This paper seeks to firstly, summarize and examine the political aspects of hosting mega sporting on two major levels- countrywide and international levels. Within the nationwide level, mega sporting events have the ability to foster collaboration among the public sector, the private sector and the community. Such events have the ability to improve federal efficiency and used as a tool for the development of new ideas such as environmental sustainability, variety and community involvement. Furthermore, such situations can bring about urban change, civic unity and supports the building of both a countrywide and a ethnic identity. At a far more macro international level, mega-sporting occasions can be used as a program for the campaign of international human rights and public justice and can serve as a tool for the international acknowledgement of state governments.
Secondly, this paper will analyze monetary aspects of web host mega sporting event by evaluating the total commercial activity within the united states and by weighing the consequences of the construction of infrastructure for the mega sporting event. On this segment, the influences of the commercial activity with regards to the tourism industry, the career rate and overseas direct purchases on the web host country will be examined.
Lastly, this newspaper seeks to examine the success of India in hosting the recent XIX Commonwealth Game titles 2010. A successful mega-sporting event will depend on the host's ability to plan and perform the event such that it can achieve new levels of global reputation as well as significant financial, political and social development in the future.
In this segment of the newspaper, the political agendas for hosting mega-sporting events will be reviewed on two particular levels- national and international.
Hosting mega sport situations can lead to civic take great pride in. It plays an important role in the way people in the coordinator country view themselves and their community. It allows people in the sponsor country to share their experiences of moving into the united states and demonstrate principles that are close to the heart and soul of folks living in the united states. The interest and determination exhibited by these volunteers will never be able to be matched up by salaried personnel employed to perform the same responsibilities. Volunteerism allows folks in the country to feel a feeling of pride because of their country. A population of volunteers is essential to obtaining the number country's vision of being a thrilling global destination, which is vivid, cosmopolitan, and at the same time culturally abundant and diverse.
Hosting mega-sporting happenings can aid the building of national identities in some countries such as South Africa by promoting social integration and fostering tolerance amidst the people. Activities can slice across obstacles that separate the population, as in the case of South Africa where sports was seen to foster communal cohesion between the Whites and the Blacks. The sustained image of Nelson Mandela delivering the Rugby World Glass Trophy to the Afrikaner captain Francois Pienaarin 1995 at the function kept in South Africa illustrates how mega-sporting events may bring intangible benefits such as cohesion and unity.
Host countries use mega-sporting occurrences as a great possibility to demonstrate a good social image, successful integration and traditional worth in the international world with an purpose of increasing tourism in the future. The best option occasions to show traditional activities depicting nationalism, orientalism and cultural identification in the games are the beginning and closing ceremonies. In the 1982 Ninth Asian Video games, the entire theme of the unity in variety in Indian nationalism and culture was the soul of the ceremonies. There were displays of a number of dancers depicting the different says in India. (Give more concrete evidence)
Mega sports are catalysts of large urban transformation, specifically from move from professional city to a post-industrial city scheduled to changes in the global market. States will be more dependent on the service and tourism industry rather than the making, local capital investment and public sector intervention credited to globalization, deregulation and deindustrialization of the overall economy. Therefore, more initiatives are being used by the government to develop and improve infrastructures and fast trail the already suggested development plans. For instance, Tokyo used the 1964 Olympic video games as an opportunity to transform the city from a congested, war-damaged chaos to a modern, productive metropolis. Tokyo spent US $2. 7 million in 1964 with an urban renovation plan which included extensive road improvements, harbor expansions and development of urban amenities, housing, holiday accommodation and waste products and sewage removal systems. Among Tokyo's great Olympic expenses, it was approximated that less than 3% of the expenses was allocated to the building of simply competition related facilities - the majority was instead spent on interacting with the city's short-term and long-term development ideas.
Some countries variety mega sporting events as a tool to articulate and sign key messages about the coordinator- a active that expands beyond the state of hawaii based pursuit of general public diplomacy. These impulses are critical tools of legitimization for the host country in increasing support both domestically and internationally. The multimedia and global communications have enjoyed an important role in this aspect by allowing the function to be observed from across the world at any real-time. By hosting mega-sporting occurrences like the Olympics and the Commonwealth Game titles, the host countries are provided with a "low priced" but "visible" resource for publicizing their insurance policy on international issues or towards specific expresses.
"Semi peripheral" countries use mega-sporting happenings as an instrument to signal developmental developments. The Olympics kept in Beijing in 2008 illustrate how mega sports played an extremely important role in International politics. The Chinese language observed the Olympics as less of an sporting spectacle and more of any "developing" get together. The mega wearing event was used as a chance for China to showcase its economics and political development. In fact, the premier of the People's Republic of China, Wen Jiabao mentioned within an interview in Apr 2008 that the Beijing Olympics present an opportunity for China showing the world how "democratic, open up, civilized, friendly and harmonious" it is.
Hosting mega sporting events are also used to sign decisive and desirable interpersonal change. The 1995 Rugby World Glass in Africa enjoyed a significant role in reconciling the blacks and the Whites in South Africa. In particular, it provided the whites in South Africa an chance to " embrace the symbols, leaders and idea of a fresh, multiracial, democratic country essentially to complete the symbolic voyage from the old to new South Africa. Also, the 2010 Sports World Cup presented lately in South Africa shows the country's re-entry into the international community and its own trip from a pariah status to a global intermediary.
Countries use mega-sporting incidents as a stage to promote international human being right issues. This is especially evident through the Beijing Olympic Games in 2008 when widespread protest and increased press attention revealed how human privileges issues were violated by the Chinese language government. Inside the 1968 Mexico video games, there have been protest and threats of boycotts up against the apartheid regime in South Africa. South Africa was also suspended from participating in the games. The expulsions of South Africa from the Game titles lead to international pressure of the anti-apartheid activity and sports activities sanctions to be enforced on the country before eventual show up of the apartheid program. The mega wearing event was successful in the ongoing enforcement of South African sanctions, maintaining the anti-apartheid movements. The wearing event played an important role in making international awareness for the apartheid regime against South Africa and also helped induced politics and interpersonal change within the united states.
In this portion of the paper, the economic agenda of hosting mega sports will be discussed in detailed with regards to the total commercial activity and the utilization of the general public cash for the building of infrastructures for the mega wearing event.
The travel and leisure industry will profit with the increasing advertising coverage given in conjunction with the hosting of such mega sporting event. Traditional studies estimate upsurge in post Games travelers to be from 1. 5% to 3% for the last Olympic Games in 2008. This increase in the amount of post Games visitor is due to the media coverage of web host such event. Audiences of the mega sporting event will develop a pastime in going to the number country, which may lead to a larger desire to go to the country in the foreseeable future. The mega wearing event gives the coordinator country an chance to showcase itself to the planet as a respected city for sports and a perfect place for occurrences as well as an interest worthy place of repeated trips.
On the other hand, a potential downside to hosting the event is the negative externalities such a congestion may dissuade regular non-interested visitors from visiting the town through the event. This may lead to a fall season in the number of people browsing the united states. Also, if local restaurants and hotels are at full capacity, the function may simply supplant rather than supplement the regular tourism industry. For instance, in the 2002 World glass performed in South Korea, there was an increase in the number of European people to the country but this is offset by a similar decrease in the number of regular holidaymakers and business travelers from Japan who chose to avoid the problems. There have been no change in the total number of international visitors visiting the country and the number was stagnant at 460 000. This shows a contradiction to the fact that mega sports attract large number of visitors to the sponsor country.
Mega sporting events can result in an increase in the employment rate of the united states. New jobs are manufactured in various aspects of the sporting event ranging from transport to structure industry. For example, it was predicted that the Olympic games held in Atlanta and Sydney would create as much as 77 000 and 100 000 new careers respectively.
However, countries need to be cautioned to possess labor reserves in order to avoid the risk of destroying the current economic climate. It may prove dangerous for small economies having full job rates to sponsor mega sporting events as it can lead to the challenge of inflation and this will in turn cause the overall economy to deteriorate.
Hosting mega-sporting happenings can attract overseas direct opportunities in both the private and general public sector from multinational companies. Many multinational corporations are drawn to countries with sophisticated infrastructure with a safe and pleasurable atmosphere. These overseas direct purchases will benefit the variety country in terms of successful factors such as marketing know-how, training facilities and technical expertise. The number country will also take advantage of the spill over results such as labor training, upgrading of creation skills and inspiration of local component suppliers, stimulus to competition and development of managerial skills and knowledge about the foreign markets. All these skills will continue to work together to boost the competitiveness of the coordinator city.
Mega Sporting Events requires the variety country to invest large amounts of profit the engineering of sporting arenas, which may be used by the government otherwise to improve healthcare facilities and the education system. For the 2002 Fifa World Glass, South Korea invested an estimated $2 billion us dollars in the structure of ten new stadiums and Japan put in $ 4 billion us dollars in building seven new stadiums and refurbishing three existing ones. The magnitude to which these facilities and infrastructures are used in the future is really important, as the demand will probably decrease substantially after the mega-sporting event and there is a inclination for these infrastructures to be "white elephants". For example, following the 2002 World Cup, only five from the ten new stadiums got regular tenants. Also, large amount of money is invested in keeping the infrastructures. Therefore, it's important for the web host country to ponder its benefits and cost before deciding to hold the mega sporting event.
Having described the reasons for countries to host mega sporting events, it is currently imperative these reasons be analyzed in the context of the XIX Commonwealth Games 2010(CWG) held recently in India. In its bid for the Commonwealth Game titles, Delhi's aim was mainly to activate economic growth and development and at exactly the same time enhance the city's infrastructure. In this particular portion of the newspaper, the success of the Game titles will be assessed on if the aims of the web host country have been fulfilled based on the following variables:
It is essential for countries web host mega-sporting occasions to execute initiatives that leave a permanent sustainable benefit designed for the Games.
In this aspect, one of vision of the CWG managing committee was a clear inexperienced perspective -"to strive towards reducing carbon footprint and becoming the sustainable development standard for multi-disciplinary game titles in the future". They carried out many proper initiatives such as building Green infrastructures, having Green ceremonies and hospitality and at the same time initiated a variety of green procurement plans to create knowing of the environmental degradation and promote environmental moves. A inexperienced concerts were placed to generate general public fascination with the Video games, sensitize them about the "Green Game titles" theme and at the same time to induce the public to aid its "Low Carbon Campaign". The general public was encouraged to adopt pledges to safeguard the environment and badges promoting "LIVE GREEN, IT WORKS!" were distributed to encourage the visitors to do their part in caring for the surroundings.
Ideally, an effective mega sporting event is one that provides benefits - financial, political and public to a variety of stakeholders. However, this wasn't the truth in the Commonwealth Game titles. It had been reported that children of over 400, 000 engineering employees at the Video games sites are deprived of basic protection under the law like sanitation, schooling and healthcare. It's important that these children are given their constitutional protection under the law by the federal government in their attempt to provide world-class infrastructure for the Commonwealth games. Many of the poor are marginalized therefore of the CWG because slums nearby the Yamuna region where the site of the CWG is at have been demolished. It's estimated that 30 000 to 40 000 individuals will be displaced by the federal government consequently of the CWG.
In order for a mega sporting event to be successful, it is important that the function fits in to the city's development goal. A legacy of discontinued infrastructure and economical ruins tarnishes the image of the host country.
In the aspect, the Commonwealth Video games will benefit the people in India to a huge extent in the future. Delhi went through a massive transformation with the building of a new airport terminal, structure of more metro routes and the addition of new buses to help the transfer system within the city for both the locals and travelers. Furthermore, new flyover and underpasses was also built at an estimated cost of RS. 1650 Crores to resolve the traffic congestion issues that the country currently face. However, there is a concern that there will be an underutilization of the showing off infrastructure post event. Many of the stadiums will be vacant and it will be especially difficult to get access to the stadium since many of it is government owned or operated.
Hosting a successful mega-sporting event requires the united states to possess strong:
It is important for everyone, business organizations and the federal government to give a single speech and the goal for the nation so that the best of the united states can be presented to a worldwide audience. India's decision to bid for the Commonwealth Video games was non-transparent and undemocratic. The CWG was used as an effort by the government to invigorate an elite driven program of urban transformation that targets privatization, secularization and constructions of monuments to vanity. It really is unsatisfactory how India's attempt to gain countrywide prestige undermined the metropolitan social moves in India.
The government have to be a guarantor for obligations and liabilities related to the function for the mega-sporting event to be successful. The government must make use of their resources properly to effectively make the function successful due to the huge amount of money involved. With this aspect, the Commonwealth Video games 2010 can be considered as a total failure.
Firstly, the federal government did not utilize their resources efficiently. The government for the mega wearing event used huge amount of money, that have been irrelevant to the common man in India instead of deploying it for sociable development programs and improving the training and health care systems in the country. It is important for the government to keep in mind that the money committed to such events originates from public money and the event should then benefit the public it derives capital from, not restricting itself to the elite wealthy minority, while all together ensuring that it does no harm to the community.
Secondly, there have been widespread corruption in a variety of aspects of organizing the event like the procurement and awarding of deals for the structure of the video games venue. For example, the Commonwealth Games organizing committee after investigation of financial irregularities incurred TS Darbari and deputy director basic Sanjay Mahendroo.
The government must play a critical role in keeping the people safe and the job to getting the runners, support personnel and supporters in and out of the country with optimal security. . Mega sports, due to their growing awareness and importance, have grown to be a major goal for terrorists and other disruptive causes.
Security questions emerged after gunmen who fired on a traveler bus in New Delhi two weeks before the video games injured two site visitors from Taiwan. The Indian federal have invested around 370 Crores on security. The Indian Federal government liaised with various central security firms within India and all predicating countries in the mega event to increase the level of security. Special monitoring security with the electric security like CCTV, X-Ray baggage scanning device was also put on the relevant positions to look at the disruption and trouble. The federal government should be applauded for their tries in tackling this security issues.
There have been a dip in the umber of tourist visiting the city anticipated to poor marketing by the Tourism Office and the CWG Organizers and anticipated to negative advertising coverage encompassing the Commonwealth Games along with Dengue and floods threat. The government acquired estimated that certain million vacationers would reach the CWG but only 75606 tourists resulted in. This caused a detrimental effect on the hotel and service industry.
The work rate have increased successively in the development and building of infrastructure in Delhi in planning for the CWG. The building of the CWG infrastructure has engaged a great number of contractors, construction companies and daily wage earners. Even after the CWG, jobs are still secured because of the management and maintenance of the infrastructure, specifically the sport venues and stadiums. The CWG has helped in increasing our occupation rate by 1. 1 million and this will stay even following the Games.
Economic Development and Foreign Direct Investments
On this aspect, it is too soon to summarize if India have gained or loosed since it has only been a month since the CWG. However, it can be concluded that Delhi will advantage. Delhi has a presence of good connection, which allows the location to be linked with other economically attractive cities in the country. There is a high literacy rate within the populace and most of them are highly entrepreneurial. Because of good connectivity, the location has the potential to catch the attention of private designers and foreign direct ventures in the real estate and infrastructure sectors
The Commonwealth Game titles was not much failing as many critics have said it to be. The Game titles went effortlessly and the country could benefit from the infrastructures built such as the enhanced carry system and the jobs created. However, there have been a great many other aspects which were much less successful- there was corruption charges against some customers of the federal government and there was a lack of public development in the united states. Also, the united states was unable to shed the "developing country" label scheduled to numerous controversial issues that arose before and through the Games.