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Personality Development Erikson's Eight Stages

A pool of 208 items that survived a scientific analysis was implemented to 528 themes and then factor examined. It focuses on life-span development. For this reason fact, the study information on the development and initial validation of an instrument, the Inventory of psychosocial balance (IPB). It was designed to assess all eight stages, with an initial give attention to its implementation to adult content. The method is composed of a level development, topics and a factor analysis. The research of Ericson`s eight levels resulted in an initial pool of 346 items, written to reflect both positive and negative areas of the eight phases. Each item was five-point Likert response format which range from "strongly agree" (1) to "strongly disagree" (5). In addition the pool was administered to 528 content. The test was quite heterogeneous. The respondent were required to rate 0%-100% scale, how successfully they had achieved each of 19 life problems for example effective person, trusting other people or loving someone etc. The 528 IPB protocols were published to a factor analysis by using a principal element and a correlational evaluation with self-ratings of life obstacles. The factor analysis eight meaningful factors matching to the eight stage: trust, autonomy, effort, industry, identification, intimacy, generativity and ego integrity. The full total variance accounted for by the eight factors is 72, 34 %, with the trust factor having the largest ratio of variance (17, 46%) and the Ego Integrity factor having the smallest (5, 47%).

The evidence offered suggests that the IPB can be an psychometrically reliable and valid device to investigate life-span to approach personality development. The IPB shows adaptive range of subjects, from college or university age children to elderly and its own trustworthiness and validity show up adequate. The IPB symbolizes a vertical translation of Erikson`s psychosocial phases.

2. Article: "Psychology Development and Friendship Functions in Adolescence"

Source: Sex Assignments, Vol. 25

Summary:

The articles is about the relationship between friendship variables and adolescent psychosocial development, specifically individuality and psychosocial intimacy as targeted by Erikson.

This research includes making love differences. Erikson alternatively did not explicitly postulate differentepigenetic charts for men and women, nor do he suggest different operations for males and females in terms of activity through the encounters of "crisis" and "commitment" at each stage of development. The purpose of the present research was to investigate different varieties of id and intimacy development through assessment (a) of if the sexes differed in their comparative proportions across these different styles, and (b) whether specific companionship beliefs and characteristics were associated with the various styles. The styles were defined by building four groups based on high and low credit scoring on the individuality and intimacy methods used. In fact, friendship patterns will tend to be relevant to both personal information and intimacy development, although their meanings and importance may vary for men and women. One hypothesis examined in the present research, therefore, was that females and men would be unequally allocated across developmental style, with relatively more males choosing the High Personal information highway tomaturity and relatively more females the High Intimacy style. In contrast to this hypothesis the research shows that there were no differences between the sexes in their selection of developmental style. But those in the high-identity-high-intimacy and the high-identity-low-intimacy communities were more satisfied with their friendships, which made an appearance affectively richer. Furthermore the friendship during adolescence and youthhas an unique and important affect in the life of the average person. The research appears that we now have distinctions between same- and opposite-sex friendships. Gender differences exhibited that while a friendly relationship variables were more firmly chained with development for kids, girls looked at their associations as better and imputed more importance to this closeness. The method comprises an example of secondary institution students and school students. Subjects were attracted from two supplementary colleges and two schools, each ofthese institutions providing students from middle to lower middle income areas. The attendant were asked "friendship questions", that have been divided in four portions: Section A--Demographic variables; Section B--Intimacy and Identification scales; Section C--General companionship information; Section D-Specific closest friend information. The total questionnaire had taken about 30 minutes to complete. For instance in section B, the identity and intimacy procedures administered were subscales of the Erikson Psychosocial Level Inventory. The EPSI is a self-report inventory that steps image resolution of the issues from the first six of Erikson's psychosocial phases. Items are ranked on the 5-point scale ranging from more often than not true to hardly ever true.

In order to investigate the romantic relationships between two sets of a friendly relationship factors (Standard factors and Specific Close Companionship (Same Sex)) and other variables of concern, factor results on eachfactor were computed, using the regression method. To conclude friendship and passionate relationships developed with psychosocial maturity, independently (as far as can be judged by this research), however, not as alternatives.

3. Article: "Generativity Versus Stagnation: An Elaboration of Erikson's Adult Stage of Individuals Development"

Source: Journal of Adult Development, Vol. 10, No. 1, January 2003

Summary:

This research focuses on the adult level of generativity vs. stagnation by Erikson`s psychosocial development. The research offers new ideas that happen to be associated to Erikson's theory of development in the form of 7 psychosocial issues. The stage of generativity versus stagnation presents the major conflict of adulthood. The study begins with an Eriksonian viewpoint, and then, makes changes to argue for a contending conception, that could be comprehended within Erikson's original proposal and placed within the developmental graph. The research shows up a tentative explanation of how each major level of development needs form during adulthood looked after shows the feeling of how these conflicts fill out Erikson's theory. 7 psychosocial issues are examined: inclusivity vs. exclusivity, take great pride in vs. shame, responsibility vs. ambivalence, career efficiency vs. inadequacy, parenthood vs. self-absorption, being needed vs. alienation, and integrity vs. denial. Each turmoil is connected to 1 of Erikson's other levels of development. The analyze make an effort to expand Ericson`s 7 issues. In conclusion the issues could be described empirically and validated by linking them with other methods of ego development and generativity. The conflicts and crises of adulthood could be produced more clear and at the same time more complex by using the humanities to acquire and demonstrate the effects of each conflict. Gleam need to connect these ideas with history and broader societal issues.

4. Article: "Development and Validation of your Measure of Eriksonian Industry"

Source: Journal of Personality and Sociable Psychology, 1991, 'Col. 60, No. 3, 390-397

Summary:

This study place emphasis on the fourth stage of Erikson`s psychosocial development: industry-inferiority. Operationalization of the industry build was begun by explaining it as consisting of three components: skills and knowledge, their software, and affective experience of their acquisition and request in useful directions. These components span the cognitive (Part 1: skills and knowledge), behavioral (Component 2: Request of Skills and Knowledge) and affective domains (Aspect 3: Attitudes Toward and Experience of the Acquisition and Request of Skills and Knowledge).

The procedure for demonstrating predictive validity for the existing solution, a step on the way to establishing build validity for the concept of industry, consisted of several methods. The first included deciding the conceptual validity of the existing meaning of industry by correlating each componentscore both with one another and with the entire mean industry credit score. Second, children's own industry ratings were correlated with those provided by two categories of observers, instructors and parents. Third, seven parameters were selected to be able to examine the predictive validity of the new industry measure. Three of the were behavioral and four were predicated on test reactions. The first behavioral strategy for example included observation of classroom behavior, that is, on-task versus off-task performance. Four other variables were made by items inlayed in the Children's Industry questionnaire (CIQ) and were predicated on Erikson's theoretical explanations of correlates to a sense of industry.

The final subject pool of this research contains 187 pupils from eight classrooms in three public elementary schools. There were 101 kids (54%) and 86 females (46%). The age range was 8. 6-12. 8 years. The CIQ as a solution contains 47 items evaluating the three components of the industry build and 22 items calculating the expected correlates of industry. Three response settings were used with the CIQ. By far the most widespread form (54 items) was the "structured solution format" produced by Harter (1982). The kid is asked first to decide which child he or she is most like by choosing the child identified on the left or right. Once the choice is manufactured, the child is required to decide the level to which the description is true for him or her on a level which range from 1 to 4--that is, type of true or really true, therefore forth--a score of just one 1 indicating the low degrees of the industry construct.

The second response function on the CIQ was multiple choice. The third CIQ response function was open-ended questions. Furthermore there were used a Teacher Industry questionnaire (TIQ) and a Father or mother Industry questionnaire (PIQ).

In final result current findings are usually supportive of the present description of industry which measure of it. Significant contract between different types of observers, making observations in a number of different ways, and the industry strategy was consistently obtained. Results of the present study give a solid starting to the process of validating the build of industry.

5. Article: "Psychosocial development in older people: A study into Erikson's ninth level"

Author: Cynthia Brown, Michael J. Lowis

Department of Psychology, University College Northampton, Park Campus, Northampton,

England.

Source: Journal of Increasing age Studies 17 (2003) 415-426

Summary:

In their article "Psychosocial development in older people: An investigation into Erikson's ninth level" the authors Brown and Lowis want to determine the exist of the ninth level regarding to Joan Erikson's recommendation. Because of an increasing range of old people especially in developed countries like Germany or Japan it is necessary to do a research concerning this. In the end an older contemporary society provide new demands, reevaluations and daily problems. Even Erik Erikson noticed personality as a lifelong developmental process but his theory ends with the eight stage ego integrity versus despair at age 65. For his or her research the authors used a self-report study with individuals either completing questionnaires themselves or being assisted to do so through closed down question interviews. The reactions were suitable for coding and succeeding quantitative research. Additional qualitative data were obtained through open up questions.

As a result they found out that the Stage 9 scores for individuals aged in their 80s/90s are significantly higher than for those aged in their 60s, but there is absolutely no factor between Stage 8 results for both age groups. But these conclusions can only be generalized to a wider society when they are established by additional research: today's participants did adopt a variety of ages, locations, and living agreements, but comprised females only, and numbered just 70 individuals in total. However the authors produced a musical instrument that has reliably assessed a variable that grows to its ascendancy at an time beyond that normally ascribed to the developmental stage of ego integrity versus despair. And when confirmed, the presence of a Stage 9 would suggest that humans remain in a situation of potential psychological expansion throughout their life span.

6. Article: "Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development and Job Development"

Author: Patrick H. Munley, Veterans Administration Clinic, Lyons, New, Jersey

Source: Journal of Vocational Patterns 10, 261-269 (1977)

Summary:

In this information the author statistics out some of the efforts of Erik Erikson's theory of the eight phases of development in providing a developmental perspective on career habit. First he describes Erikson's Theory of the eight life phases. In his opinion the introduction of basic senses of effort, industry, identity, generativity, and integrity all

seem to be especially relevant to career development patterns. The theory offers a platform for integrating job development with overall human being development. Furthermore Erikson's theory recognizes the role of sociable and cultural factors in relationship to life circuit development and a theoretical framework for integrating research findings on the sociology of career behavior which was already shown by several researches. A 3rd contribution of Erikson's theory is that of the individuality turmoil and ego id. Making a vocational choice or determination is often the first important decision marking the changeover from adolescence to adulthood. This is why why one of the major responsibilities through which id concerns are portrayed in adolescence is the process of making a vocational choice. For example Somebody who is undecided in terms of career may well not just be undecided about a vocation. He may maintain the midst of an overall identity crisis. On the other hand someone who has a feeling of ego personal information is most likely more able to make appropriate vocational decisions and options.

At the finish the author concluded that from both a theoretical and empirical viewpoint, Erikson's theory seems to provide a encouraging perspective for observing profession development. He said that The theory offers a framework for integrating career development with overall human development and makes a contribution toward offering a point of view for integrating interpersonal factors and personality development with career development.

7. Article: "The HEALING PROCESS Utilizing Erikson's Periods of Human being Development"

Author: Suzanne E. Vogel-Scibilia, Kathryn Cohan McNulty, Beth Baxter, Steve Miller, Utmost Dine, Frederick J. Frese III

Source: Community Ment Health J (2009) 45:405-414

Summary:

The authors offer a psycho-developmental model that parallels Erik Erikson's theory of individuals development, and theorize that the procedure of psychiatric restoration entails a psychic reworking of these important steps. They included all the next fundamental components of recovery which were identified by the United States Department of Health and Human being Services (2005) into this developmental model: self-direction, individualized and person-centered, empowerment, alternative, non-linear, strength-based, peer-support, respect, responsibility and desire. In the eyes of the creators this develops an understandable, practical framework which allows transformation of traditional programs and healing contacts into recovery-oriented services. The creators propose eight opportunities to resolve conflict in the service of personal expansion and development, which parallels Erikson's eight stages. The eight periods are: Trust versus Uncertainty, Hope versus Shame, Empowerment versus Guilt, Action versus Inaction, New self versus Sick personal, Intimacy versus Isolation, Purpose versus Passivity Generativity and Integrity versus Despair. Based on these eight stages and on Erikson's stages of development they explain and compare the various recovery levels regarding to the healing process of people.

8. Article: Personal information Status Theory and Erikson's Theory: Communalities and Differences

Author: Alan S. Waierman, Trenton Talk about College

Source: Developmental Review 8, 185-208 (1988)

Summary:

In this post the author outline the critique of Ct and Levine on the id status theory produced by James Marcia and he compares the idea with Erikson's theory of the eight levels of development. Marcia's theory provides four assertions: Personality Diffusion (the status in which the adolescent does not have a sense of experiencing choices), Identity Foreclosure (the status in which the adolescent seems willing to commit to some relevant roles, worth, or goals for future years), Personality Moratorium (the status where the adolescent is currently in an emergency, discovering various commitments and is preparing to make selections) and Identity Achievement (the status where adolescent has gone through a identification problems and has made a committed action to a feeling of individuality), which fluctuate in a few important respects from that employed by Erikson.

The author says that there surely is basic agreement about the construct of identification itself.

Erikson, Marcia and other authors using the personality status paradigm are grasping for the same phenomenon. Furthermore they are the same opinion regarding to the domains within an individual's life that provide the framework within which someone's sense of individuality is formed. These include vocational choice, spiritual beliefs, political ideology, sex-role behaviour, and spousal and parenting tasks. They are only two communalities of seven which the author cases. But there are also differences between these two theories. First he says that there surely is a broad divergence between Erikson and the identity status theorists using the id status paradigm, regarding the viability and electricity of the psychoanalytic platform within which the build of ego personal information was formerly developed. The next difference is that the identity position paradigm explicitly addresses a lot more conscious areas of the task of identity creation which relates to the rejection of psychoanalytic theory by many id status theorists and analysts and in contrast to Erikson. You will discover five more differences which the creator understands in his article. And the finish of his article he gives a forecast on personal information research.

9. Article : Personality Ideas - Erik Erikson

Author : Dr. C George Boeree From Shippensburg University

Source : Original E-Text-Site: [ http://www. ship. edu/%7Ecgboeree/perscontents. html ]

Summary :

Oglala Lagota, One of the Oglala Lagota, it was traditional for an young teenage or adolescent to set off on his own. Everybody acquired a dream, you have a aspiration and I acquired a dreams. In a few case, the desire would lead us into the realm of controlled deviations among the everybody. Eight expresses start from infancy on the dental sensory state, the second is the anal muscular stage, third condition is genital-locomotor level or play get older, fourth condition is the latency stage or school years child from 6-12, five state is adolescence. Its beginning with puverty and stopping around 18 for twenty years old, six I don't know what stage name, copy writer not offering it. Which will last from about 18 to about 30. The ages in the adult stage are mush fuzzier than in the child years stages. And people may differ significantly. 7 level is that of middle adulthood. The center life problems, if you success at this time, you will have a capacity for carring that serve you through the others of your life. Reffered to delicalely as late adulthood or maturity, or less delicately as old age ranges of last level, starts sometimes around you retirement after the kids have gone say around 60. It's the stage just see the good thing and bad.

10. Article : Using Erikson to Work More Effectively with Teenage Parents

Author : Lorraine DeJong

Source : www. naeyc. org/resources/journal.

Summary :

According to the article, it's speak about the using Erickson's theory to tech young mothers. If we see in article, we'll learn of level of teenager father or mother in U. S. A. It is rather big problem as a result of rate of pregnancy in teens become higher and it'll be a public problem. But how Erickson's theory nervous about this article? The writer provides idea that it can benefit teacher understand teenager parent feeling and the need of them.

The writer selects the stage 1 to 5 since it concern about teenager age range. Level1 is speak about infancy. In the event the teenager lacking a trust in the world, it will influence to her baby, she will reject advice of educator. Level2-Toddlerhood, if young mother increase without responsibility, she may reprove about her challenges. May be she won't look after her child. Level3-Preschoolyears, with no positive guide range in this stage, a teenager may luck in basic sense of inquisitiveness, ambition, and empathy, she may not desire for her child. Level4-School-ageyears, if teenager fails in success in this stage, she may feels incompetent and poor. As well as the last-Adolescence, everything depend on the past if indeed they didn't get trust, autonomy, initiative, and industry, they could show tendencies that hazard for positive individuality development. After the aftereffect of Erickson's theory of teenager father or mother, a writer provides suggestion for growing trust; autonomy, effort, and industry such as find the way to indentify teenager, teach teenagers show and manger responsibility, and etc.

If adolescence mother have a good personality development approach, she will value her responsibility to be mindful her child. It's very important to consider because every level have a meaning in term of these, if it lack or gone, it will impact to sense of the moms and the challenge will on children.

11. Article : Trust, Identity, and Ego Integrity: Modeling Erikson's Center Stages Over 34 Years.

Author : Joel R. Sneed, Susan Krauss Whitbourne, Michelle E. Culang

Source :

Summary

For this informative article, Writers study in Erikson development phases in term of main stage that contain stage1, stage5, and level8. Stage1-Trust that review in term of continuity and wholeness in the home and in another. Level5-identity that review in the do it yourself and social. As well as the previous is Ego integrity that research about exceeds of individual lifecycle. They have a hypothesis to examine the last investigations on the RALS that email address details are as follow: Level1 is stable from age groups 20 to 42, increasing in stage5 for a long time 20 to 31 but secure in age ranges 31 to 42 and the last stage8 lowers in age groups 31 to 42.

After they use multilevel modeling testing, authors found the difference development trajectories across child and middle adulthood in each key level. The first level, writers predict endure stable over adult but after trials, the value increases in trust over the 34-calendar year period. And then is level5 follow Erikson establish enough time of the Id age range 20 to beyond, but the present test show that significant not occur before late of ages 20 and early ages 30. Plus the last is level8 so it value is reducing. But in fact it'll increase that have an impact on from environment on personality.

12. Article : Eccles Development of Children Ages 6-14.

Author : Jacquelynne S. Eccles

Source : The Future of Children WHEN College IS OUT Vol. 9 No. 2 - Semester 1999

Summary :

This article summarized level 4 of Ericson, the major developmental change that happen from 6-14 years of age. Both article offer an overview of the type of biological, psychological, and communal changes that characterize the years between 6 to 14 for article from Eccles to facilities the our research.

For children years in stage 4 is a critical period to knowing themselves. And during this time period, children will grow to adults who've the power, have a liberty, feel absolve to participate in family. Physical perception will change the mental condition. A interpersonal role changes and go away quickly when they get into the institution or doing activities with other beyond your family. During mid-childhood, , they will start to compare themselves with other, they expect success and failure, they could develop and move to other obstacles in many years.

During early adolescence is they'll mistake with physical and the communal theat change from the start. They have a freedom and distance between the family. Meanwhile, the condition may occur. They may lose of self-assurance and have a negatives tendencies such as abandonment of obligation or resigned from the school.

13. Article : College-Educated Women's Personality Development in Adulthood: Perceptions and Years Differences

Author : Alyssa N. Zucker et all

Source : Journal of Adult Development, 8, p. 28.

Summary :

The researcher analysis the different between the perception of women in each age ranges. Procedures and level of personality development in cultural change. And they recognize that self-assurance in each age range. The precise timing and different forms in men and women and children. Research to look for reasons and what boundaries to reflect the development of personality in the beginning to the end of life.

Characteristics of personality development in the next stage of maturity We use the information for the study of the faculty of Education to consider the probability that parents are better developed. The development will be personality kick picture pros and cons will vary. Women are more worried than men. Concerns that arise will be the future, job, financial, and family. Even maternity Developed in another way in each technology. Women age 40-60. Will establish faster in women years 20. State conditions because of different concerns of men and women in each technology. A group of teenagers are relatively private world is much less inclined to develop their own personality to fit the exterior world. Development will need to have their own ways to develop the correct ideas of personal.

14. Article : From Trust to Intimacy: A FRESH Inventory for Examining Erikson's Stages of

Psychosociai Development

Author : Doreen A. Rosenthal, 1. 4 Ross M. Gurney, 2 and Susan M. Moore 3

Source : Journal of Young ones and Adolescence, Vol. 10, No. 6, 1981

Summary :

Trust to intimacy relates to the six stages of Erikson's is the partnership of each level the adolescent, adulthood the adjustment of adolescents in conditions of dissimilarities in race thought and frame of mind contrast of thought, maturity, moral and your choice of the human of each level. The some information from researchers, other who've. Both the constant and distinctive have a reasons for supporting the theory of them self applied. The frame of mind, ethics of every stage differs. The problem of behavior or personality of individual and experienced is influence on the reason for the research or facts that the idea is accepted six level of Erikson

15. Article : The Learning Disabled Adolescent: Eriksonian Psychosocial Development,

Self-Concept, and Delinquent Behavior

Author : Daniel B. Pickar and Christopher D. Tori

Source : Journal of Junior and Adolescence, Vol. 15, No. 5, 1986

Summary :

This journal review about disabled children on three parameters: Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, self-concept, and delinquent behavior. It was forecasted that learning disabled children would show significantly less image resolution of Erikson's fourth stage, "industry versus inferiority" The research workers concentrate on the affective and motivational and use Erikson's psychosocial theory to understanding the public and emotional issues of learning disable adolescence. The introduction of an adequate sense of competence is the critical task of a feeling development and the effective in interactions with the surroundings.

The researcher use statistical standard of Two-way ANOVA nervous about the EPSI data, The Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Size and Delinquency Checklist. To find to result of significant of gender result between learning disable and non-learning disable teams. Gauge the significant of group and gender connection. The comparison group of the self-concept of learning disabled adolescents showed these youngsters self-concept had not been significantly unique of nondisabled but learning disabilities are significantly related to juvenile delinquency. Hypothesized that learning disabled children would demonstrate more negative self-concept and survey more delinquent habit than their nondisabled peers.

The hypothesis that learning disabled adolescents would engage in more delinquent behavior than nondisabled adolescents was not recognized. The self-report delinquency data suggested that learning disabled and nondisabled children participated in the same sorts and amounts of delinquent habit. The results of this research to provide more understanding of the psychosocial development of adolescence on different parameters.

16. Article : The Course and Psychosocial Correlates of Personality Disorder Symptoms in Adolescence: Erikson's Developmental Theory Revisited

Author : Thomas N. Crawford, 1 Patricia Cohen, 2 Jeffrey G. Johnson, 3 Joel R. Sneed, 4

and Judith S. Brook5

Source : Journal of Youngsters and Adolescence, Vol. 33, No. 5, October 2004, pp. 373-387 ( C _ 2004)

Summary :

Researchers concentrate on personality disorder in adolescents have been related to developmental patterns of behavior measured with dimensional symptom scales, personality disruptions are age-related developments in personality development. How it echo to developmental techniques in long-term risks for personality development. To understanding of how personality disorders impact on normal psychosocial development, this review used longitudinal data from a community sample to monitor declines in personality disorder symptoms from early on adolescence to young adulthood. They used it to formulate hypotheses about how personality disorders would impact on the normative duties of adolescence and young adulthood: (1) expanding an interior sense of well-being through the consolidation of identification and (2) establishing intimacy by means of lasting and dedicated romantic interactions.

Although analysts now concur that identification formulation is a life-long process, adolescence and young adulthood supply the first real opportunity to develop a sense of continuity with the past, meaning in the present, and direction for the future. Identity loan consolidation thus emerges as the cornerstone of the capacity to prosper and forms the basis of self-acceptance and self-esteem. Id diffusion may reveal many characteristics with personality disorder symptoms according to a community-based test of adolescents to ascertain whether age-related declines in Axis II symptoms are related with raises in well-being during adolescence and social intimacy during adulthood to focus on borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic symptoms (Cluster B symptoms).

Two groups of sample were looked into to determine if age-related declines in Cluster B symptoms are associated with raises in well-being and interpersonal intimacy during adolescence and early on adulthood. To the scope that personality disorder symptoms mirror individuality diffusion in Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, we expected Cluster B symptoms would inhibit id consolidation at least insofar as it manifests in well-being. They also expected Cluster B symptoms to be associated with delays in the development of intimacy.

17. Article : Mom, Melancholia, and Play in Erik H. Erikson's Years as a child and Society

Author : Donald Capps

Source : J Relig Health (2007) 46:591-606 DOI 10. 1007/s10943-007-9123-4

Summary :

This article concentrate about Melancholia that related to Erik H. Erickson's Child years and contemporary society. He Interpret the different the two case "Mourning and Melancholia" of children's play is the problem of the mother's lack. He studies on Jean (5 year-old schizophrenic woman) that concentrate on the child's marriage with the mom and related with Erickson's stages.

Children with a schizophrenic trend in early youth repudiate their own organs and functions as hostile and exterior to them. The first circumstance centers around the theme of maternal rejection and the second concerns the theme of maternal lack scheduled to circumstances beyond her control. The final outcome is the key motivation of the is mastery. In term of "Sending Electricity" of play. Potential is the suggestion of Erikson to the principal in the sending power was in the kid. He conclude that Jean's potential to play- didn't have an effect to resolve the any issue about her. In term of Absent Mother. The case of Jean concentration to child years situation that related to Beyond the Pleasure Basic principle.

18. Article : Build Idiocy, Erikson, and Footballing Identities

Author : John Grey, and Remco Polman

Source : www. self. ox. ac. uk/Conferences/2004_Gray_Polman. pdf

Summary :

This article inform about Erikson's development play a role to concentrate on the skill development in football and identity creation in sport that are in order to build up the skill of specific basketball player, the Erickson's theory suggests the following youth that your healthy personality builds up positive amounts between trust and mistrust, autonomy and uncertainty, effort and guilt. There are 3 levels of development of talent in sport.

Another about article, inform about the possible that are increase the performance in Uk sport. Furthermore, it is likely that lots of individuals will invest closely in sport individuality only to end up. Erikson set up for people to build up their own personality in terms of health insurance and social fulfillment functions will be permitted to explore many industry before sticking with the basic characteristics of the self-expression. Another is because of insufficient player begin the show this shows the negative impact of seeking to keep up self-identity is not natural when confronted with real sports.

19. Article : Personality Development during Adolescence

Author : Jane Kroger

Source :

Summary :

In this review, said personal information of adolescents. Caused by changes in adolescent habit and look for the correct personality to the role myself. That's an important turning point in life personality to build up themselves onward. In study the theory of Erikson on development of adolescents is described role and value reputation the different personality styles, personal experience and the type of the romantic relationships between people. And it is said to the personality to complement races, religions, gender.

So family is one factor of change in adolescent action. Parents need to strongly control the action of children and liberating to work. Enter learning something new, more self-esteem, confidence and positive. Erikson's survey discovered that most parents would discourage the appearance of the thought of teenagers; young adults make the talk about of stress in the planning and decision-making failures. Cause loneliness and depression in adolescents.

After the procedure identification of adolescents who have complicated. Demonstrated the scope of teenage life changes until adult, which have diversity of life in time period the adolescent. That is something that is very complicated in the study and talk that is beyond the range in study of this topic.

20. Article : Vaillant's Contribution to analyze and Theory of Adult Development

Author : Robert E. Nolan Nidhin Kadavil

Source : 2003 Midwest Research to Practice Meeting in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education

Summary :

Vaillant's Contribution to Research and theory of mature development of Robert E. Nolan Nishin Kadavil is related to the level of Erikson's. His development the theory from the Erikson's phases adulthood stage. His research for adulthood to healthcare. Exercise and avoidance behavior that is bad for health such as alcoholic beverages, smoking. Which have an impact on both men and women. The inquire about mental health evaluation and check health of the adulthood. The sport activity, how to coping with a family, relationship and divorce. Every profession and every action which have result in health and aged. The idea to learn and for used in caring for adult today.

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