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Parental Involvement in Education in Cambodia

  1. Problem Statement
  2. Purpose of this study
  3. Research Significance
  4. Research question
  1. Hypothesis
  2. The research design
  3. Sampling
  4. Instrumentation
  5. Data collection procedure
  6. Data analysis
  7. Limitation
  9. Review of Literature
  10. Academic Involvement
  11. Life Participation
  12. What are the APA ethical specifications in relation to copying a number? Please cgeck the APA book about acknowledging options etc.
  13. With this model they divided the amount of parental participation in six levels but it is different from the result of other research above. The kid attributes or competencies is in the particular level 1, Parent or guardian characteristics and family processes is at level 2 to level 5 and level 6 is context of family. Moreover, in each level this model has their own characteristic to recognize the involvement on their child education.
  14. Finding
  15. Discursion
  17. Conclusion
  18. References please check APA style for writing Refernce lists and amend this list to indicate APA style.
  19. Questionnaire
  20. Interview List
  21. Appendices
  22. Appendix A: Information Sheet
  23. INFORMATION FOR Individuals - Emphasis Group Discussion
  24. PROGRAM: Professional of Education
  25. Research Title: Parental Involvement in Main Education in Cambodia: A Case: Analysis in an exclusive School
  26. Supervisor: Dr Chhinh Sitha
  28. Research Name:
  29. Masters of Education
  30. Parental Engagement in Main Education in Cambodia: A Case: Study in an exclusive School.
  31. Contact Details:
  32. INFORMED CONSENT FORM - Target Group Discussion
  33. Signature (or thumb printing)
  34. Date:

Regarding to the quality of education, parental participation is important in education sector. The participation of parents in their child's education cause children does indeed better in university. (Support this promise with some referrals) Parental involvements don't have yet their own widespread definition Some supply the definition that the fantastic participation of parent or guardian in school, parent or guardian help child with individual in learning, parenting, and after university activities is parental engagement (National Man Services Assembly, 2004). Another classification of parental involvement regarding to Zarate (2007, p. 8) is:

Latino parents' perceptions of parental participation could be grouped into two particular categories: academic involvement and life contribution. Academic involvement was understood to encompass activities associated with research, educational enrichment, and academics performance; life involvement characterized techniques parents provided life education and were holistically integrated into their children's lives in institution, as well as away from it.

When asked to define parental participation, Latino parents talked about life participation more often than academic involvement.

According to Chia-Hui Chiu, and Hwa-Wei Ko(2005) there a wide range of factors of parent's engagement. The partnership between parental factors and children's reading manners and behaviour, children who've a parent involved in their reading are more likely to enjoy reading then the children who don't have a parent engaged. . Furthermore, children's inspiration, higher self-esteem, improved upon achievement, better school attendance, reduced dropout rates, and decreased delinquency are a few of the final results of parental participation with institution in their children's education. Indeed, children have determination and self-confidence in research because their parents' health care and follow-up with the school, therefore the children will think that education is very important for their life. That why the more parents are participating with their child's education the more lucrative children's achievement is ( Anchorage School Area Online, 2009).

Family engagement can become more powerful to create great results for children and their institution results. Moreover, the partnership between your family and the school by formal or informal communication give children in elementary university more positive benefited (Harvard College, 2007).

In addition, Cambodian's mother or father have their own culture in order to pause their child in learning by sending their child to school and let instructor or college do whatever they can to make the youngster get high achievements in institution. This culture revealed that some father or mother in Cambodia they care and attention much about their child education, nevertheless they still lack of knowledge to how they can help the youngster more than this. Regarding to Education Laws of Cambodia (2007 in section 7, article 36) is:

Parents or guardians of minor children, who are centered, shall have the next rights:

The right to choose the educational programs and educational companies to be attended by the learner;

The to get information and study information of the learner from the educational organizations;

The right to achieve and full contribution in order to develop educational standards at institution and countrywide levels, immediately or through their representatives,

Pare. nts or guardians of slight children, who are reliant, shall have the following obligations:

To take the kids, whose era is 6 (six) years or at least 70 (seventy) calendar months, to sign up in class 1 (one) of the general education program at academic institutions, which may have proper educational certificates;

To try their finest to support the studies of the learners, specifically for their basic education.

Kept the partnership between university family and community to take part in vocational education and reform the educational environment.

As seen above, parental involvement is necessary for child education to take part in many activities for the purpose of improving the success of child education. Many research workers list numerous great things about parental involvement with their children's education. That is why parental participation in their child's education is vital plus they also getting involved in the school development as well.

Problem Statement

Numerous researchers show that many of parents aren't associated with their children's education in university (Ramey, & Ramey, 2004). Not merely the producing countries but also the develop countries have been meet up with the same problem about having less engagement in child education, (Jeri, 2009).

The insufficient parental participation in child education is certainly going less and less travelled their child is growing elderly; it is rely upon many reasons. Some mother or father they lack of involve or good deal with institution, family are insufficient family members, parent or guardian haven't any time with their child because enough time is occupied by other live activities, divorce's parent or death in the family is effect to family environment, and unstable financial in family is also the reason of the parent are insufficient participation in children education (Jeri, 2009).

Regarding to the result of some researcher above, in Cambodian world also have been seen many problem that done by children. Many children use that point for concerning with some negative activities in or outside college like taking alcoholic beverages, drug abuse, gang children and alternative activities. Many of them are not car about their parents because they think parents are busy at the job or active with business activities and lack of involve with institution, so that the reason can give change to children take action up to what they need without considering it is right or incorrect.

Purpose of this study

The purposes of the research, we will carry out a research study in a single private school in Phnom Penh on major level to be able to fine out the particular level or ratio of Cambodian's parents involved in principal education. And we have stated above, there are many kind of parental engagement so the involvements of parents have been done in just how many kinds? And what are perceptions of parents on parental participation in child education?

Research Significance

Regarding to the study it'll turn into a use full document that can involve in the producing activities in education sector. Furthermore, the result of this research will produce positive facet of parental involvement in major education of any parents and stakeholders who have to be involve in. I am believe that this research will encourages parents in Cambodia are look back to their child education; and they will spend more costly time of their business and their work to support their child. Alternatively they will increasingly more cooperate with university in propose of assisting their child to perform well in school.

Research question

In order to achieve the reason for this study, we have to raise some questions:

How many percentage of parental engagement in primary education by each of the identified category?

Are there significant different in test rating of children based on the level of parental engagement by each one of the discovered category?

What are perceptions of parent's in Cambodia about the parental engagement?


Most parents have a tendency to support children's learning in the level 1 and heading less and less from level 2 to level 6.

There is a substantial different between test rating of children in line with the degree of parental engagement by each one of the determined from level 1 to level 6.

Please note: the techniques section is a standalone chapter and the elements that are being proclaimed have been defined in the marking requirements see below

The discussion and justification for decided on data collection method/s provides proof a well-developed knowledge of the method/s' talents and restrictions.

The suggested data collection functions (sample, method, tools, data collection and research) are detailed evidently and match the research questions

Questionnaires, interview questions, letters of release (where appropriate), Consent and Information Varieties (where appropriate) provide proof a sound understanding of ethical practice in performing research.

The section below is significantly insufficient for the study statement and needs considerable work to handle the criteria.

The research design


This review is incorporating the quantitative research and qualitative research. This research will be conducted in a private school is situated in Sangkhat Tek Laak I, Khan Toul Kork, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. For selecting sample, we use the full total variety of 150 parents of students are study from grad 1 to grad 6, all professors are instructing from grad 1 to grad 6, and university principal.


For this research we use the instrumentation as follow:

Questionnaire with parents of students and teachers of grad 1 to grad 6 and it'll be like the interview if a remedy which is get from questionnaire is not yet determined and understanding from those parents. Furthermore, the pre-testing questionnaire around 10 to 20 copies is necessitating to be sure that the questionnaire are short cleared and consisted.

Interview with college principal.

Interview with class patrons

Group conversation among 7 to 10 parents, 4 to 5 educators of principal education, and school managements. This activity is wished to know deeply on the belief of parental participation in child education.

For the test I no need to design for many students, but I am going to uses the test report of annual exam.

Analysis the articles best on observation and finding from the consequence of questioner and interview.

Data collection procedure

The questionnaire is distributed to specific parents are acknowledged and taking part in this survey will be received from professors and suggested to come back back with date required. In order to be sure that all parents are understand why questionnaire, we can make phone call to all or any contribution who get that paper beforehand and attempted to explain each item if they're not well understanding.

For the interview will be conducted in the school area during time available corresponding to particular situation of all teachers and institution primary with well visit. The interview's time is not limited. And before perform the interview Ever participation will get an possibility to ask any question before starting their study.

The final test report of the annual exam will be gathered from the educational official with the later of acceptance from the institution principal.

Data analysis

The data collected will be computerized in the way of explain or research the data of this study. Moreover, there are numerous factors will be use to examination including the standard of father or mother involvement, the training level of mother or father, parent's age, parent's occupation, the number of family member, solitary family est. related to the annual test rating.


All participations are experiencing their own duties with their job or business. However, only involvement those are prepared to volunteer to answer fully the question in questionnaire or interview form will be able to get answers. This research is use only 1 of the private institution in Cambodia so that it is not mean that it symbolize to Cambodia. Nonetheless it can be considered a sample study of 1 particular college in Cambodia.

Ethical issues?


Review of Literature

If we look back again to the history of research doc that related to the parental engagement in children education are not described but it appear that there are many term of world that they used to classified the particular level or steep of just how that parent or guardian are entail in children education. For instance: According to The Toms Rivera Insurance plan Institute "TRPI" (2007), the understanding of latino parents about the participation of father or mother in children education was divided into two categories including "Academic Participation" and "Life Participation". For both of these kinds of the parental involvement have the characteristic as bellow TRPI (2007, p. 8):


Academic Involvement

Life Participation

Attend parent-teacher conferences.

Be alert to child's life.

Sign homework as required by the instructor.

Be alert to and keep an eye on child.

Know when to anticipate report credit cards.

Be alert to child's peer group and getting together with peers' parents.

Ask about home work daily.

Teach good morals and respect of others.

Listen to the child read.

Communicate with child.

Visit classroom during open homes.

Be alert to and encourage child's capabilities and career aspirations.

Ask questions about home work.

Provide standard encouragement.

Ask friends, siblings, and other members of the family for home work help for child.

Discuss future planning.

Have high criteria for academic performance.

Monitor college attendance.

Purchase materials necessary for class.

Exercise discipline and offer behavioral cuing

Drive them to tutoring and university activities.

Establish trust with child.

Go to the catalogue with them.

Provide advice on life issues.

Be present when required to pick up record cards at institution.

Warn of hazards beyond your home, such as unlawful drugs.

Get to learn teachers to assess child's basic safety.

Volunteer to observe university environment.

Encourage siblings to look out for each and every other.

Moreover, in framework of Cambodian's parent it isn't so easy to separate between academic engagement and life involvement. It really is so complicated when using those term of worlds. Most parents do not have advanced of education background. For academic engagement as my observation mother or father have been applied but it isn't mean that all parent have been done all details. But for life participation it seem to be insufficient participation from parents because many Cambodian mother or father including teacher aren't clearly find out about life participation even they already done a few of the component in these part. Why I can say such as this? If we say about the academic involvement the majority of activity is performed by school coverage or legislation that push to all parents to do so. And life involvement is depend on how are quality of family's living. As my observation Cambodian people careless about mental generally think about physical.

In addition, the research result has discovered that there are marriage between positive school climate, family involvement, improved teaching, and student accomplishment. And the analysis also found many advantages of parental involvement for children, mother or father, school quality, families, and communities as well, matching to Family Building up Policy Middle (2004). This research also found the Country wide Parent Professor Association benchmarks for parent/family engagement by Family Conditioning Policy Centre (2004, p. 6):

Standard I: Conversing '-communication between home and institution is

regular, two-way, and meaningful.

Standard II: Parenting 'Parenting skills are advertised and backed.

Standard III: College student Learning 'parents play an intrinsic role in assisting pupil learning.

Standard IV: Volunteering 'Parents are welcome in the school, and their support and assistance are wanted.

Standard V: Institution Decision Making and Advocacy 'Parents are full partners in the decisions that affect children and households.

Standard VI: Collaborating with Community 'Community resources are being used to strengthen classes, families, and pupil learning.

Regarding to the researched of literature above there are numerous good point to be able to producing the concept of this research. Some guide brand that pays to for Cambodia framework. For this research, I will isolate the parental engagement in education as follow with the six requirements above (Standard I, Standard II, Standard III, Standard IV, Standard V and Standard VI). If we compare from what are mentioned in the study of Toms Rivera Insurance policy Institute "TRPI" (2007) each standard level from Standard I to Standard VI there are including the academic participation and life contribution. This standard is not so complicate because we just established the level of involvement of parent or guardian on their child education in each level.

And other research, Maria, Jennifer, Bruce, et al. (2009) has conducted the research on parental engagement and children's university achievement sown that there are relationship between your participation in education of parents and the educational final results of students. There are several ways to make higher on children's academic achievements such as parents have good management and well practice on learning at home, reading together with their children, children's school-related behaviors are controllable, good manage on the analysis time of their children, home environment, desire to learn, plus more involve with children's doing homework. Moreover, analysis also discovered that parents' emotional shade relates to children connection regarding college issues exactly like parents' encouraging style and supportive from parental participation. Inside the other palm, the negative children's university benefits are related to pressure from parents regarding with some pursuits like commands, punishment, or coercive connections.

In addition, the family-school interactions hold the model was not related with mothers' and dad' involvement, by Maria, Jennifer, Bruce, et al. (2009, p. 39) found:

The family-School Human relationships Model


Social- Personal General General School-Focused Child's

Cultural/ Characteristics Family parent-Child parent-child Personal Child Outcomes

Biological of Parents Relations Interactions interactions Characteristics


Level 6 Level 5 Level 4 Level 3 Level 2 Level 1 Level 0

Context Parent characteristics and family processes Child Features Child behavior

of family or competencies or accomplishments

What are the APA ethical specifications in relation to copying a number? Please cgeck the APA book about acknowledging options etc.

With this model they divided the amount of parental participation in six levels but it is different from the result of other research above. The kid attributes or competencies is in the particular level 1, Parent or guardian characteristics and family processes is at level 2 to level 5 and level 6 is context of family. Moreover, in each level this model has their own characteristic to recognize the involvement on their child education.

This section needs extensive work - please align the task with the conditions in the marking sheet - pasted below

Evidence of evaluation of the method/s used to collect books (e. g. explanation of directories and resources used to identify books).

Literature overview of research problem/question - the level, currency and ability to justify inclusion of books in review.

Evidence of recognition of theme developed from literature rather than a simple chronological set of writers in the field/topic

Evidence of id of theoretical frameworks utilized by writers

Evidence of thoughtful reading and research of the info collection methods reported in literature.

Evidence of thoughtful reading and evaluation of the reported results within the books.





References please check APA style for writing Refernce lists and amend this list to indicate APA style.

Chia-Hui, C. , & Hwa-Wei, K. (2005). Relationships between parental factors and children's reading behaviors and behaviour: Results from PIRLS 2005 field test in Taiwan.

Craig, T. R. , & Sharon, L. R. (2004). Parents participation in children's education. The newsletter for the guts for development and learning. Basic Have a discussion, 4 (9), p. 1.

Harvard family research project, (2007). Family engagement in elementary college children's education: Family involvement makes a difference. 2 in A series, winter 2006/2007.

Jeri LaBahn. Education and parental engagement in secondary colleges: Problems, solutions, and results. Retrieved September 08, 2009, from http://chiron. valdosta. edu/ whuitt/ data files/parinvol. html

Maria, E. Z. (2007). Understanding latino parental participation in education: Perceptions, expectation, Retrieved Sept 12, 2009, from http://www. eric. ed. gov/ERICDocs/ data/ericdocs2sql/content_safe-keeping_01/0000019b/80/3e/55/da. pdf

National Man Services Set up (October, 2004). Parental participation in education, Family building up policy center, Simple (3)

Maria A. Rogers, Jennifer Theule, Bruce A. Ryan, et al. (2009). Parental involvement and children's university achievement: Data for mediating techniques, Canadian Journal of Institution Mindset. Retrieved August 20, 2009, from http://cjs. sagepub. com at Adam Cook University

Students benefit from parent engagement, Anchorage School Region Online. Retrieved August 18, 2009, from http://www. asdk12. org/events/parent. asp

Toms Rivera Coverage Institute (2007). Understanding Latino Parental Engagement in Education: Perceptions, expectations, and recommendations. LA: California.

Kimberly S. Adams and Sandra L. Christenson (2000). Trust and the Family-School Relationship Study of Parent-Teacher Differences in Elementary and Extra Levels Journal of College Mindset, Vol. 38, No. 5, pp MN: USA


Kimberly S. Adams and Sandra L. Christenson (2000)

Table 1

Trust Scale From Family-School Marriage Survey

Parent/guardian form

I am condent that professors:

are performing a good job teaching my child educational subjects

are doing a good job instructing my child to follow guidelines and directions

are doing a good job assisting my child handle conicts with peers

are doing a good job keeping me well-informed of my child's progress

are performing a good job stimulating my participation in my child's education

are performing a good job disciplining my child

are easy to attain when I have an issue or question

keep me aware of everything I want related to school

are performing a good job motivating my child's sense of self-esteem

are performing a good job motivating my child to truly have a good attitude toward learning

are doing a good job helping my child understand his/her moral and ethical responsibilities

are friendly and approachable

are receptive to my type and suggestions

are very sensitive to cultural differences

respect me as a reliable parent

care about my child

have my child's needs at heart

are worth my respect

will do what's best for my child in the class Teacher form

I am condent that parents/guardians:

are doing a good job educating their child educational things at home

are doing a good job teaching their child to follow rules and directions

are performing a good job helping their child handle conicts with peers

are performing a good job participating in their child's education

are doing a good job disciplining their child

are easy to attain when I've a question or problem

make me alert to all the information I want about their child

are doing a good job pushing their child's sense of self-esteem

are doing a good job pushing their child to have a good attitude toward learning

are performing a good job supporting their child understand his/her moral and honest responsibilities

are friendly and approachable

are receptive to my insight and suggestions

are delicate to social differences

respect me as a competent teacher

are evidently focused on their child's education

are worthy of my respect

have their child's needs at heart

Interview List


Appendix A: Information Sheet

INFORMATION FOR Individuals - Emphasis Group Discussion

PROGRAM: Professional of Education

Research Title: Parental Involvement in Main Education in Cambodia: A Case: Analysis in an exclusive School

Supervisor: Dr Chhinh Sitha

Research Pupil: Tan Sophondarith


The aim of this research is to explore get better at students' perception with their development as amateur researchers and identify factors which may have assisted or blocked their development as beginning researchers. It includes two stages- Phase 1 is Questionnaire for Parents, Period 2 is Concentration Group Conversations.

The concentrate group discussion entails ten parents ending up in the researcher to go over their belief toward the study as the beginning experts and the encounters of conducting their original research. the talk group is likely to take no more than 60 minutes or even more deepen on the true situation and will be audio noted for transcription and analysis.

The researcher stresses that getting involved in the conversation group is voluntary. , Due to the nature of any discussion group confidentiality can't be assured but there will be no identifying titles used in the final research record or any other documents created from this research.

If you have any questions relating to this study, please contact either Mr. Tan Sophondarith through the detail listed above. When you have any questions about the ethical conduct of the study job, please contact Dr Chhinh Sitha phone number: 012-722-297, Email:


Research Name:

Masters of Education

Parental Engagement in Main Education in Cambodia: A Case: Study in an exclusive School.

Contact Details:

Tan Sophondarith


The reason for this study is to explore parents' perception of their participation as novice research workers and identify factors which may have assisted of obstructed parents not actively to involve using their children in child education as start research.

The aim of this study have been plainly told me (on paper and/or verbally) and I understand what is required of me.

I know that getting involved in this Focus Group Discourse is voluntary and I am aware that I can stop taking part in it at any time and may won't answer and any questions.

I understand that no labels will be used to identify me with this study without my authorization.

I recognize that by its character a Concentrate Group Discussion cannot be guaranteed of confidentiality.

Appendix B: Informed Consent

INFORMED CONSENT FORM - Target Group Discussion

I consent to participating in an interview for this research. YES ‡ NO ‡

I consent to having my interview documented and a transcript made. YES ‡ NO ‡

Name: (branded)

Signature (or thumb printing)


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