As we know, the famous theory of cognitive development was found by Jean Piaget. He was created in 1896 (Newkirk, 2009). Newkirk also described that Piaget was a theorists in addition to a biologist. Besides, the author reported that Piaget do observing his own children and attracted to changes that occured and developed in children's head and the factors behind these changes. In addition, Gartrell (2011) also explained that Piaget's method by questioning the kids is named as professional medical method. Children began to develop their understanding through their surrounding based on four stages of cognitive development. As mentioned by Gartrell the periods are the sensorimotor level, preoperational level, concrete operational level and finally formal operations level.
The first level is sensorimotor level which begins when the infants were blessed until time of 24 months old while second stage starts around age 2 to 7 years (Santrock, 2011). The writer also said about the other phases, that will be the third stage, concrete operational level which can last from 7 until 11 or 12 years old and lastly moving to the fourth level is formal procedures stage. Set alongside the other three phases earlier which involving newborns and children, this last stage is including with the adolescence and adulthood. This is the highest level in cognitive development because this is where a person can make such reasoning and hypothesis (Santrock, 2011) for example, not only concrete occasions but also towards abstract situations such as thoughts or inferencing scientific experiments.
Furthermore, Santrock (2011) proposed that we now have two basic tendencies that should go together with these four phases, which are business and adaption. Ormrod (2011) stated that corporation is possibility of a person to handle their procedure for thinking. Additionally it is called as strategies this means the foundation of intelligent patterns. Next, adaption is the procedure of an individual to adjust to the environment (Ormrod, 2011). In the same way, Ormrod stated that there are two basic operations in adaption that are assimilation and accommodation.
According to Krause, Bochner and Duchesne, cognition is the mental functions involved in perceiving, joining to, understanding and recalling information' (2007, p43). Piaget's theory of cognitive is underline into the consciousness of mind and thinking. As children are growing, their thought process started to change from time to time consequently to the four phases. Piaget had not been really interested in to the knowledge having by the children but he was more fascinated with the way of children think, see their surrounding and how they express it into speeches (Krause et al. , 2007). The authors too found that Piaget and his theory are important because he's the first theorists that came out with such theory about development of children from the facet of cognitive and his idea is still be using untill now even though it has been years.
Self development is vital in children's life since it develop in them while they are growing up. In Piaget's theory of cognitive development, he concentrated of four stages of children development that are, sensorimotor stage as the first, second of all is preoperational level, next concrete functional stage and last but not least formal operations level.
As explained prior, sensorimotor level is occured from the birth untill age 2 years. According to Krause et al. , (2007), newborns in this level will commence to develope their reflexes by doing some electric motor activities and senses. They want to understand the world around them. For example, newborns will show happy manifestation or laughing when we are teasing and cuddling with them, this implies that infants started to seem sensible things around them but with limited capabilities because it is only based on what they get through their senses. In sensorimotor, there are sub-stages that divided into 6 categories, that are reflexes, primary circular reactions, extra circular reactions, coordination of reactions, tertiary circular reactions and early representional thought (Brenda, 2010). The first sub-stage is reflexes, regarding to Brenda (2010) this sub-stage is occured from the labor and birth of the infants until one month old. In this stage, newborns understand their surrounding by using simple reflexes for example they will starting to laugh. Next, primary round reactions sub-stage is when the newborns are 1 to 4 weeks. Variety of actions will be perform. For instance, babies are sucking his or her thumb, and consequently they will do it again the same actions because it pleasure them. Since it continues on, third sub-stage is supplementary round reactions which occured during 4 to 8 calendar months. Brenda (2010) talked about in this sub-stage, the infants will be doing the same actions but it extends out to the environment such as changing sucking their thumbs with plastic toys. Quite simply the infants are having improvement in their reactions. Additionally, in fourth sub-stage which is coordination of reactions from the age of 8 to twelve months. They will begin showing clear actions and watch others behavior other than beginning to develop potential in recognizing things that had been proven to them. As example, instead of sucking thumb, infants will replace it with their toys. They could squeeze their rubber toys and games, when it goes "mooo mooo", they'll get thrilled and squash it again. Krause et al. , (2007) suggested that the infants also will understand that their toys and games are can be found even though they cannot be seen or touch it or called it as "object permanance". For instance, a doll initially was played out by infant, whenever we put and hide it under blanket the infant can look for it. Infants who do not reach this sub-stage will not be in a position to look for this, however they will just not realize it. As the newborns are growing up to become toddlers, the sub-stages also moving to the next, tertiary secular reactions where occured during toddler time 12 to 1. 5 years. This is the time where small children will learn the idea of trial-error experiments with the goal of getting attention (Brenda, 2010). Specifically, one of the activity might be doing by toddlers is reaching fork and spoon on the table, just to know what will happen, what sound should come out, and what are the reactions they'll get from others. Krause et al. called this technique as 'goal-directed or intentional action' (2007, p46). Last but not least sub-stage is early on representional discussion, from the toddlers at age group of 18 until two years old (Krause et al. , 2007). Based on the writers, this previous sub-stage is where we can see the toddlers commence to imitate others. In this level, people around them have to be careful and only if possible showing them the nice part especially their parents. It is because since parents will be the closest people in toddlers life, they'll watch what their parents are doing. For example, if the moms usually sweeping the house at the morning, the small children will observe it and will do the same action of sweeping the house though it is with no broom. WHEN I experienced this too, within my trips to my auntie's home, she's a 19 calendar months old toddlers. I understood that her child keep pursuing my way of reading periodicals and drinking espresso from my mug. Despite the fact that the objects are not with the infant, but she adopted my actions. For me, parents have to get close with toddler to help their expansion and make an effort to play game with them such as peek-a-boo game because this can help the kids to strenghten their "object-permanance" potential and moving to the next periods as Piaget experienced observed.
The second level that connect with child development is preoperational level, which occured within the age of 2 to 7 years old. Newkirk (2009) proposed that children in this stage will develop from several aspects. They will be more suitable in the use of terminology skills for occasion they can clarify the objects by changing it with pictures or words. However they still not have the ability to speak like adult, they can at least use one or two-words sentences to delivered announcements. Regarding to Newkirk, creativity degree of children in this level will most likely increase and they are more curious to all or any things instead of being rational. Unlikely the first level, in this second stage children will spend more of their time by putting role while they may be playing. For example, children always pretend a pack is a house for them to shelter. Even myself experienced that during my childhood. I built my so-called 'home' by using boxes and I create my own 'family participants' using my dolls in which to stay that house, I even pretend grilled foods for my 'family'. This prove that children's creativity during this stage is high however they still need supervision from parents in case they are exposed to unappropriate elements. Krause et al. (2007) mentioned that there are three main characteristics of preoperational stage that happen to be egocentrism, centration and animism. The author define egocentric as the individual who is struggling to share another person's idea or view because the individual considered that view are the same with he or she. Piaget's had finished with the Three Mountain Tasks model experiments, and as the effect the children expects that the person on other area of the model is finding the same view as them (Krause et al. , 2007). Next is centration, the creators described the meaning as the children focus on one feature of issues while disregarding other features. For example, children won't understand if we tell them "Your sister is my daughter" because their ability is limited. Moving on, the last attribute is animism. In this particular characteristic, the writers stated that children opinion that all things have lives. They considered inanimate items have emotions and thoughts like them. For instance, a girl who age three years old always talk to her teddy carry as the teddy bear is alive and answers her.
Piaget's third level in child development is concrete functional level which is from age 7 to 11 years (Santrock, 2011). During this stage, children are able to logically think about the concrete occasions and starting to eliminate their egocentrism which means they started to learn to view other's point of view too. Even though they are getting ready in the consumption of logic however they still getting the difficulty in understanding the hypothetical concepts (Krause et al. , 2007). The authors also claimed that there are several operations in this stage that involve in child development, that are reversibility where the children be capable of take into account the slow event such just as numerical solving problems where they have to add and subtract and add it back again, second is seriation which menas the capability to mentally put things in order regarding to its features for example size, weight, and height. Next is compensation, where the children find a way observe that something is increase because of something is lower such as the elevation is increasing due to width s lessening and vice versa. Besides, the fourth is classficiation this means the ability that children have to mention and identify the models or band of the objects by its features such as size, shades and appearance. Course addition is the fifth procedures mentioned by the writers which bring the meaning of ability to understand that a little amount of groups can be combine to form a large group as Krause et al. called it as 'multiple classification' (2007, p53). For instance an automobile can be include into it's brand name such as Proton or under large band of vehicles. Lastly the techniques found by Krause et al. (2007) is conservation, whereby children at last know that quantities, or lenghts aren't related in any way to the set up or appearance of the items. For example, a kid is presented with two same size of bowls filled with flour, but when one of the entire bowl flour is pour into jar with different size he and they will still know that the number of the flour is the same either it is bowl or jar.
Lastly, the fourth levels in Piagetian is formal procedures which occur to 11 yrs. old children and beyond (Santrock, 2011). Even as we can see, this is actually the highest level of child development in Piaget's theory as it runs until our adulthood. Santrock explained that in this phases people continue to develop potential of thinking with occurrence of abstract idea. Logically, children begin to take notes about the opportunity of the consequences of every happenings they experienced and also started to think in a formal way. Besides, Krause et al. (2007) suggested that children in this level are already learn how to use deductive and inductive reasoning. As the author define deductive reasoning as the potentiality of children to use a general principle to determine a specific result, on the other palm inductive reasoning is using and observing specific outcome to add general principles. In this particular final stage also children will establish their problem resolving activities. When getting into adoloscence, they could do systematic planning in their life and also make a hypothesis, inference much better than periods before (Brenda, 2010). Overall, that are the four stages that involve in child development until adolescence.
Preschool children are basically who are still develop their cognitive skills in level two, preoperational. As stated by Krause et al. (2007) regarding making use of Piaget's theory into preschoolchildren who remain in level two, there will be at least two people that involved in helping to apply this cognitive theory to children first of all parents, secondly educators or teachers. Additionally, by introduce to children this idea means we have been permitting them to to be unbiased and explore their world by themselves.
Preschool children who are essentially age between 4 to 6 6 years are in preoperaional level. As I described in earlier sub-questions, children in this level has become more competent in obtaining dialect skills and using it to represent objects but still limited because they cannot reached the incidents where explanation need to connect with concrete logic. First of all as parents, they must give freedom to their children especially preschool children that can be played using their friends since children in this stage will spent more of their time with participating in (Krause et al. , 2007). Nowadays, most parents always having myths, they feel that they can not let their children play too much, in fact they should not too stringent in controlling their children. What parents must do is by letting their children play with their friends but make sure you supervision who are their friends. Logically, regarding to Krause et al. , giving children chance to try out, they will explored their world while getting together with friends (2007). Produce a safe-mode place to allow them to play so that they feels your attention towards them, in this process children will come across some problems. This is actually the right time to let them be freedom by solving their problems but with guidance. Even though at first they might not really capable in solving it but it will be better as they go through this technique and get knowledge from whatever we called as hands-on activities (Krause et al. , 2007). Besides, Ormrod recommended that parents should communicate with their children especially who are in this level. It is because children may feel overlooked if their parents are too occupied and even do not have time to invest with them. In other way, this also a good opportunities to increas the level of self-esteem of the kids.
On the other hands, educators also play an important role in applying preoperational level towards preschool children. Newkirk found out that since children in this stage will most likely maintain egocentrism state, they do not realize about other perspectives (2009). So, as a teacher need to find out how to handle this example for example enabling the children having talk with the peers in course will enhance their understanding of others' world or teachers can create a questions and answers procedure with the preschool students. The goal of doing that is because to raise the self esteem of children and to let them hear others views too so that their level of egocentrism can be decrease. As an educators, creactivity is needed to appeal to preschool children in learning such as by using visual aids to encourage the children's mind (Newkirk, 2009). Types of visual aids are like having props like the real fruits if instructors want to teach about kind of fruits in school. After finished coaching, teachers can provide the students with the fruits, and let them hold the hands-on experience. The author also did described that to be able to develop preoperational stage between your children, use things that will vary for examples cue cards written words and ask them to create sentences predicated on cards they have or teachers can ask the preschool students to work in a group. In addition, interactions with peers can help the preschool children to improve their cognitive development or it is called as disequilibrium (Ormrod, 2011). Why chatting with peers can help the kids? This is because, logically the children and peers are at the same get older level, so they can be more understanding between their group.
How can we know if the children are applying preoperation level in their cognitive development? Krause et al. (2007) referred to that the development at each cognitive phases is named as milestones. With this preoperational level, Krause et al. also reported the children's milestones development is from the facet of thinking and vocabulary skill whereby they know to replace objects with sketching, words or gestures. As for case, when children are in shopping mall, they could tell their parents by pointing to the things that appeal to them such as toys and games and dolls. Besides children also learnt to produce sound for example while these are using their soldier toys and games, they can make sound like "dush dush" to point the soldier toys they are playing with are fighting. In contrast, children who do not develop well in this stage will no have the ability to differentiate between your living things and inanimate things. For example, they are simply treating the true cats and cat doll exactly like both have feelings, emotions and learn how to feel famished whereas only the living things can feel everything.
In a nutshell, children will reached each stages when the readiness come and they still have to be taught to guide to the right path. Krause et al. (2007) did proposed that teachers and parents shouldn't coach their children the best level of phases if it is not the right time by means the kids are not ready yet.
In conclusion, I decided with propose advised by Ormrod (2011), Piaget's theory have its own benefits and disadvantegous. As Piaget's idea was the first ever to discuss cognitive development among children, his idea is the famous one and still be utilized even until today. For me, Piaget's theory possessed transformed people's view about children development. Despite the fact that as reported by Newkirk (2009), children development aren't always moving from each level according to the age group that Piaget's designed, but they still will moving based on the level either it is fast or later. Last but not least, execution of cognitive theory in children development is very effective as it will be very helpful towards the kids themselves as this theory help impact children in the areas of biological maturation, activities, social activities and equilibration.