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Positive Self-Affirmation on Self-Esteem

Abstract

Identifying effective ways to interact with self-esteem levels through the use of behavioral activation, and using positive self-affirmation as a way strengthen self-esteem. This research intends to determine whether self-esteem can be upgraded in school students to cope with other aspects of their academics lives. The study focuses on positive self-affirmation as the key component of the behavioral activation, performing as an optimistic encouragement to help the average person are more resilient to rejection and find self-motivation. Members included 18 Rutgers undergraduate students. 11 females and 7 males between the age groups of 18 and 26. Consisting of 2 sophomores, 4 juniors and 12 elderly people. A 4 week self-reports were used to track record participation, which was composed of three times weekly. Both male and female participants performed the same behavioral activation in the analysis. The design of the study was non-experimental and correlational. Results did not give a significant upsurge in self-esteem levels after the study. A lot of the results remained steady before and following the study for the exception of two sample items from the self-esteem measure questionnaire. Implications and future research directions are mentioned.

Introduction

Positive affirmation can have a great effect on self-esteem. As humans, there's a need for mental stability, understanding that positive thinking is a key component which allow individuals, teams of men and women or entire societies to flourish nowadays. Positive thinking performs a significant role in the way humans grow, be successful and maintain a stable well-being. Situations characterized by positive thoughts can also constitute to raised positive affirmation. Simply by experiencing enjoyment or joy while reducing the subjection of unwanted effects to the self-esteem. Self-affirmation, can likewise have an impact on judgement and openness to experiences, this is due in the context of people's reactions to threats up against the ego, which is often portrayed as occasions or communications which have unfavorable implications to the self applied. These threats have a tendency to result in tendencies that are believed to come from motivation to view themselves and their associates in a positive manner. In his article, Schmeichel (2009) phone calls them "defensive responses", which cause rationalized attitude changes, self-serving attributions for success and inability, outgroup derogation, and positive persuasion about personal beliefs. Despite the intensive inclination to safeguard the do it yourself through these defensive responses, self-affirmation works like white blood vessels skin cells when they come across bacteria, by attacking them and removing unwanted effects that are designed to cause harm; at the same time, allowing individuals to maintain a good view of the persona. Positive affirmation assists self-esteem to attain psychological progress and improve well-being as time passes.

Self-esteem on its own, should be studied in order to comprehend just how people function in their every day lives and how they manage different situations. There is natural dependence on success and self-preservation, because of this, self-esteem might be the number one factor how we react to cases correlated with positive or negative feelings. Leary and fellow workers (1995) found out through research these feelings have an in depth relation to levels of high or low self-esteem individuals might be experiencing through different things in time. Self-esteem is how people value themselves, how individuals deal with their cultural circles and the routes they take in life. It is an all natural regulator of emotions that allows a person to make judgements pertaining their environment and their sense of owed.

Defining self-esteem is a difficult and ongoing process within the psychology field. One thing that may be agreed after is the connection between positive self-regard and our culture. Both, good self-esteem and positive self-esteem, are intertwined in description. Usually self-esteem is projected as a common evaluation of your respective self. In the article by Heine (1999) self-esteem is referred as "average shade of self-feeling that every of us holds about with him, and which is independent of the objective reasons we may have for satisfaction or discontent". Self-esteem is also portrayed as a "self-reflexive attitude that results from conceiving the self applied as an object of analysis". This can even be defined as thoughts of devotion for oneself, with high self-esteem being described as having deep affection for one's do it yourself. This literature also argued that there is a dependence on humans to feel good internally and externally, recommending that individuals across time and civilizations may approach this basic need in another type of manner but for the same reason, which explains why it could be regarded as being common. Heine continues on to speak about information that appears to be important to the research of psychology, one which could be perceived as monotonous or irrelevant initially, but it portrays a fact that people can be certain about, which is the fact that as far as we can tell, all organisms prefer to feel great about themselves.

All of the helps gain better understanding this is of self-esteem, by define it as a feeling that individuals use to designate self-evaluating thoughts they often have about themselves generally in most circumstances. However, many believe self-esteem it really is how people behave in certain situations which helps them differentiate their actions from one another, giving every individual a different results. Receiving a high score on a test of talents or a minimal score over a way of measuring how social one is, are types of such distinctions between high and low labels of self-esteem. High self-esteem promotes positive result by buffering the person against stress and other negative feelings, whereas low self-esteem is associated with major depression, stress, and maladjustment (Leary, 1995).

Leary's research studies explain how people that have low self-esteem experience unwanted effects additionally than those with high self-esteem; however, it generally does not clarify why self-esteem produces these results in the first place. The research will explain a possibility as to why this may be the situation, self-esteem is closely associated with confidence and the anticipations of success and goal orientation. Thus, associating high self-esteem with optimism and lower levels of anxiety. If a person has high self-esteem, we can believe they're protected contrary to the anxiety behind negative thoughts and encounters. However, if such "protective shield" is flawed by insufficient self-worth you can argue that the person is predisposed to high levels of anxiety and depression. The study also looks at anxiety through the idea of evolution, in which we might expect people who worried about possible future misfortunes to truly have a higher opportunity for survival and duplication. Due to it, we can conclude that stress is not always a negative effect but also a defensive mechanism.

Positive affirmation varies among different industries of our population which still work as buffers for our self-esteem. You can find countless of aspects that can become positive buffers but I'll only be getting close to four major ones, these being: the maintenance of beauty, things which we consume, belonging to a group and being in love. Appears can transform the course of one's life and impact how much positive affirmation is received. Studies of social belief have found widespread bias when accounting beauty with good in people (Claudia, 2015). How attractive a person might be will influence how people portray them with regards to intelligence, sociability, behaviours and possible job performance. Attributing to the fact that good looks have influence on how high a person might be ranked on these traits compared to a person who is less attractive. Beauty alone, can increase positive affirmation and enhance our self-confidence.

The same can be said about just how we feel when purchasing items regarded "beautiful". Research in the literature tells us the way the selection of product is related to what sort of consumer perceives his or herself. Consumers develop and keep maintaining themselves through the use of branded products, options can reflect their genuine selves or who they would like to become. This can have an impact about how highly the person seems (positive affirmation) about themselves and even boost self-esteem. Experiments in Claudia's books confirmed that just the mere work of choosing a beautiful product on the less interesting one offered positive affirmation to a person's sense of home, it also made them more available to other things of views and also to admitting mistakes they have got made.

Other studies like the main one by Woo (2015) about group Affirmation, clarifies how individuals try to maintain an optimistic perception of the selves by having a sense of belonging. Being truly a parent, teacher, worker, athlete, etc. are some of the samples that can maintain positive self-regard and give the individual a sense of self-integrity as a blend of the self-worth within different parts of their lives. Studies in the literature have also found that self-affirmation at an organization level is possible and can have similar protective system as self-affirmation.

Love is another major subject matter within psychology that is hard to identify but it's an emotional factor that is very important for the survival of someone's well-being. We find love when we arrive in this world from our parents in the form of nurture and cover, as we continue in life, our friends and charming relationships help us maintain self-affirmation and self-worth. Without this very essential positive affirmation our specie wouldn't normally have the ability to survive, so that it is probably the most important subject of everything. Thomas (2013), expresses a very strong observation about the topic: "the mind of human beings are mirrors to 1 another's heart. " Which expresses that our lives are intertwined with those all around us. Through others we can obtain affirmation which we can not confirm on our very own, making our own self-identity deeply tied to social interactions and indications of love.

These positive affirmations distributed by the previous literature can be seem to be as reinforcements to the self-esteem and considered fundamentally important to its make-up. Through this we can hypothesized that positive affirmation 3 x weekly will show an increase in self-esteem levels within college students. However, the total amount needed to increase self-esteem significantly can vary depending on other inner and external factors within any given pupil. Given the examples above there can be numerous variables impacting on the levels of self-esteem after positive affirmation has been applied. However, even after exterior variables affected the outcome, positive affirmation will increase self-esteem levels amidst college students.

Behavioral activation is thought as a treatment for major depression. BA's beginnings came into being from a patterns remedy treatment condition of cognitive remedy, in a component analysis study by Beck, Dash, Shaw, and Emery (Jacobson, 2001). BA was an attempt to help frustrated individuals reenter their lives by focused activation strategies. Such strategies involved unwanted effects like those of drawback, avoidance and insufficient activity that have been bringing about episodes of depression on the individuals. BA operates as a natural antidepressant and a positive reinforcement in the individuals life to improve depressive state governments and ensure they can go back to their normal lives. The study attempted to increase in levels of self-esteem in Rutgers school students, by rehearsing positive self-affirmation at least three times a week. The outcome should forecast whether positive self-affirmation can increase levels on self-esteem by the conclusion of the study.

Method

Participants

Participants in this review included 18 Rutgers Status University undergraduate students. Members included 11 females and 7 guys between the age groups of 18 and 26. Individuals were made up of 2 sophomores, 4 juniors and 12 seniors. All students consented to take part in the study by searching for the Abnormal Psychology Laboratory course, and were wanting a class credit for their participation in the study.

Materials

Materials included a Behavioral Activation Log used for self-report measurements. Self-esteem Questionnaires were used to evaluate degrees of self-esteem (similar Psychological Stress Measure or PSM-9), before the experiment began and after it concluded. The log was made up of a 4-week period with each week starting from Wednesday and concluding on Tuesday. Members were asked to employed in daily positive affirmation at least three times a week, whether or not they employed on the behavioral activation or not, the outcome was to be registered.

Design and Procedure

The reason for this study is to measure the romantic relationship between positive affirmation and an increase in self-esteem. Degrees of self-esteem were solution before and following the realization of the test. Participants were asked to complete at least 3 days and nights weekly to measure distinctions in self-esteem levels. Participants were told they could stop the log anytime but failure to do so meant the class credit would not be rewarded. Both male and female participants irrespective of age performed the same behavioral activation in the analysis. The design of this study was non-experimental and correlational

Results

To solution and test the consequences of positive self-affirmation on self-esteem, data analyses were conducted. The mean rating on the self-esteem measure questionnaire all together prior to the treatment of positive self-affirmation was 2. 54. The mean credit score post treatment was 2. 62. On sample item 9: "I certainly feel ineffective at times", the mean score before the treatment was 2. 47, while post involvement mean was 2. 53. On test item 12: "What others think of me does not have any influence on what I think about myself", the mean preceding treatment was 2. 31, while post involvement was 2. 53. On both questions before commencing the experiment, participants disagreed with being useless and the effects of other's conception of them on how they recognized themselves. in the mean time in the post measurements the group decided on both feeling useless and other's perceptions. There is no significant change between all the dimension before and after the test. A paired-samples t-test was also conducted. Results from the paired-samples t-test on sample item 9 showed a p-value of. 334, while sample item 12 was. 413. This finding had not been significant at the. 05 level of significance.

Discussion

The study attempted to increase levels of self-esteem in Rutgers college or university students, by training positive self-affirmation at least 3 times a week. The outcome should give information on whether positive self-affirmation, can increase levels on self-esteem by the conclusion of the analysis. The measurements of positive self-affirmation in line with the study, do have a small increase in degrees of self-esteem. However, the increase was not significant enough to make a difference between levels before commencing the behavioral activation and after it concluded. Relative to the self-esteem questionnaires, individuals proved better sense of self-worth in how useful they believed at times and the way other's opinions of these affected their own sense of self-concept, this might be the consequence of the daily practice of positive affirmation. Almost every other aspect didn't seem to change based on the self-esteem questionnaires, glowing light on third parameters, internal and external limitations that may have implicated the results of the study. The aftermath might suggest there are unique and long-term stressors to school students that could impede any significant change in measurements of self-esteem. This may also mean that the way of measuring tools use to describe participant's levels of self-esteem might be inadequate or flawed. Leary and fellow workers (1995) explained that understanding of outcome can be referred to diversely depending on whether your degrees of self-esteem were either low or high before the research. Students with low self-esteem may become more more likely to find no functional value in positive self-affirmation and reject its usefulness and criticize its value, while students with high self-esteem might understand opposite results through the activity and maintain persistence. From prior research, it could be assumed that each differences might immediately affect the results, addititionally there is no way of telling whether participants used instructions. There is no way of telling if the college or university students attempted to complete the behavioral activation as these were originally aimed, nor whether they randomly stuffed in the blanks creating Response bias, this may add another internal limitation implicating the study and its own validity since the activity is principally made up of participant's self-reports and studies. This year's controversial presidential elections may have influenced the outcome of the study as well. Every four years, the United States brings about its presidential elections which are usually a valuable time to learn about our democracy, authorities and responsibilities as residents. However, 2016's elections are like nothing this country and all of those other world has seen in recent times. Levels of anxiety and stress have enhanced in individuals soon after prospect Trump (now leader), blatantly sent speeches that didn't come up short on its show of racism and sexism, disregarding the feelings of those who made his remarks. His movement has brought about a section between the folks of this country based on anger and hate. This has increased bullying, intimidation and harassment for those whose races, religions and cultural backgrounds became the targets of his campaign and fans. The presidential election took place over the study, which could have swayed the participant's conversation with the behavioral activation and in the end implicating the innervation of positive self-affirmation on the self-esteem. Students might have also been affected by the final vote count number since almost all of the Rutgers students were leaning to the democratic candidate. This can be portrayed by the November's 16th walkout, where greater than a thousand Rutgers students and personnel got to the roads that Thursday to protest president-elect Donald Trump's election. The participant's interpretation of the activity is also a key factor to make it work. Cooperrider (2001) talks about on his article, that to be able to achieve a good self-image and put it into action, a person must be able to effectively use their affirmative capacities of brain, thoughts, and reason. Members must have the ability to analyze its meaning by doing what works best for them singularly, this can turn into a problem if participants do not yet know or understand how to motivate themselves. The analysis also lacked specific ways about how positive affirmation could be performed, which could ultimately lead members to failure of reaching the activation. Having a wholesome lifestyle can also optimal for a good outcome, self-esteem can decrease when you can find lack of good cleanliness or for sleep deprivation. An excellent balanced diet and exercise can also impact the results of self-esteem levels after the study. Unfortunately, college students are recognized for lack of healthy habits which can be because of the stressful school environment. Bingeing, constant alcohol use and lack of a balanced sleep pattern are some of the harmful activities that may affect the levels of self-esteem during the time of the study. Individuals might have been going through difficult academics times like finals and projects from other classes during the study. Working beyond institution (full-time or part-time) can also have implications to time management. These can all be factors impacting on the time spent and the results of the behavioral activation. The analysis itself was very limited, the time that was designated to participants had not been long enough to see any significant changes in their self-esteem levels. The duty itself was too generalized as well, the self-reports and questionnaires didn't cover other parameters that might impact the connection between the reliant and independent varying. The sample of participants was too small compared to the student population at large which limits the quantity of useful information the analysis might provide. Future research can focus on prolonged intervals of behavioral activation to further understand if positive self-affirmation can have significant results, and if it's found to be helpful for treatment. Testing also needs to be up to date and specified rather than using generalized questions. Analysts should continue executing empirical research to ascertain key factors that contribute into ways to raise self-esteem. They also needs to give attention to the negative malpractices students use to affect their degrees of self-esteem and in so doing, helping them maintain a good sense of self-esteem.

References

Byungwon Woo (2015). We like you better whenever we feel great about ourselves: group affirmation in an international framework. Article in Korean observer, 19(3), 387-421.

Heine, S. H. , Lehman, D. R. , Markus, H. R. , & Kitayama, S. (1999). Will there be a universal need for positive self-regard? Psychological Review, 106(4), 766-794.

Jacobson, N. S. (2001). Behavioral activation treatment for depression: returning to contextual root base. Clinical Psychology: Technology and Practice, 8(3), 255-270.

Leary, M. (2003). Commentary on self-esteem as an interpersonal screen: The sociometer hypothesis (1995). Psychological Inquiry, 14(3), 270-274.

Reuter, M. , & Montag, C. (2014). The genetic basis of positive emotionality. Oxford Handbooks Online.

Schmeichel, B. J. , & Vohs, K. (2009). Self-affirmation and self-control: Affirming center values counteracts ego depletion. Journal of Personality and Sociable Mindset, 96(4), 770-782.

Tesser, A. , & Cornell, D. P. (1991). Within the confluence of self-processes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 27(6), 501-526.

The Oxford Handbook of Positive Mindset. (2009).

Thomas, L. (2013). Self-knowledge and the affirmation of love. Philosophical Essays On Emotions, 149-158.

Townsend, C. (2015). Choosing beauty and being good: How attractive product design rises self-affirmation. GfK Marketing Cleverness Review, 7(2).

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