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Physical hazard

Can physical hazard really harm consumer?

Food hazard:

A Food hazard can be explained as presence of undesirable matter in food which can cause negative influence on consuming it. You can find three types of risk in food industry: Physical, Chemical substance and Biological.

Physical risk is any foreign subject in food products which can cause harm or health issues to a person consuming the merchandise. These could be anything like bits of bone, piece of metal, packaging material, insects, etc. A physical threat can enter into the meals at any stage of the food production. The options for these contaminants are recycleables, poorly taken care of facilities and equipments, untrained employees, poor development procedure. To remove these hazards it is important to put into action HACCP along with the Pre-requisite programs such nearly as good processing practice, good cleanliness, etc. It really is regarded as quality issue and not as security.

A person eating a food with physical hazard could go through various risks. It can cause

  1. lacerations to mouth area or neck.
  2. damage to teeth or gums.
  3. damage to tummy or intestine.

How do they enter into foods?

Physical hazards can enter any level of the production. Below are the listed out few examples.

  • Metal: resources could be from machineries, wild hair, bits from blade, broken needles, and parts from vessels.
  • Glass: resources can be broke lights, window panes, cup containers.
  • Plastic: sources can be from product packaging material, chopping boards, storage pots, gloves etc.
  • Soil and stone: main sources can be from the field crops and also from the floor surfaces and ceiling of the factory.

Classification of physical dangers:

These are labeled on their level of risks to the consumer. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) has grouped physical hazards into three:

  • Category I
  • Category II
  • Category III

The category I expresses risky, category II with a modest risk and category III with the low threat of any cases scheduled to physical threat. The low risk zone expresses that we now have good control options set up but modest infractions happen. The moderate risk zone ends in average control procedures proven and inconsistencies take place. The risky results in credited to little or no control and has major infractions appear. Every food has its own levels of risk and every food things have to be monitored and ensured that appropriate control measures are in location to eliminate the threat to a satisfactory limit.

According to the meals and Drug Supervision (FDA):

  • Objects which are hard or well-defined of size 7-25mm in length signify potential physical threat in food.
  • Natural hard or sharpened components like shells can cause injury to consumers if indeed they have no idea that they are an all natural food element.
  • Natural hard and very soft objects that happen to be usually removed in foods but are 100% effective such as existence of bone in fish fillets.

Elimination of Physical risks:

There are systems and solutions to eliminate physical hazard to a satisfactory limit. HACCP and pre essential programme is very important and effective. But to give attention to the idea of accessibility of dangers would be more effective, that happen to be raw materials, storage area and requirements. Inspection of raw materials and food element for any contaminants Eg: stones in rice. Storage space - Good storage space practice and analysis of potential dangers in storage area Eg: Bulbs, pests, real wood pallets, etc. Could be avoided using bulb cover, protection of insects. Specs and control for those ingredients and components including recycleables and packaging materials. The requirements must comply with the rules. Eg: A limit of detection should be founded to avoid fake detection. Putting in effective diagnosis device and removing physical hazards. Eg: Steel detectors, filters etc). Periodic checking and upgrade of tools in facilities to avoid way to obtain physical dangers such as nuts and bolts from exhausted equipments. Work training on shipping, storing and handling of food materials will also help lowering physical risks.

How can physical risks be diagnosed and eradicated?

There will vary types of solutions to detect physical hazards.

  1. Material detectors will help in discovering metals in food stuffs. They can setup to products from the development line if metal is detected. Additionally it is necessary to check the detectors frequently to be correct.
  2. X- Ray machines can be applied to food production lines to detect dangers such as stones, plastics, bones and metals, etc.
  3. Aesthetic inspection could also assist in a few circumstances of physical dangers.

Chicken manufacturing stock:

Let us consider procedure for raw breast fowl manufacturer and the physical hazards involved. The procedure starts by getting the uncooked chicken from the principal producer. This is exercised by counting on supplier quality confidence (SQA) and this guarantee the company is meeting the standards of the buyer and the product is safe from risks till the time of delivering it to the customer. The rooster is cut; the skin is removed and cleaned. At this stage, physical hazards included are items from the chopping panel, chipped items of knife, bones, feathers, etc. The hazards induced by these can be avoided by having good maintenance of the tools along with proper training for the staffs. SSOP's (Sanitation Standard operating strategies) can help very much in cleaning of the machineries and instruments. This retains all documents for cleaning regimens in a daily basis and is agreed upon off by an employee stating that the device is free from any dust from the prior routine which is working up to its level. This is made required in Beef and poultry operations from 1997 because of the product's lower threshold of getting spoilt. The rooster is then filled and stored below 4C. Packaging itself has high probability for physical hazards to be introduced, for example the packaging material, labels used etc. Packing material can be a hazard and hence visual inspection can be done to ensure the packing.

A precise example for SSOP is given below to sanitize computerized labelling machine. That is done on a regular basis and each week once for cleaning the within parts.

  • Removal of all particles and physical subject.
  • Wiped by way of a clean fabric dipped in soap water.
  • A slim aerosol of QUATS (Ammonium mixture) solution is applied and designed to dry.
  • Visual inspection is done to ensure that the machine is clean.
  • If anything is busted it will always be compulsory to call maintenance team to fix it.

Once a physical threat has been recognized, a highly effective program should be exercised immediately to remove these risks or bring it to a satisfactory level. HACCP will help to bring down the chance to a satisfactory level or clear out every physical threat from the system. Auditing process would draw out the region of weakness in the development cycle. Make sure that the CCP's (Critical control point) are covered by the individual critical limits. All the process is usually to be written into a record for future use in case of emergencies. A regular auditing can help the production within safe boundaries and not resulting in any catastrophe. More assistance can be obtained from consulting services, trained HACCP professionals, on-site training for workers etc. Therefore to prevent any threat of food situations to consumers and from economic downfall, it is clear to identify and understand the prone hazards. Make sure effective control measures are in place that would reduce or remove any risks admittance situation. A well developed HACCP plan will help solve the majority of the possible threat situation and a proper controlled quality control system will be of a good support. Taking up these steps would ensure that a food stated in a stock is safe from any possible physical hazards.


1) http://foodsafety. unl. edu/haccp/start/Identifying%20Hazards%20Physical%20Hazards%20July%202003. pdf

2) http://www. gov. mb. ca/agriculture/foodsafety/processor/pdf/cfs02s74. pdf

3) http://foodsafety. unl. edu/haccp/start/physical. html

4) http://www. foodsafety. com/haccp. html#five

5) http://cnx. org/content/m33333/latest/

6) http://www. jphpk. gov. my/Agronomi/KAV/5HACCP1. pdf

7) http://foodsafety. unl. edu/haccp/prerequisites/sop. html

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