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Planning And Plans In The Travel and leisure Industry

"In today's speedily changing business environments it can be an essential activity for each and every destination, to prevent disturbance in travel and leisure. " Mill and Morrison, (1998). The writer, say a destination is highly influenced by the wide-range effects of tourism, it is therefore vital to plan for any development.

According to J. C. Henderson, (2005), many research workers have approached the issue on tourism planning and procedures through different perspectives; "the temporal and spatial progression of destinations the effects of development, federal government growth policies, planning imperatives, marketing issues and subject areas studied. " In addition, the same publisher makes reference to the various viewpoints of different authors who make pointed out about the essential factors that could encourage tourism development at a specific destination "Critical influences relate to convenience" (Prideaux, 2000), "attraction and amenity standards" (Gunn, 2004), "awareness and positive images" (Johns and Mattson, 2005) "associated with promotion and marketing" (Buhalis, 2000), "a supportive federal" (Weaver and Lawton, 2002) and "a peaceful and steady environment" (Poirier, 1997).

Planning approach

"travel and leisure planning is thought as a comprehensive, coordinated and continuous process. . . that promote the common good of contemporary society" Relating to (Stifel, 1990), contemporary society benefits and welfare should be the key focus of all stakeholders involved in decisions making pertaining to any tourism development. In addition, "tourism planning has been defined as a process based on research and evaluation, which looks for to optimize the contribution of the individual welfare and environmental quality", (Tosun and Jenkins, 1998). Inside the above assertion, Tosun and Jenkins, trust Stifle stating that human welfare is definitely to be looked at while planning travel and leisure development and on top of it argued that tourism should not only look into tourists statistics and monetary gain, but such development should be environmentally sound.

Importance of Travel and leisure linkage

However, "planning requires the integration of the tourism industry into other industries" Timothy, (1999). Timothy argues that travel and leisure cannot operate on its, (as it is environmentally dependant) and rely on other areas of the overall economy, such as; agriculture, industry and transportation, to exist. There exists the need to create linkage. According to Nikolaos Karangiannis 2003, "lack of an overall built-in policy has limited the contribution of travel and leisure development to the country's socio-economic development. "[15] Therefore the publisher mentions that the necessity to formulae regulations for financial restructuring and diversification was eminent. The federal government in Jamaica chooses therefore, to set-up linkage between tourism, commodity production industries, and complementary and related services in order to rejuvenate the industry, increase economic gain and competitiveness.

Tourism Planning and policies

"Regulators have a vital role and open public investment and execution of pro-tourism plans can assist in making certain such circumstances do prevail. " (Joan C. Henderson, 2006) "Federal policy is about influencing the way people utilize their resources and just how they relate with the other person (within and across condition and national limitations) and their environment.

(Clare A. Gunn and Turgut Var, 2002) declare that special competencies are required to understand the performing of tourism and also to formulate guidelines. They added plans, planning and development is at any size, from countrywide to local and their goal and reasons differs in one destination to some other. (Taylor 1994), "government contains the responsibility for research and guide development, especially in three areas: travel markets, existing and potential; tourism physical flower; linkages between market needs and physical and physical vegetable development".

Further arguments, by Clare (A. Gunn and Turgut Var, 2002), stated that although government involvement is important to regulate impact of fragmented development on the environment and society, it has also been witnessed that capitalistic countries which choose a laissez-Faire tourism coverage by private sector, has hardly any government intervention. "The fact that 'political serenity, not scenic or cultural destinations, constitutes the first and central requirement of travel and leisure" (Richter and Waugh, 1986, p. 320)

(Ritcher 1994), agrees with Clare A. Gunn and Turgut Var, proclaiming that the reason for tourism regulations differs from one destination to the other as, for example, "in some countries tourism has purposely been directed toward increased immigration in expectation that visitors will become residentsstimulating of investment to increase countrywide wealth" based on the same creators it is agreed that excessive tourism growth may demand revision of procedures; conservation policies pertaining to environment, regulations for land use are some examples sustainable regulations. "Governments of countries, provinces, expresses and communities have the decision of doing nothing or doing something constructive about public tourism regulations. " (Lamb and Davison 1996)

Furthermore, "developing countries are often anxious to plan but unable to governthis cannot be done by a macro-or national-level approach"(Cevat Tosun, Dallen J. Timothy 2001). With regards to Turkey, as visitor destination, Cevat Tosun, Dallen J. Timothy, confirm Stifel's explanation of planning, proclaiming that an over-centralization of tourism planning and poor administrative techniques and regulations formulation have failed to promote common good of the culture, because government reticence and carelessness to considering regional and local conditions.

Finally corresponding to Clare A. Gunn, Turgut Var, 2002, governments never have only the capability but also the responsibility of creating, putting into action and reviewing regulations that plan travel and leisure. [6] Based on the same authors, tourism organizers need to look into three main aspects, particularly, financial, socio-cultural and environmental, when planning tourism projects for particular destinations. Comprehensive planning process and judicious formulation of policies will surmount obstacles to tourism planning in each tourist destination area and business lead to ecological development. Summary, "empirical facts through the earth clearly shows that the "model" spots for successful tourism are those which have embraced the tourism-planning notion (Mill and Morisson 1997).

Barriers to travel and leisure development

Sustainable Tourism

"if tourism is usually to be truly good for all concerned and lasting in the long-term, it must be made certain that resources are not over-consumed, that natural and individuals environments are safeguarded, that travel and leisure is integrated with other activities, that it provides real benefits to the local areasthat residents are participating and included in travel and leisure planning and execution, and that ethnicities and people are respected". (Eber, 1992).

The World Travel and leisure Organization defines lasting tourism as "tourism which contributes to management of most resources so that economic, public and visual needs can be filled while maintaining cultural integrity, basics ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems. "

Developing indicators for sustainable tourism

"The most significant attempt so far to develop signals of sustainable travel and leisure has been performed by the globe Tourism Organization (WTO) through its Environment Job Power" (Dymond, 1997; Manning & Dougherty, 1995; Manning et al. , 1996). [9] Manning et al. consider that the primary purpose of the WTO, in figuring out eleven international acceptable sustainable tourism center indicators is to aid planners and decision producers in their responsibilities. Figure 1 reveals core signals of sustainable tourism (WTO)

However, L. Twining-Ward & R. Butler, 2002, contested that the above construction has its restrictions. It is observed that though, the above mentioned indicators symbolize a wise look at towards sustainable tourism development, no provision has been designed for guiding stakeholders in the execution of same; that is, changing signal results into management action. Furthermore Regulations et al. , state that each destination is unique and thus has to consider the vacation spot local characteristics and its particular dynamics which could influence sustainable travel and leisure indicators. Policy creators should understand that there is no general model for several spots, but indeed plans have to be tailor made according to vacation spot particulars.

Moreover, it is of vital importance to review plan and strategy as a vacation spot evolve as time passes; "current policy might not be satisfactory for coping with future problems in the same vacation spot. " (Laws et al. , 1998:9) [10]

According L. Twining-Ward & R. Butler, 2002, "Samoa's Lasting Tourism Status Record 2000", is an excellent example an effective planning tool which aided Saoma Site visitors Bureau in expanding appropriate action plans and tourism understanding programmes consequently. Figure 2, is an adapted style of Saoma's effective planning and monitoring system for lasting tourism development, which is used to examining planning process in Grand Baie.

Theoretical platform for lasting planning

Figure 2 planning process, Source: adapted from L. Twining-Ward & R. Butler, 2002

Stage 1.

Project Design/ Study preparation

Stage 7. Review and improve monitoring system

Stage 6. Put into practice action plan and connect results to Stakeholders

Stage 2. Opportunity issues & formulate Goals & objectives

Stage 5 plan Action formulation

Stage 3. Study / Develop and display screen indicators

Stage 4. . Evaluation and Synthesis

Applying L. Twining-Ward & R. Butler, 2002, model on research planning in Grand Baie:

Stage 1: Design and analysis preparation; at this time there is the necessity to take decisions for planning, that is usually to be involved with planning process, (residents, NGOs, Federal, Region council, local companies, tourism specialist, beach expert; private and general population areas). Define assignments and responsibilities of each and every one, getting all stakeholders involved in the project to be able to write the analysis project conditions of reference point and coordinate the task.

Stage 2: Determine goals and goals; goals and purpose of the development program are made the decision, but these are subject to changes and changes. For example, developing alternative varieties of travel and leisure in Grand Baie, promoting community-based travel and leisure and cultural travel and leisure (cultural exchange theory) expanding environmental protection programmes for the region, educating traveler and residents towards accountable tourism, bettering security possessing a planning framework designed to Gran Baie needs, hence creating guidelines that will control tourism activities of the spot.

Stage 3: Survey and core indications for the region of Grand Baie; undertake research and have an inventory of the prevailing situation. Grand Baie is known because of its; safe lagoon, beautiful beaches, people (hospitality), its exotic weather, shopping facilities, restaurants, beach resorts and peripheries rich in culture and practices. Many of these elements should get great factor when planning for tourism. Each vacation spot has its unique characteristics and dynamic context. Survey can even be used to review residents' reaction regarding tourism, in their locality. Moreover can assist organizers create baseline for sustainable development in Brand Baie.

Stage 4: Examination and Synthesis; once baseline information are accumulated they have to be analised to be able to really have the basis for the plan. Reviews received from locals and different stakeholders will design policies that will ensure easy execution of planning.

Stage 5: Action plan formulation: formulation and design of plan will be based on prep and analysis of alternative procedures. Generally planning is conducted in any way levels, from individual to extensive planning. (Inskeep, 2000), claim that travel and leisure planning can be applied same ideas and methodology of standard planning; however, it is adapted to this characteristic tourism system. With this context action arrange for Grand Baie, is at local level and really should be tailor made. Consequently planners must possess strong element of predictability and appropriate skills in attempting to envision the future.

Stage 6&7: Implementation and Monitoring: the plan will be put in place in Grand Baie using different techniques. Procedures are here as suggestions to implement ideas but above all effective communication among stakeholders is essential. The risk of failure is leaner when tips are addressed to all or any stakeholders. Environmental insurance policies for sustainable development, e. g. EIA, has been established by the Government, but the magnitude to which it is been totally noticed are debatable when looking at genuine situation in Grand Baie. Hence, it's important to monitor progress in implementing the program and measure the success of the plan in getting together with its goals and goals on a regular basis. Plans generally have to be adjusted over time due to changing goals, changing market conditions, and unforeseen impacts.

"Although the monitoring project is still ongoing and its own long-term implications for the sustainability of tourism in Samoa are definately not clear, a number of important lessons can be mentioned from the Samoa example: the importance of formulating clear objectives before trying to recognize indicators, the worthiness of establishing a multi-disciplinary advisory panel, and the need of designing a powerful and flexible implementation framework for converting indicator results into management action. " (L. Twining-Ward & R. Butler, 2002) [11] Relating to L. Twining-Ward & R. Butler, stakeholders need to consider space and time-specific issues related to tourism development. Local engagement should be from early stages of development that is, planning and decisions making, to implementation. Actually STD needs to be broadening from critical issues presently facing vacation spot.

Tourist Area Life Circuit / Program in Grand Baie

Mauritius has experienced significant degrees of growth in travel and leisure over the last 30 years. Because of this, tourism is currently the largest financial activity of the island and many coastal resorts have been developed. Although island has undergone significant changes between the early on arrivals of tourists and today, there is a remarkable carelessness of research towards these changes. The periods of Butler's Area Life pattern model will thus be assessed and examined on Grand Baie, to present the life cycle stage of the destination.

According to Butler 1980, locations proceed through a pattern of evolution similar to the life circuit of something. The shape of the TALC may vary from one destination to another, nonetheless it will depend after factors such as; rate of development, access, government policy, and market tendency. The TALC model is a construction to understand how a destination and its own market evolve, through stages of kick off, development, maturity and drop.

Figure 3: Butler's Destination Lifecycle Model Adapted from (keyser, 2002)

"According to Butler (1980) vacation spots go through a predictable series of six phases. These periods are: exploration, involvement, development, consolidation, stagnation and decrease or rejuvenation. In each life circuit stage there are changes in the morphology, the types of tourists' visitation, and residents' attitudes towards tourism. "

Exploration stage

During the first "discovery stage" of the cycle a small range of unobtrusive visitors get there seeking "unspoiled" places. These early "explorer" travelers generally speak the language and identify with the local culture. The communal impact in this stage is normally small and resident attitudes are fairly positive towards travel and leisure.

Like most products, destinations have a lifecycle. In his 1980 article, Butler suggested a widely-accepted model of the lifecycle of the tourist destination. The basic idea of Butler's 1980 Travel and leisure Area Life Routine (TALC) model is a destination begins as a comparatively unknown and visitors initially come in small figures restricted by insufficient gain access to, facilities, and local knowledge. This is the case for Grand Baie that was first known as a fishing community and which market mainly derived from agriculture (glucose cane). Soon adventurers are certain to get to learn about the remoteness and amazing beaches, beryl normal water and the bay that is deeply sheltered. Tourists and host encounter is high yet somehow the desire for the destination to remain unchained by tourism prevails. At this stage Grand Baie experienced limited accessibility to the region and lacked of facilities to cater for more tourists.

According to Butler 1980, "at the participation stage, local community has to make a decision whether they wish to encourage tourism and when so, the type and scale of tourism they choose. " Through person to person vacationers' interest to go to the coastal region raises. The residents of Grand Baie will soon realize the possible potential for economical benefits. The determination to encourage travel and leisure is distributed among locals who'll cater for the basic needs of visitors. Much effort is being done to advertise the spot and attract more vacationers. Such a coastal region as Grand baie will undoubtedly generates mass tourism, because of its wonderful beaches and local elegance. Additionally Grand Baie was cheap vacation spot for visitors because of the foreign exchange money rate. But however, the "thrill of tourism" can make human population and stakeholders to overlook some important aspects such as lasting principles; restrictions on having capacity and components of predictability. At this time pressure is put on general public sector for infrastructure and regulatory physiques.

Development stage

In the early 80, s Grand Baie will know a rise in tourism growth which will pressure the destination to the next "stage of Development" mentioned by Butler in 1980. Grand Baie established fact worldwide and demand for the destination has increased noticeably. The fishing community has vanished and is now known to be the "Tourist Village".

Residents in Grand Baie end up limited in conditions of knowhow and resources to meet up with the needs of the visitors. Control shifts from locals to big investors from beyond your region and public specialist to provide competence, products and services. Massive investment and development occurred and soon Grand Baie became a tourist hub. Tourism effects are increasing with the appearing tourism activities in the region. Natural areas are cleared away supplying place to Hotels particularly; the Canonnier, the Royal Palm, the Mauricia and the Verenda. A variety of beach and sea activities are placed forward to provide visitors a distinctive experience. At this stage the changing dynamics of travel and leisure is transformed and the very nature of the resort and quality declined through problems of overused and deterioration of natural and manmade resources. Incorrect planning for Grand Baie is making development to be harmful.

Contact between travelers and local is high impacting on the lives of these involved in tourism. Locals tend to adjust their approach to life to accommodate the changing financial structure. For instance, women start working in hotels at unusual hours, practice that was long ago seen as taboo. A number of the major influences will be the effects of westernization, the eating design and gender in the form of employer. The general public authority becomes involved through infrastructure provision, highway access facilities, increasing communication network, educational and leisure facilities.

At this critical level it is highly recommended to undertake analysis on the actual situation, to examine action plan and monitoring system to ensure sustainability of tourism in Grand Baie. Actually much effort is positioned on implementing procedures at a nationwide level, relating to environmental protection in order to adhere to international plans, but on the other palm very little is being done in terms of security, destination management at peak times, social steadiness and syndication of prosperity.

"If your day, tourism is undeniable, the nocturnal activity of Grand Baie is full. The nightclubs and bars take over the beaches and natural sites stopped at in the morning. These popular places with night time owls are constantly packed and joyful atmosphere is palpable at any time until the end of the night, and much more specifically, the "Banana Cafe, a must not only is it the biggest club in the Grand Baie Town. "

Article Source: http://EzineArticles. com/?expert=Dre_Lee 31 May 2010

Positive Influences at Development Stage

(Grand Baie)

The destination grows in popularity

Expansion of service and facilities

Development of new service and infrastructure

Economic growth


Better quality of living

Negative Effects at Development Stage

(Grand Baie)

Decline in local community

Natural and built suffers from wear and tear

Conflict between local populace and tourism

Region loose authenticity

Loss of Culture, Values, and Values

Increase in expense of living

Degradation of the Environment

Exceeding hauling capacity


Increase in crime rate

Consolidation Stage

At Consolidation level, also known as critical range of elements capacity, visitor number will continue steadily to go up in Grand Baie and the vacation spot becomes reliant on tourism. More promotional and advertising efforts are carried out in many various ways to maintain existing market and get new ones. Lots of money is being injected in research and development. There is certainly more strain on the environment, where vacationer number may go over destination population. The way in which resources have been handled in the first level of the Tourism Area Life Cycle will determine the degree of impact and future of the vacation spot. The tourist-relationship is changed into one of business as the novelty of new visitor arrivals declines. A lot more culturally very sensitive "explorers" move to new "unspoiled" areas and are replaced by the mass market. The local authorities and everything stakeholders should, through lasting travel and leisure planning, consider and anticipate actions in order to mitigate tourism impacts.

Stagnation Stage

Stagnation is the stage where carrying capacity of several relevant factors is come to. Social, economic and environmental problem happen. Community instability that may lead to riots for instance, local people feeling like strangers in their home community, they realize that they may have lost their culture, principles and norms which crime rate has increase to such a spot that one will not feel secured any longer. Cost of living being too high makes it almost impossible to truly have a decent life. Those who find themselves wealthy become even richer as the poor people become poorer. Land becomes scarce and a rise in demand make for land makes a growth in price. Failing to develop further development scheduled to insufficient space (land) for these new tourism innovations and products, unemployment rate rises. Local people conception changes and local people no more show affinity for tourism sector and even think how to ruin new proposed projects.

Decline and/or Rejuvenation stage

Decline, the area of Grand Baie will never be able to contend with newer attractions, faces a declining market. Slipping earnings lead to foreign-owned businesses withdrawing and the city is still left to "grab the parts". Unless resources have been effectively managed in the early stage of the Travel and leisure Area Life Cycle then only Rejuvenation is possible. It's important to deal effectively with demand and supply. Professional should work in close collaboration with local community and keep in brain that the development plan should be developed and put in place at same speed to the progress of the city. The supportive attitude of the local people is underneath brand for the success of travel and leisure development.

If issues aren't resolved this results a severe drop in vacationer number. That's the reason stakeholders need to increase marketing and promotional efforts. New market strategies develop based on the re-structure of the tourism industry. It is also important to educate the local community and create knowing of the tourism activity. Training and development empowers the neighborhood people to better provide the industry and take advantage of the advantages produced by the tourism sector. Corporate Sociable Responsibility is a very good attempt to mitigate negative communal economic impacts. Residents tend to be more willing to be stakeholder of tourism development when such development is a positive push for environmental conservation as well as for social/cultural enhancement. Furthermore, Environmental Impacts Analysis should be conducted prior to each development arrange for ecological development.


"Tourism is becoming, more than ever, very sensitive to and reliant on a high-quality sustainable environment (Eccles 1995; Ing 1995; Nelson, Butler, and Wells 1993). The authors imply that development plan should seek to optimize the potential contribution of the human welfare and environmental quality. Planning should be in respect to the environment for the industry to sustain and keep market competitiveness. In essence approaches to sustainable vacation spot development should consider; formulating development coverage and strategies on uniqueness of natural and social appeal for the vacation spot, considering physical, biological and psychological holding capacity, developing choice forms of travel and leisure that will generate linkage with other monetary sectors, reviewing national, regional local construction plan and strategy as a destination evolve as time passes, organizers to be concern with all stakeholders in the community, hence, developing a product that rests in tranquility with local environment. Corresponding to ((L. Twining-Ward & R. Butler, 2002) Saoma has known an effective and revitalized torism industry because of its effective planning and monitoring system, construction for sustainable travel and leisure development.

According to Butler 1980, destinations proceed through a cycle of evolution like the life routine of a product, that is, all places will reach some point of "stagnation" and "decrease" where signs of negative effects become apparent. Destination will rejuvenate only if sustainable management practices have been considered at early on level of development. Harrison, in his research, records that Swaziland (in the context of life cycle), underwent swift growth in the United kingdom colonial period but has since decrease rapidly scheduled to bad planning. Planners and decision-makers should own predictable skills to foresee problems before they happen and take precautionary actions somewhat than curative ones. According to the World Commission rate on Environment and Development (1989), lasting tourism is thought as "development that fits the needs of present without reducing the ability into the future years to meet their own needs. " However, (Salah S. Hassan 2000) added that "using the best planning and development effort, a vacation spot cannot grow or revitalize unless it can offer a high level of health care, safety and security for travelers.

Finally, development is ongoing and additional research must monitor the progression of any visitor destination and examine underlying guidelines. Some obstacles continue to be and new ones may be confronted so the future is not without formidable challenges. For places to preserve their competitive advantage

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