Posted at 12.29.2018
J. S. Bach: Sonata in G minor, for flute and obbligato harpsichord. Inside a famous remark about J. S. Bach, Beethoven said 'he should be named Sea instead of Bach, because of his infinite, inexhaustible wealth in shade combinations and harmonies'. These virtues are also deployed in his flute sonatas, each with a unique melodic contour and figure. Bach was often criticized for being abstruse and redundantly complex, but he was able to show through his work that he was, and would continue to be, a great pioneer. The special importance of his chamber music, in which he exhibited a deep understanding of the normal idioms and performing techniques of each instrument, was accepted at a very early time.
Bach is generally described as a rather austere personality, but which may be the result of too little information complementing his character, regarded unfitting for archival safe-keeping.
The first use of the transverse flute in Bach's works is at Cantata no 137a, performed in 1722, in C¶then for the birthday of Prince Leopold, with whom Bach preserved very good relationships. Many significant works, such as the first book of 'the well-tempered Clavier', cello suites and probably some of the flute sonatas (they can be dated between 1720 and 1741), were also composed at that time he spent there, exploiting the features and expanded experience accomplished at the Weimar judge.
It was an interval when the transverse flute, theoretically more advanced, began gaining floor against its 'competitor', the recorder, and when J. Quantz began making it generally famous. The flutists of this era appeared to manifest a specific dexterity, equivalent to that, required not only in the flute sonatas, but also in other flute parts of lots of the composers works, including the cantatas and passions. In another of Bach's biographies, posted in 1802, by Forkel, the latter states that the flute sonatas 'even inside our days. . . would be noticed by connoisseurs with pleasure'.
This particular work boosts a controversial issue about its 'paternity'. Bach's authority regarding the piece started to become questioned through the third decade of the 20th century. Scholars portrayed certainty that Bach's son, Carl Phillip Emmanuel, is the composer of this sonata (the dominant consensus today), but until today, no assumption has been undoubtedly proved and no justification has been given as to why an aspiring composer like C. P. Emanuel would attribute this work to his daddy with no plausible reason. A recently available analysis, by Keiichi Kubota, speculates that the g minor sonata is the result of a collaborative work between Bach and his boy (the latter ascribing expert to his daddy).
The sonata is enjoyed today by both violinists and flutists, as it is assumed that the piece might have been written primarily for violin, as backed in many shared articles. Its form is that of the Italian concerto, lively-slow-lively, which reminds the listener of the significant impact of Vivaldi and Italian music to Bach.
Flute has always been associated with France, a relationship that is firmly built after this interest of French composers and performers in this officially developed instrument, especially round the change of the 19th century. Paris stood in the forefront of musical procedures at the time, and offered as an incubator for new composers and performers, who created the new movements.
Gabriel Faur, a composer, organist, pianist, choirmaster and teacher, is one of the most crucial French statistics of the switch of the 20th century, characterized by Debussy as 'the grasp of charms'. He was fortunate enough to be always a student and later friend of Saint-Sans, at the Ecole Niedermeyer, where he was delivered, after his daddy realized the unique talent of his son.
His style, multi-faceted and resourceful, continuing to evolve until the composer's loss of life, in 1924. For that reason, adding labels on Faur's music can never be specific. His creative hallmark is regarded as the bridge between Romanticism and Modernism and at the time of his death the second Viennese Institution was beginning to emerge. He was always self-critical (to the degree of discarding a few of his already composed work) and pursued unremitting productiveness. His harmonic and melodic creativeness paved the road for new musical developments and made his style an inextricable aspect of future teaching of harmony and structure.
Faur constructed the Fantaisie for flute and piano, in 1898, after a percentage from his friend and colleague, P. Taffanel, who was a professor at the Conservatoire of Paris, and to whom the part is dedicated (later Faur would be appointed director of the Conservatoire). This part was to be utilized for the gross annual introductory exams (Concours). Faur, being one of the primary composers to be commissioned for the 'morceau de concours', confessed to Saint-Sans in a letter, that this piece constituted a genuine problem for him. He dispatched it to Taffanel asking him to amend any parts which were not appropriate for the flute. Faur included the 'Andante' of the Fantaisie to his incidental music, performed in London for the Maeterlink's play, Pellas et Mlisande.
This part, which is focused on Taffanel, pieces out to explore flute's full potential, by extending to all three registers, covering every one of the 'Intimate' instrument's range. The performer must demonstrate riches and diversity in his expression and audio, in his effort to trace the unfolding melody. Observation of the piano part reveals the prominence of the tool in Faur's mentality. It really is perceived not merely as an associated instrument, but instead as the same partner, adding to the melodic and rhythmic development of the part. Together with the flute they utilize an comprehensive expressional 'quiver', alternating staccatos with long legato phrases, as after a sicilienne-like introduction, an increasing complexity in the equipment' parts is coupled with sudden dynamic changes.
Fantasia also prevails within an orchestral version. This is realized later, following the composer loss of life, by Louis Aubert, in 1957, at the demand of the visible France flutist, Jean Pierre Rampal.
In Hindemith's opera 'Mathis der Mahler', Grјnewald, a painter, realizes that he should never have betrayed his fine art with regard to political activism. Hindemith though, never betrayed his functional artistic personality and proven a prominent profession both as a performer and composer, demonstrating a manifold expressiveness. He aspired to make a new mentality in music, however, not as a finish in itself. The word 'Gebrauchsmusik' (functional music) identifies his idea for music, which should be created to serve an objective, because 'the days of composing only for the sake of composing were perhaps removed forever'. By drawing on multiple styles and varieties he explored all aspects of resourcefulness and complexity.
His activity had not been restricted and then the production of music, but he also used a dynamic role as a tutor which is colligated along with his group of simple works for children and amateurs. His theoretical treatise 'Unterweisung im Tonsatz', sets the foundation for a new approach towards harmony and melodic shaping and the views portrayed would influence another generations of composers.
Hindemith lived within an era of political turmoil and his 'revolutionary' style cannot have evaded Nazi's attention, who deemed his music - as G¶bbels place it - genuine 'noise-making'. Although Hindemith was naive enough to disregard (at the beginning at least) the Nazi menace, his sonata for flute and piano, constructed in 1936, has included this aspect, yielding a work that alludes to this sinister political environment and asserting the composer's perception that an artist cannot remain untouched by the real human fighting around him.
The flute sonata was constructed at a time of an increasing recognition by Hindemith of the looming risk and the next need to flee his country. His psychological disposition is adumbrated in the second motion which conveys a suffering through its recitativo-like melody of the flute. One cannot neglect to spot the fine irony emanating from the sonata's strict rhythmic form which dissolves into a 'childish-like' melody, projecting the image of a child imitating a soldier's march. Hindemith, tried out to fully capture the vanity of human being arrogance with the anguish and desperation.
The flutist is required to render a broad palette of colors and thoughts, from triumphant marches to bleak moments of agony and melancholy, by extending fully range of the tool. The piano has an 'emancipated' part in the sonata and continually goes in a contrapuntal way contrary to the flute, hence sometimes it's preferred with its lid available.
The boundaries between minor and major chords and atonal parts become blurred, much as the boundaries between life and loss of life during the composition, the loss of life which Hindemith eluded only by chance in multiple events.