphysical and the positivism. Furthermore, they also trust that unchanged natural regulations and guidelines control every part of natural phenomenon, as well as, natural laws and regulations and guidelines are revealed by natural technology. Furthermore, they emphasized that each single natural and sociable phenomenon are managed by unchanged laws and rules, as well as, those laws and regulations and guidelines are instituted upon social phenomenon. Furthermore, emotions, creativeness and paranormal power are occupied the key position when people brain analyses all of natural happening in the theological domains. Besides, abstract opinion occupied the first position when human mind analyses every occurrence in metaphysical areas. Furthermore, individual brains avoid looking into completely truth facts and the beginning of covert reason in positive field. As a result, a positivism famous professor who's Hamilton (1992) mainly desires to found a theory, which is the fact naturalistic research of world has capacity to elucidate the precedent and predicting the near future (_____).
Secondly, from 1820 to 1930, Herbert Spencer became the famous positivism thinker. However, weighed against Comte, Herbert Spencer applied a little different positivism theory. He totally trusts that the physics guidelines should control cultural technology. His traditional idea proved so it is very useful, which not only for the use of social structure also for the conception of communal justice. His judgment emphasizes the individual responsibility for natural habits. In addition, his ideas become an important idea for incorporating various different departments of medical knowledge as a same system of philosophy. Herbert Spencer also has a great contribution to religious beliefs field, because he is an absolutely plainly agnostic in the religious beliefs aspect. Moreover, he also thinks that the god is not a real science thing, because the god is suppositional, mystical and unknowable. Furthermore, this is a contradiction for faith move into the research field (______). He also declares that the religious beliefs things are agnosticism for research human. Furthermore, Herbert Spencer shows an important opinion about this the development of natural laws and regulations and rules could be split into two aspects which are the attention and the differentiation. Because of this, the universe is your final outcome of development. Although there have hook different in evolutionary ideas of background between Comte and Herbert views, the two different theories have an identical idea which is naturalism.
Finally, after Comte and Spencer, from 1858 to 1917, the well-known French sociologist who's Emile Durkheim became the most well-known positivism philosopher for the reason that period. Furthermore, his theory is known as modern theory (______). He discovered social facts that happen to be a relative impartial study. Additionally, he created a key academic willpower of modern sociable science which really is a really important positivism field in record. It seems really important that social facts are different from the decision factors of natural phenomena, physical phenomena and special features by Emile Durkheim believes that it's not flexible and suitable for Comte view, therefore he tend to found a member of family standard natural and social science sociology (____). In addition he also give an judgment about that the sociology is a member of family independent object. Furthermore, he also feel that Comte didn't apply a relatively comprehensive and tight empirical research, as well as, he think that the broaden and severe inquiry is a only solution to create a true comprehensive social regulations and feasible naturalism. However, on the whole record, Emile Durkheim acquired accepted the mainly judgment of Comet's ideas including the naturalism, the empiricism, the interpersonal reformism and the scientism. Within the culture field, Emile Durkheim claims that it's undeniable that modern culture is combined. Moreover, culture would be created following the conclusion of jointing every individual. However, this combo of world is not really a simple addition the number. There's a relatively serious qualitative change. In addition, there have a qualitatively different between individual's recognition and society's consciousness. Therefore, the culture has goal and external marriage to individuals, as well as, it also a kind of constraint and restraint. Consequently, Durkheim's ideas still have a huge influence in recent years.
On the other hands, it is also necessary to recognize that the positivism methods, as well as, to realize the negative and positive facets of positivism donate to natural research. The sociology was founded by French sociologist Auguste Comte (____). Additionally, its theory foundation on naive realism which comes from experience idea. Positivism methods give attention to research aim facts and interpersonal product, making objective social trend as the starting place. Furthermore, these also stress to analyze the social legislation and scientific summary. Therefore it will try to get the causal relationship in social trend field. Positivism method focus on the content and substance of researching objects. The final consequence is to make it general. It seems that the positivism method could be split into four aspects. The first facet of positivism method is that the public research should be limited by gather information which could be impersonal review and assortment. After that, statistical data is the best method for world research because of computer is more target. Then, the most important thing is to get the romance between different communal facts. Finally, positivism method could contain a study for causal romantic relationship.
In addition, there is no uncertainty that the positivism makes a huge contribution to natural science, since it makes unreasonable assumptions to avoid the intrusion of natural viewpoint. Furthermore, it is absolutely important that the positivism solution to social technology to imitate with natural knowledge in order to make a contribution to natural knowledge. For natural sciences and natural researchers, they are both basically positivists. Moreover, they proposed a target sense of consciousness in order to make experiments, analyze results and make theory and regulations (Hugh Jones & Laidlaw, 2000). Because of this, the positivism give attention to sensory experience, which means positivism could make a contribution on the field of natural research. It is could be described that the positivism could ensure a comparatively deep heading forecast and observation, as well as, the positivism also could obtain higher succeed than other methods. As a result, the positivism method is more objective than other methods in neuro-scientific natural technology.
Although, there is absolutely no hesitation that the production of positivist viewpoint donate to development of natural research, the inherent weaknesses of positivism are open with the introduction of human theory and practice. To begin with, the thing of research field is restricted to the happening. For example, the agnosticism is created in that situation. Secondly, it seems hazardous that the scientific methods coupled with viewpoint or the viewpoint methods integrated with sciences. Additionally, additionally it is unimaginable that mother nature and society could leave human practices. However, the positivism appears to leave interferential situation of real human behavior to review the development process of natural and cultural condition. Finally, technological induction can't be explained clearly, especially for the complex aspect of cultural phenomena. Furthermore, Mark J Smith (2003) cases that the children's imitative, the conditions are varying, less concerned in lifestyle. As a result, numerous social researchers have more concerned about that a human being cannot be put in a constrained vacuum and debarred the fundamental facts.
In conclusion, there are three positivism thinkers, which are Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer and Emile Durkheim, make a huge contribution to development of positivism. Although there have a number of different opinions, the main idea of positivism and standard empiricism are against the theological and metaphysical. Furthermore, the positivism have four main features which can be cultural facts, statistical data, correlation interpersonal happening and causal romance. Furthermore, the positivism really makes an enormous contribution to development of interpersonal and nature technology. Consequently, there likewise have advantages and drawback with positivism contribution to communal study.