Posted at 11.21.2018
There are several ways a teacher could use behaviorist strategies to encourage positive behavior, give praise and punish effectively, and help students eventually figure out how to be self-managing in a behaviorist classroom environment. Praise, the Premack principle, shaping, and positive practice are specific ways to encourage positive behavior. Many psychologists advise teachers to "accentuate the positive"-praise for good behavior while ignoring misbehavior. In fact, some researchers believe that "the systematic application of praise and attention can be the most effective motivational and classroom management tool open to teachers". The praise-and-ignore approach can be helpful, but don't expect it to resolve all classroom management problems.
There is another consideration in using praise. To work, praise must be contingent on the behavior to be reinforced, specify obviously the behavior being reinforced, and become believable. In other words, the praise should be sincere recognition of your well-defined behavior so students know very well what they did to warrant the recognition.
The Premack principle is a helpful guide for choosing the very best reinforcers. By definition the Premack principle is the principle stating that a more-preferred activity can serve as a reinforcer for a less-preferred activity. Having the ability to know what students enjoy doing in their leisure time, then using those enforcers can help increase the rate of involvement and success. A safe prediction would be that the students will soon figure out how to dislike the class, the topic, as well as perhaps the teacher and school on the whole if enforcers aren't utilized.
One way to avoid this problem is the strategy of shaping. Shaping is reinforcing each small step of progress toward a desired goal or behavior. Shaping involves reinforcing progress rather than looking forward to perfection. Shaping is also known as successive approximations. Successive approximations are small components that make up a complex behavior. To be able to use shaping, the teacher must take the final complex behavior the student is likely to master and break it into a number of small steps. One approach that identifies the tiny steps is task analysis. Task analysis is the machine for breaking down an activity hierarchically into basic skills and subskills.
Practicing correct responses immediately after errors is positive practice. In positive practice, students replace one behavior with another. This process is especially appropriate for dealing with academic errors. When students make a mistake, they must correct it as soon as possible and practice the right response. The same principle can be employed when students break classroom rules. Instead of being punished, the student might be asked to practice the correct alternative action. Repetitive problem behavior must be stop. One of many ways to avoid problem behavior is to insist that students continue the behavior until they are tired of doing it. This procedure is called satiation. Satiation is requiring a person to repeat problems behavior at night point of interest or motivation. It's important to use satiation with care.
Another way of dealing with problem behavior is by reprimand a kid. Reprimands are criticisms for misbehavior; rebukes. Soft, calm, private reprimands are more effective than loud, public reprimands in decreasing disruptive behavior. The concept of response cost is familiar to anyone who has ever paid an excellent. For certain infractions of the guidelines, people must lose some reinforcer-money, time, privileges.
One of the very most controversial behavioral methods for decreasing undesirable behavior is the strategy of social isolation. Social isolation is the removal of a disruptive student for 5 to ten minutes. Time outs act like social isolation. Social isolation is isolation of a student from the rest of the class for a short time. It is technically the removal of all reinforcement. Positive behavioral supports and functional behavioral assessments assist with students who've disabilities and those who are at-risk for special education placement. By definition, positive behavioral supports (PBS) are interventions made to replace problem behaviors with new actions that serve the same purpose for the student. Functional behavioral assessments (FBA) are procedures used to acquire information about antecedents, behaviors, and consequences to look for the reason or function of the behavior.
A teacher can base reinforcement for the class on the cumulative behavior of most members of the class, usually by adding each student's points to a class or a team total. Using the nice behavior game is one example of the approach. The nice behavior game can be an arrangement in which a class is split into teams and each team receives demerit points for breaking agreed-upon rules of good behavior. Group consequences are rewards or punishments directed at a class as a whole for sticking with or violating rules of conduct. And contingency contract is a contract between the teacher and students specifying the particular student must do to earn a specific reward or privilege. Whenever it is difficult to provide consequences for many students who deserve them a token reinforcement system can be utilized. Token reinforcement system is something where tokens earned for academic work and positive classroom behavior can be exchanged for a few desired reward.
Self-management is important since it is the use of behavioral learning principles to change your own behavior. When working with this system it's important to introduce the machine to parents in a good way. One must help families and students to establish reachable goals. Also, it's important to provide families ways to record and evaluate their child's progress (or their own). And last be certain to encourage families to check on the accuracy of student records every once in awhile, and help their children to develop kinds of self-reinforcement.