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Planning, Scheduling and Control

Business or business organizations require conceptualization of implementation of a particular plan designed for particular business final results. This particularity of business effects envisages adding a proper coordinated system for realization of the same. Forming a conglomeration of peoples, activities work schedules, methods, functions, all geared towards achieving a particular business goal, work or task, it works according to a plan to achieve the objective within a particular time-frame, with the available or additional resources. This complete process is given the universal name of "Project", and coordinating all the actions within it to achieve the desired objective to efficiency within enough time frame is known as "Project Management" (Heerkens; 2001). Given the common nature of the task as well as the outcome it could be said that every activity requiring a specific work to be completed within a specific time by by using a particular amount of resources calls for the shape of any project. By doing so every activity, be that of creating a township, a bridge, a subway project, oil refinery, metallic production, manufacturing facility erection or even executing a study to get some particular information, data or have some desired outcome, all can be referred to as projects. In that way tasks are distinguishable from continuing work functions like processing process, tedious management work or doing daily chores, which are carrying on in nature, with the distinguishing factor being a specific time for start and conclusion of a particular work. So, essentially, time is the central element of your project. Because of this the inseparable part of a task is adoption of proper management systems and operations to complete the task within this time and cost (Levine; 2002). Because of this it is important that there should be proper likely to execute a task within the allotted time, cost and resources for which there must be proper planning its implementation. Project planning and execution within the allotted time by properly arranging it to maintain quality of execution, avoid dangers and adhere to the project agenda by proper utilization of resources is paramount to the success of a job (Hillson; 2003).

This analysis essentially concerns discussing the main element aspects of task planning and control activities to be able to efficiently complete a job by adhering to the grade of execution of jobs.

Project Management:

Project management essentially is the procedure of planning, managing and handling the allotted resources directed at a project to be able to successfully complete the project's targets and program. As said, a project is one time work unlike a continuing process, and has a specific amount of execution with a starting and closing time in order to meet particular goals and aims that is aimed at bringing about a particular end result(Kerzner; 2009). This means that the jobs are different from standard business processes which have do it again value and are of long term nature requiring regular useful work that is envisaged to produce different products and services. In actual practice, both systems are very different, thereby needing the introduction of specific technical skills and adoption of independent management practices. Assignments adhere top specific phases or stages of work techniques.

According to Horine, task management process includes performing feasibility studies, defining the project range and targets, planning the model to attain those objectives, applying the plan matching to create and scope, evaluating the procedure of execution to ensure that the job is being integrated according to recommendations and quality along with provision of proper support and maintenance backup to protect against any hiccups in the execution process (Horine; 2009). Each one of these are needed because task management is a meticulously organized and organized effort to attain a specific and single aim like creating a flyover, utilizing a software system or creating a thermal power plant. It is for this reason only that the project management process includes developing a project plan, which includes defining the task goals and objectives, identifying duties and goals to be performed, quantifying the resources needed, and identifying budgets and time period for completion and taking care of the implementation of the job plan, along with building control steps to track the proper implementation of the project according to the objectives relative to the plan and intervene to restore the grade of implementation wherever required (Lewis; 2006). All these aspects constitute the project planning and control process.

Project Planning, Scheduling and Control:


According to Lewis, job planning and control includes developing a standardized management strategy to put into practice the objectives of the project that can be comfortably modified to any job and be versatile enough to be customized for such assignments but for which there must be a specific system with inspections and amounts to carry on with the task according to the plans and objectives (Lewis; 2005).

This means that the project management function has a particular process and stages of implementation as is listed below:

Project Planning: Contents

Project Planning: Key Stages

Source: F Harrison; "Advanced Project Management: A Organised Procedure"; Gower Publishing; 2004

The task planning and control process therefore concerns defining the opportunity and obligations accruing to a job, scheduling the time and resources, estimating the price and budget and analyzing the risks from the project implementation process and likely to handle those dangers. Suppose there's a project to create a new administrative building for a certain corporation. In cases like this the management of the business will identify the range of execution of the building plan, estimating the time had a need to complete the project and the resources in conditions of materials, money and time necessary for it. There would also be steps to analyze the risks that can come in the way of making the building in conditions of escalation of costs, time, materials and inadvertent situations that would hamper the e soft building of the building. For this the director of the job must make a blue print out and provide all the factors while planning the implementation of the project. In such instances the planning process is properly delineated and documented for the benefit for all the members of the task team as well as the client or the business for whom the job is being applied (Turner; 1998). This process also becomes beneficial in taking steps to regulate the project based on the requirements and avoiding it from heading from its designed path that would necessitate intervention in conditions of cost and materials by the task manager. In order to achieve all these objectives the task management process includes important elements to the task planning process i. e. the merchandise, activities, resources, agenda, budget, risks and assumptions. Appropriately, the project planning process decides what are the products and sub-products a task must deliver ad what quality aspects it must stick to, what are the activities and the resources needed to perform the project, what is the series and schedule that must definitely be implemented to complete the job, what is the budget necessary for implementing the task, what are the risks associated with employing the task and what exactly are the assumptions that are part of the project(Burke; 2003). The projects management planning process therefore has each one of these aspects to formulate the program of implementation. Generally speaking the task plan includes all the aspects that are needed to properly implement a project in line with the specifications of the client. Accordingly the genuine requirements of a project may vary but there is absolutely no dichotomy based on the planning process that should be applied of such jobs. For this the project execution and planning process includes some important principles, like breaking down the whole project into cohesive work packages, defining the desired results and pushing the associates to work at the plans to achieve the results (Williams et. al. ; 2008). Each one of these aspects of the planning process follow certain basic targets of the project plan which includes ensure that all the task and products need to attain the project objectives included in the plan. Because of this the job planners add a framework to integrate the key planning and control functions i. e. range, quality, cost, time and risk at different levels of the project management and execution stage and identify the team and the duties of the team users to provide certain requirements of the project (Kendrick; 2004). In this complete planning process there includes factors such as scheduling the job to bring the required end result of the task.

Scheduling and Control:

Scheduling of your project essentially indicates managing the implementation of the task, keeping because the time factor in primary sense, and altering the men, materials and activities in to the whole process (Berkun; ; 2005). This means that the project must follow a regimented usual according to daily regular and every month basis so the job is effectively executed based on the control buttons of its requirements and other factors. It is also important that the several activities associated with a project planning and execution process are well coordinated to be able to avoid delays and chaos in the execution of the job that would end result is costs and time overruns. A typical project routine divides the work associated with a task into different activities all coordinated to the overall whole. In this particular the works are divided into areas of activities and the tine taken as well as the setting of operation is determined accordingly with the most easy route and the critical yet effective route of every activity of the path is determined with assessment as to the time lapse that can happen in the event of the time and work pace not maintaining the allotted time plan.

Source: : F Harrison; "Advanced Task Management: A Organized Methodology"; Gower Publishing; 2004

Accordingly the job implementation level and control level is divided into various activities and the time allotted is measured appropriately as is shown in the diagram above. In it the works are split into critical and non-critical activities and the milestone is to be achieved with the overall work process along with the float time that can emerge scheduled to unavoidable time delays. Along with each one of these factors it is also likely that without proper scheduling of the task it could happen that it could move along beyond the controllable limit and for that reason become unviable. So, the main part of effective execution of a job is its proper scheduling so that unnecessary delays and cost overruns area averted and there is harmonious coordination between all aspects of the work process of the task as well as the various stakeholders and companies associated with it.

Project Paperwork:

As mentioned in the preceding scheduling of a project is done as a way to attain all the factors the task planning process breaks down the project into a specific schedule according to its desired outputs to be able to facilitate the correct execution and control as well as assist in maintaining quality of execution of the task. Accordingly the job is split into different sub-structures and process in order to effectively maintain quality of implementation such as principal outputs of the project a supplementary outputs of a task (Berkun; 2008). Along with it the project manager needs the correct documentation and control of the actions to be able to effectively monitor the implementation of the project as well as communicate with the team members and the management to articulate the progress of the job, give guidelines to the participants to work according to a recognized framework and gauge the improvement of the task at different levels of implementation for which there must be proper records of the task planning, arranging and control process.

In the primary outputs the paperwork process includes determining the product malfunction structures, product explanations, work breakdown set ups (WBS), work package deal descriptions (WPD), organization breakdown structure (OBS), responsibility project matrix (RAM) and assumptions paperwork. In the extra outputs of any project planning, execution and control process the paperwork and processing those are needed pertain to creating something flow diagram (PFD), work stream diagram (WFD), control accounts (CA) and dependency structure matrix (DSM) (Berbee; 2009). All these aspects of the job process are properly documented to be able to properly use a project. Because of this the project manager establishes an effective structure and accessories for documents as well as recruitment of relevant folks to manage such functions, which brings to the human resources aspect and the management composition of a task planning and execution process. Relating to Leach, the most significant part of an task management process is the management part itself which means that if the management composition and the people manning it are not proficient enough to effectively plan and use the job than the rest of the factors even if they're of highest degree of quality, will neglect to deliver the results (Leach; 2004). It is because of this that the task planning and implementation process gives greatest importance to the management composition and team as well as the human resources aspect of the overall project framework and process.

Management Framework:

A typical product management composition incorporates the following management structure as stated below, with necessary customization according to the requirements of the individual projects:

Source: Home Designed

The typical job management team therefore consists of a project head who takes part in the conceptualization planning and overall control of the project accompanied by a project supervisor who actually oversees the implementation of the task with a team that includes technical head, operation brain quality control mind resource brain who do the real work of implementing the task and immediately supervise the work through a team consisting of managers employees, technicians, suppliers and stakeholders along with support staff(Rothman; 2009). In the case of a building task the management would consist of a project mind having vast experience in managing building assignments, same is the situation with the job manager who must have ample experience in taking care of projects from the construction industry. The various minds of the task should also have satisfactory experience in their section of activity and advisable experience in actual projects relating to the construction industry. In such a place it might be convenient to claim as what would happen if some individuals with general task management experience are taken into projects concerning construction if structures. In normal sense it could not make that a lot of a difference. However in actual stage of implementation and the critical factors associated with it the hands on experience of a person comes in helpful. Along with it you have the factor of arranging for successful management of time and resources. In such a situation it if great advantage if employees with practical experience in specific projects are included in the project planning implementation and analysis process rather than having general task management experience (Wong; 2007). Nonetheless the primary heart for proper implementation of a task is management of your time and quality. Nowadays there are various technologies, tools and solutions to manage project planning, execution, quality control and delivery.

Techniques and Technologies:

The current project management exercise is an extremely technical function involving a number of complicated tools and techniques as well as advanced software systems to effectively implement, schedule, track and maintain the quality areas of a project. It is immaterial whether the task is a offline concept or an academics concept, what is important is that there have surfaced methods that can effectively organize all the actions and effectively build communication stations between all the stakeholders of your project to be able to maintain the time, quality and overall aims of a task.

At the outset there are basic operational tools like PERT and CPM which effectively schedule the project into different activities and measure the time, cost and materials necessary for completing the project (Kendrick; 2009). Along with these basic tools there are a few methods that quantify the time required for concluding the project along with the costs required. Some allied disciplines and tools are also used like the financial forecasts, statistical measurement of lead and lag time for completing a task as well as the application of quality tools like 'six sigma' to see that the project is going according to the accepted quality standards. But the most profound effect of technology on the project management self-control has been the development of varied software for proper management of the overall project planning, arranging, execution, quality control, budgeting and assumption processes. Among such tolls is the Job Management suite developed by Microsoft that is known as MS Projects, which really is a complete software package to manage the complete job management process. In it there are various functions and techniques to effectively plan, plan monitor and put into practice various assignments by adhering to all the functions and disciplines necessary for implementing a job (Microsoft Inc; 2009). Besides MS Assignments there are other applications designed to manage tasks that are produced by different software companies for specific tasks by different companies. Along with all these developments there were instances where companies have developed their own software and techniques through the use of a host of discrete software operations to set-up their own job management tools that focus on all its aspects including budgeting and quality control. In essence all these software's have made the project management with overall planning, scheduling, quality control budgeting and monitoring, a soft and hassle cost process by which the managers can desire to achieve expected results without going out of anything to chance. This runs quite a distance in reaching efficiency in task planning scheduling and control process as well as its proper execution.


Project management is a complicated and complicated process demanding coordination of a host of disciplines along with men, money material that should be coordinate within an effective time frame to accomplish all the goals of a project without reducing on the product quality facet of it. By doing so it is needed to design proper planning, arranging and quality control mechanisms to give proper implementation to it. Within this it becomes necessary to take the help of different tools techniques, documentation processes and technology so the project gets integrated successfully and matching to its objectives.


  • Reference:

  • Gary Heerkens; "Project Management"; McGraw Hill Professional; 2001; 250 pages
  • H Levine; "Practical Job Management: Tips, Tools and Strategies"; John Wiley & Sons; 2002
  • D Hillson; "Effective Opportunity Management for Tasks"; Marcel Dekker; 2003
  • Harold Kerzner; "Project Management: A Systems Method of Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling";Wiley; 2009 1120 pages
  • Greg Horine; "Absolute Beginners Guide to Project Management"; Que publications; 2009; 432 pages
  • James P. Lewis; "Fundamentals of Job Management"; AMACOM; 2006; 160 pages
  • James Lewis; "Project, Planning, Arranging and Control"; McGraw-Hill; 2005; 550 pages
  • F Harrison; "Advanced Task Management: A Organized Approach"; Gower Posting; 2004
  • R. Turner; "The Handbook of Job Based Management"; McGraw Hill; 1998)
  • R Burke; "Project Management: Planning and control Techniques"; John Wiley & Sons; 2003
  • Mary Williams, William Meri; "The Ideas of Task Management"; Site Point; 2008; 224 pages
  • Tom Kendrick; "Project Management Toolkit"; AMACOM; 2004; 256 pages
  • Scott Berkun; "The Art work of Project Management"; O'Reilly Advertising; 2005; 374 pages
  • Scott Berkun; Making Thngs Happen: Understanding Project Management"; O'Reilly Advertising; 2008; 392 pages
  • Davis Berbee; "97 Things Every Project Manager OUGHT TO KNOW"; O'Reilly Press; 2009; 250 pages
  • L Leach; "Critical Chain Project Management"; Artech House; 2004
  • Johanna Rothman; "Manage Your Project Collection"; Pragmatic Bookshelf; 2009; 250 pages
  • Zachary Wong; "Human Factors in Task Management"; Jossey-Bass; 2007; 368 pages
  • Tom Kendrick; Identifying and Handling project Risk"; AMACOM; 2009; 368 pages
  • Microsoft Inc. , MS Jobs 07; 2009; cited in http://office. microsoft. com/en-us/project/default. aspx
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