This article will consider key ideas, theories and types of specific organizational behavior subject areas like personality, drive and group and team working. All three designs are very related to each other, because in a group or a team there are some individuals with different personalities and they all need those individuals need a drive to work in groups or teams. To comprehend all topics, the article is set up into three main parts. First, the explanation of personality, which is define as the distinctive and relatively long lasting pattern of pondering, feeling and performing that can characterize person's reaction to his / her environment will be described. The secrets of motivation's driving a vehicle forces in individuals that affects their route, intension and persistence of work behavior will be discussed further in the next section, and specifically the inspiration will be analyzed. Finally the nature and behavior of employed in the team or a group will be discussed. The primary point in this article is to make clear and consider the implications of personality, inspiration at the job and also group and team working.
All around the world there is gigantic amount of organisations, like big worldwide organizations such as Coca-Cola, Microsoft, Apple or McDonald's, local companies such as Morrison's or Tesco, grocery store shops nearby or even clan of mafia, all of them have got several things in keeping, for example people with different personalities employed in various positions and getting the same ambition to increase output and profits. There are a great number of studies done how to boost job performance by different means as well as how to keep employees satisfied at the same time. But, how come managers must know what personalities of their employees are? Do staff have the same attributes as their co-workers? What for personality's revelation pays to for professionals and their inferiors? Just how do the personality characteristics influence motivation at the job? Why do some individuals find it hard to work in a team, while others are a good 'team players'?
If you ask people 'What do you know about personality?' majority of them might feel they understand and know the right answer, because we need to admit we use this term frequently. But what exactly is the personality? According to John Bratton (2007) personality is the distinctive and relatively enduring pattern of thinking, feeling and operating that characterizes a person's response to his environment. Personality rests on the observation that people seem to act somewhat consistently over time and across different situations. Thus, the habits of thinking, feeling and activities that are considered reflecting someone's personality typically have three characteristics. First, they have emerged as components of personality that distinguish that individual from other people. Second, the individual's behaviours appear to 'interconnect' in a meaningful fashion, suggesting an inner element that patterns and directs behavior. Third, the behaviours are seen as being caused generally by 'internal' alternatively than contextual factors. Furthermore, personality prescribes several original person characteristics, including emotions, inspiration, valuation, interest, behaviour and competences. (Gordon 2002) Personality is possibly the area in psychology which facilitates employers to hook up with labourers easily. Analyses of personality put these person's characteristics collectively to help managers to comprehend individuals. In addition they are admired the behaviour of others and want to know why workers act as they actually and what 'makes them tick' (Butt 2004).
In the humanistic psychology the most common models of traits incorporate 3 to 5 broad proportions or factors. The personality of humans is categorised according to the characteristics supposedly made by the dominance of one of the four humorous: dark-colored bile, blood vessels, phlegm and yellowish bile in the individual's bodies. Optimistic or sanguine people are cheerful and excited. Melancholic folks have a pessimistic temperament. Phlegmatic folks are relaxed and unexcitable and finally choleric people are bad-tempered and usually very irritable. Although succeeding research discredited the humoral theory, the idea that individuals can be labeled into different personality types per is existing even not present. What is more, trait theorists therefore is wanting to clarify various descriptors into a controllable number of the main personality traits that folks display all the time, in order to understand and be able to predict human behavior.
Hans J. Eysenck (1916-1997), established fact English psychologist, who used evaluation to devise his own theory of personality. Corresponding to his research, Eysenck figured normal personality can be grasped in terms of three basic factors or measurements: introversion - extroversion, stableness - instability and psychoticism. Introversion refers to a reserved mother nature and the quest for solitary activities, people that happen to be introverts have a tendency to be timid, thoughtful and risk avoiders. The opposite ones, extroverts, are likely to be sociable, spontaneous and become willing to take chances. Psychotism identifies an competitive and antisocial nature, people are competitive, frosty, moody and unstable.
Another Austrian doctor Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) developed the important psychoanalytic theory of personality. According to Freud, personality is made up three distinct but interacting parts: the id, the ego and the superego. This research convinced that personality develops out of each person's struggle to meet person's basic needs in a global. Freud proposed that an individual's personality is determined by mindful, preconscious and unconscious brain activity, with the unconscious part of the head exerting great influence on consciousness and behaviour.
However, trait theorists have made an important contribution by centering attention on the value of indentifying, classifying and calculating stable and enduring personality characteristics. But as has been argued in other places, researchers need to pay more focus on how traits connect to personality. There is a tendency for researchers to make predictions on the basis of an individual measured personality trait without considering other personality factors that also might effect the action in question.
While managers tend to think of variety in conditions of such factors as gender, ethnic origin or contest, all of the personalities at work are also very important. Personality features determine how people talk to other workers, if they can work independently without supervision, if they act ethically or not and more. John Holland best articulated the view that organisations should consider aligning the requirements of the job and the characteristics of the work place with personality characteristics. At the present, recognition that organizations should give attention to the degree of congruence between the individual and his / her work place has expanded as a result of need for staff to change and adapt to new work buildings and employment relations. Included in these are team working, specific performance and organizational culture.
The major methods employed by organizations to assess personality and predict work behaviour are interview, inventories, behaviour assessment, personality test and e-assessment. However, some critical organisational theorists claim that testing options what is effectively stereotype of 'ideal' employee or manager. It could seem apparent that someone's personality is an excellent predictor of job performance, but Frederick P. Morgeson, professor of Management at Michigan Status University, says that the partnership between the two is often highly tenuous. One obvious criticism of personality testing is potential for faked answers as candidates seek to provide themselves to employers in the best possible way. However the issues with personality testing run much deeper than this. Matching to Kevin Murphy, the teacher of Pennsylvania State University or college, "as predictors of employment performance, their validity is disappointingly low. ". Nevertheless, while this might suggest that companies ought to reconsider their use of personality steps is making important hiring decisions and key sessions, Frederick Morgeson said that better ways to anticipate job performance include work samples, cognitive ability exams and organized interviews, every area where organizational psychology could greatly gain human resource managers. Finally, personality diagnosis predicated on limited information can be quite detrimental to every business. Indentify personality types are inserted only in the organization at the top and the interior tensions.
Every real human action must be carried out in several reasons. In most cases we take action because we want it to. And the ones dreams form our needs. Need - is the lack of the internal mental or communal sense. Then your individual realizes what he is lack of, he is trying to look for ways to meet his needs. Individuals needs are extremely different - one of these is the essential requirements of life, such as their life satisfaction is a necessary condition for the support, while some are psychological, sociable or even philosophical character. If our needs are being not satisfied they soon end up being the motives, motives which promote us to work, to make so action, to make changes. Desire is the process which stimulates us to attain certain goals.
English and French dictionary of terms the word "motivation" identify as simply just "what motivates, ect. Energy depended on individual's actions or the methods that assist to improve the motivation of the individuals. " I. Balciuniene implies using the chance to separate two concepts - desire as noun and motivation as verb: "work motivation is made from conscious and unconscious forces of growing energy, which involves connections between your task and individual and can determine the behavior and orientation in the work. "; "the impact of personnel motivation we should call motivation and its effects on the methods and means - inspiration tools. " (Balciuniene, 1996). Likewise those two terms are appointed by international experts: "Motivation the emotional feature that decides the degree of personal dedication. This consists of all factors in charge of locating and assisting human behavior in a certain responsibility direction. And the assertion of reasons is the management process which demonstrates the impact of the behaviour of people. " (Stoner, Freeman, Gilbert Jr. , 2000, p. 434). "Motivation - self applied and other personal call to operate towards individual or firm. " (Neverauskas, Find, 2000, p. 66). Thus, Determination as noun is thought as energy and as a psychological attribute of the internal stimulation called incentive system, the driver of human's behavior; inspiration as verb - the effect of motivation, advertising, the process which promotes and directs to do something.
It is not enough that present activities are being coordinated - the activities should be inspired, motivating employees realize their mental capacities better. Managers are prepared to apply to every individual eligible employee motivation measures considering the work, you need to know that individual very well. Motives - basis of real human actins, which can be formed in some form when individuals needs can not be fully satisfied. In order the motives stimulate the individual, it must:
The goal must be valuable attention;
The goal must induce;
The goal must be reasonable.
The need for motivation is very high. Desire - a behaviour promotion system leads individuals behaviour into the right path and helps maintain a whole-employment period. Determination is well thought action and it generally does not happen by itself. Promotion of growth potential, ability to assume responsibility for targets of the organization itself is seen as a humans. Job for professionals is to help their employees to recognize and to develop them, as well concerning make conditions and do methods so that employees in the company to achieve its goals, and together make her or him useful for the business.
It is very useful to know at least the key theories of desire, and be able to judge the relevance of these specifically contexts. Content theories of motivation assume that all staff possess the set of basic 'needs'. Process theories, on the other hand, explain work motivation in terms of your cognitive process personnel proceed through before and throughout their behaviour. They presume that how individuals think about their work situation will have an impact on their behavior. The most well known theory is Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Psychologist Abraham Maslow suggested that folks have built-in group of five basic needs, which can established in a hierarchy such as physiological, safeness, cultural, self-esteem and self-actualization as from in pyramid from underneath to the most notable where going closer to the pyramids top the individual will get his high-order needs. Maslow's theory of needs is based on the fallowing assumptions: one - people ten d to meet their own needs, but it is not possible to fulfil all their needs so they need to reduce them and another is that all people have the same needs. Maslow's pyramid of needs is a system where the higher level of demand does not rise till the lower level needs is unhappy. And he explain that individuals can simultaneously meet only 1 level's need at once.
Although, this theory has some drawbacks in the practice. Critics say that individuals can simultaneously meet the immediate needs from different lever, for example, then individuals are having lunchtime they meet their physiological and communication needs. Others inform that this is an abstract philosophical theory and it cannot be suitable for specific individuals, because people are extremely different.
Maslow's need hierarchy appears to offer an advice to professionals. But one of the major problems with his theory is that it is extremely difficult to identify which need is prominent at any given time. Without this information managers cannot confidently redesign the work place or point out work-based learning to appeal to their employees' self-esteem or self-actualization needs, for illustration: this may not in reality be their main motivators. If professionals really want to change and increase the outcomes of the task of employees, they need to take a dynamic role in the management of reasoning process. This isn't what is occurring simply by itself. Furthermore, motivation is a complicated phenomenon and understand it is not very easy.
The group or a team concept is one of the most crucial organizational developments going to business because the industrial trend (Manz and Sims 1993). Work groupings aren't something created by management consultants. Background shows that they have been part of real human communal development since old times. For a large number of years women and men resided in small hunting and gathering categories, and later they lived in small farming or angling groups. It is merely within the last 200 years, with the advent of industrial capitalism and the introduction of the manufacturing plant system, that small groups became the exemption somewhat that the guideline (Johnson 2000).
In the international Words Dictionary, the term 'command' is referred to as a small group of people with the intension to do a certain task. Hence, an organization of individuals working mutually as a team is vital in the working situations and learnt things applicability and usefulness in specific situations is a critical feature. So team work key elements are cooperation, shared support and balance of variety of different individuals in the group. Team working is several people, who want to use their all work to reach the same goal. According to V. Barvydiene and J. Kasiulis (1988) an organization is a community of individuals, where all users are linked with same features like common activity, inter-communion, common hobbies and belonging to the same organization, while team - is a group of individuals working mutually, where each member's presence is vital to realize the same purpose and meet all needs of each group member. T. Tomosiunas (1999) says that "Every specific in belongs for some various groupings like family, groups of friends, school or work collective and so forth. However, not each member of the group or a team could work harmoniously and efficiently. ". Author pulls attention to the fact that a highly effective group activity may appear only if the group is able to concentrate and use all of the skills of each member in the team for organization's goals.
Most group theory examines group final results in term of group performance and success. it was uncovered that workers in a variety of agencies had a great deal in keeping and that the major component of that common experience lay down in their experience with organizations. Out of this recognition emerged the common use of the word sociable group work and the development of interest groups concentrating on work with groups in several cities. The second discovery was that that which was common to all or any the categories was that, in addition to the activities in which the group engaged, groupings included a network of relationships between the people and the staff member, between the organizations as a whole. His mixture of associations was called the group process. This second realization produced a seek out deeper insights into these connections, an attempt to describe them and understand their dynamics (Reid 1981). The work of Maslow helped human relations advocates to clarify their point of view, with its concentrate on the interrelations between staff and the quality if the occupation romance. They suggest everyday relationship between five primary job characteristics (skill variety, activity identity, task relevance, autonomy and opinions) and the worker's mental express. If this romance is positive, it leads to positive final results. This model also identifies the value of learning to achieve determination and end result goals.
Teamwork is usually considered a significant factor especially in a workplace. However, there are some significant problems and problems that are experienced while building teamwork among individuals. Within a broader point of view, there are issues such as cultural and personal distinctions, variations in future potential clients, professional and workplace issues, social dissimilarities, education levels and gender disparities. Communication obstacles, insufficient training of employees on teamwork poor determination from all stakeholders undermine the heart of team work (Dyer, 1995).
In teamwork, some those who hold a moderate perspective tend to believe that their teammates carry more powerful and extreme views than them. They'll eventually adapt their positions because of those people perceived to be superior-a conditional occurrence known as a groupthink. This is normally an unhealthy and dangerous way of working things out especially where critical thinking and assessment is necessary. Sometimes poor management and management skills can cause very negative impact in the group. Leaders are normally adamant about getting information off their junior fellow workers and every time they receive any, they are simply either brushed off or just neglected. In teamwork, every person's perspective should be studied into account. The truth is however different from what's expected in that some team leaders and coordinators have a tendency to push because of their own views to be accepted by the other users. Shapers and vegetation in teamwork are responsible for brainstorming the people of the team nevertheless they normally misuse this responsibility (Maund, 2001).
Critical assessments of team working concentrate on paradoxes and the effects of team's ideology and behavior of staff. For effective realization of the great things about teamwork, there should be a proper coordinated form of communication. Evaluate all the advantages of groups and team working, insensibly, the question come up - is often a team work is better than a person one. The answer is no. It ought to be kept in mind that both group and specific work has both advantages and disadvantages. Team work pays to when the perfect solution is is not evident and we need information, knowledge and talents of other folks to attain the objectives and selection of ideas. In the mean time, for simple jobs with clear problems and goals, or issues with the logical, understated reason enough to resolve need only individual efforts.
To summarize, therefore, that the essential rules of team work are co-operation, listening to other team member's point of view, popularity, trust and shared aid. Individual work often extends to gain for an employee while group's product is both specific and team's performance.
In realization then, the key point is that in this modern society everything depends upon job performance. In the working field a lot of things be based upon individuals. To make work successful people have to have drive and good team. The customers in those teams have to be similar, the necessity to consider their personalities in order to avoid failure. An effective team has to be balanced and cooperative. And each one of these features combined collectively give us a great organizational world.