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Ovid Metamorphoses Titian Perseus and Andromeda

As a painting, Perseus and Andromeda (Dish 3. 6) cannot narrate the occasions in the same way as Ovid's word, but instead catches as soon as of Perseus' fight with the ocean monster. Titian's painting could certainly be a translation of Ovid's poem insomuch as the key elements of Ovid's misconception remain; it is genuine in its representation and there are enough correspondences between your two pieces to inform you that Ovid's Metamorphoses is Titian's original source. With that said, Titian produced Perseus and Andromeda for a particular person and goal, in the way of other Renaissance music artists, and, it was designed to be viewed together with the rest of the Poesie (Gould), therefore the painting could be described as a hybrid, or perhaps a refiguration of the Ovidian legend.

The painting shows Andromeda chained to a rock, her vulnerable cause contrasting plainly with Perseus' powerful lunge. There is absolutely no mention in Ovid's wording of either Perseus or Andromeda's clothing, except for Perseus' shoes; Titian has reputed Ovid's work in this aspect, presenting Perseus his winged shoes instead of the Pegasus that other music artists have favoured. Andromeda's nakedness in the painting symbolizes her innocence and vulnerability, characteristics also shown in Metamorphoses (Ovid 670-675), and also shows the Renaissance culture in which the painting was produced. Gould rates Titian's words to Philip II as proof the erotic aspect of Andromeda's nudity, particularly if considered with the other poesia. (Gould) This nudity, when used alongside the bright colorings used for Perseus' clothing, places the emphasis plainly on the soon-to-be couple; our sight are immediately drawn to the helpless female awaiting rescue by her hero. Ovid also seems to identify the hero's fight, dedicating almost one third of the entire narrative to it. Titian parts from his source however, by consigning Andromeda's parents to the backdrop, if in reality, they appear whatsoever - in the extreme right track record, a city is seen, and on the shore, a group of people; it isn't clear however, whether this group includes her parents, or are those described towards the end of Ovid's story (Ovid 735). Titian again practices the Metamorphoses with his inclusion of what seem to be shells and coral at Andromeda's ft. The shells presumably represent the Nereids and are a reminder of the reason behind Andromeda's fate, while the coral recalling Ovid's allegorical information of its creation (Ovid 740-753). The remaining part of Ovid's narrative, Perseus' sacrifices to the gods, will not come in Titian's painting. This can be due to the fact, in focusing on Perseus' battle with a sea monster, the painting automatically becomes a seascape and the sacrifices that Ovid explains occur on land.

In my estimation, Titian's representation of Perseus and Andromeda is sympathetic to his source and invokes the excitement of Ovid's own words. The Renaissance representation shows some of Ovid's more misogynistic elements. My only criticism of the Titian part is the body of Perseus, who seems to me to be falling, not fighting. Professionally, thus giving the painting a comic aspect that I'm sure the artist had not meant and detracts from Ovid's own emphatic telling of the misconception.

Part 2 (75 marks)

Write an article of only 2, 000 words on the following.

In what ways does indeed Ovid manipulate a myth in order to identify his theme of metamorphosis? Do you take into account that this strategy can lessen the myth's impact and coherence at times? Answer with regards to a particular mythic narrative in Metamorphoses.

Ovid's epic poem brings together a collection of formerly unrelated misconceptions connected by a mutual theme; metamorphosis. The transformations detailed by Ovid usually happen therefore of love or lust, consensual or otherwise, and can be used to explain the roots of particular family pets, plant life or natural phenomena. Since Ovid published his Metamorphoses, it has often been used as a source of myth, however, when compared to other sources, it is clear that Ovid manipulated the common myths, displaying his understanding of the misconceptions and combining and separating them into new forms to suit his own plan. Of course, it is the nature of misconception that they must be moulded and transformed in each retelling, which is evidenced in the extant works of the Greek tragedians. Ovid is, sometimes, faithful to his options, but at others, he appears to delight in his manipulation of the original myths.

Ovid's chosen theme of change isn't only seen explicitly within the myths, for example in Arachne's change into a spider (Ovid 6. 140-145), but also implicitly in Ovid's own change of the received version of the misconceptions in the traditional world. Homer or Hesiod's treatment of misconception is serious and deliberate, exposing much about the gods' destructiveness, unpredictable moods, adores, and personal vendettas, showing up to specify the writers' perceptions of life itself. While the incidents may be remarkable, irrational or even comical, they are presented as serious perceptions on the 'way things are'. Modern readers can understand how such tales would make clear things such as natural phenomena or the lifetime of certain creatures. Ovid's Metamorphoses however, is apparently primarily a collection of stories with regard to entertainment and Ovid's own fame. Whilst a few of the myths retain their didactic elements, for example, Teiresias' prophecy that Narcissus would live an extended life "as long as he never recognizes himself" (Ovid 3. 348), others appear to simply point out the gods wish to punish, for example Diana's consequence of Actaeon (Ovid 3. 139-252). Actually, this change in frame of mind to the misconceptions in the removal of a few of the moral significance can be referred to as a metamorphosis. Ovid also contains other transformations in his epic poem, such as transformations in individual culture or in the natural world. Ovid highlights his theme throughout the Metamorphoses, emphasizing that everything changes, and this in truth, is really the only continuous (Ovid 15. 176-452).

The transformation of Narcissus is one of the best-known of the Greek misconceptions and has motivated writers and performers for over two thousand years. There are several extant editions of the misconception; the most well-known of these is Ovid's version, found in Book III of his Metamorphoses (completed 8AD). Until recently, scholars assumed that Ovid's version was the initial; however an earlier version was found out one of the Oxryynchus papyri prompting Dr Benjamin Henry, the Oxford scholar who discovered the poem, to declare that "the misconception was modified by Ovid to broaden its appeal" (Secrets). This version, attributed to the poet Parthenius of Nicaea, is considered to have been constructed some 40 years before Ovid's version, and ends with Narcissus committing suicide. Conon, a contemporary of Ovid's, instructs the same myth in his Narrations and like Parthenius, ends it with Narcissus' suicide, while Pausanias' later version has Narcissus fall in love not with himself, but along with his twin sister (Jacoby).

Conon's version is a more moral revealing of the myth that considers Narcissus punished by the gods for his pride and vanity. The young man Aminias fell deeply in love with Narcissus, and, like his fellow suitors was spurned by him, so "took his sword and killed himself by the door, calling on the goddess Nemesis to avenge him. " (Atsma) Due to Nemesis' curse, Narcissus fell deeply in love with a reflection of himself in a stream, and in despair and guilt over his treatment of Aminias, Narcissus wiped out himself. That his fatality was more brutal than that portrayed in Ovid's Metamorphoses is clear in Conon's declare that "From his blood vessels sprang the blossom. " (Atsma)

Ovid's version of the myth commences with Teiresias' prophecy that Narcissus should never know himself (Ovid 3. 348), and then digresses with the story of Echo. Echo, cursed by Juno for aiding Jupiter to conceal his adultery, was only in a position to "repeat what she heard at the end of a word and never reply for herself" (Ovid 3. 369). When she found Narcissus hunting in the woods, she, like many others before her, fell in love with him and followed him, repeating his last words in an attempt to communicate with him. When finally, feels inspired enough by his words - "We must get together!" (Ovid 3. 386) - showing herself, he rejects her harshly, "Hands off! CAN I die before you enjoy my own body!" That is an ironic choice of words give his imminent demise, and Ovid is manipulating the tone here to indicate his earlier explanation of Narcissus as "hard and happy" (Ovid 3. 353). Echo was kept ashamed and broken-hearted, eventually wasting away until only her speech, an echo, remained. The bond between Echo and Narcissus appears to be Ovid's own technology since there are no prior accounts that hyperlink the two heroes. Ovid's departure from the received narrative enables him to add two further metamorphoses in this poem. The to begin these occurs when, in her anger, Juno changes Echo from the crafty nymph with a "prattling tongue" (Ovid 3. 367) to a "poor creature" (Ovid 3. 374) who could only replicate others' words, the next when Narcissus' rejection of Echo causes her further transformation into "a mere speech" (Ovid 3. 359).

The addition of Echo in the Narcissus narrative may well not have been usual in Ovid's time, but my first reading of the Narcissus misconception was in Ovid's Metamorphoses, so for me, the two heroes have become truly interlinked. I am not willing to pity Narcissus, so for me personally, the Echo history heightens the tragic timbre of the full narrative. With no inclusion of Echo, the Narcissus misconception becomes simply a story of a proud, arrogant young man getting his comeuppance, but Echo's report invites compassion and a good desire to have justice. Alongside the additional opportunities for metamorphoses that her storyline provides, Ovid's addition of Echo as a fresh area of the Narcissus misconception was for me, inspired, and resulted in a more powerful story.

With his metamorphoses of Echo complete, Ovid returns the target to Narcissus; at the appeal of "one of is own scorned admirers" (Ovid 3. 404), Nemesis curses Narcissus to "fall in love rather than obtain his desire" (Ovid 3. 405). We then face the to begin Narcissus' 'transformations' - the differ from thirsting for normal water to thirsting for himself. Another change is Narcissus' own personality, changing from an arrogant youth with a "heart so difficult and proud" (Ovid 3. 354) through wish to an anguished youngsters who welcomes fatality as an end to his heartache. Ovid subtly alludes to these more implicit transformations that infuse his Metamorphoses.

Of course the most explicit change of the Echo and Narcissus history is Narcissus' own transformation in to the narcissus flower. This is the climax of the misconception, the realisation of the theme of metamorphosis. Narcissus' metamorphosis is the consequence of his satisfaction, vanity, and his treatment of his admirers; as he turned down others, he's rejected by himself, becoming both the subject and subject of unrequited love. Even in loss of life, Ovid suggests that his arrogance persists; "as he crossed the Styx to ghostly Hades, he gazed at himself in the river" (Ovid 3. 504). Ovid creates the suspense of the change itself gradually, not revealing the outcome until the final line in the narrative; "Your body, however, was not found - only a bloom with a trumpet of gold and pale white petals" (Ovid 3. 510). The actual fact that the narrative ends with the ensuing metamorphosis illustrates Ovid's need to spotlight his theme. Ovid uses metamorphosis to explore the interpersonal and cultural effects of the incidents in his poem, for example, Narcissus' severe treatment of Echo resulted in her transformation into "only words" (Ovid 3. 359) - Echo essentially 'lost herself' to love.

Gildenhard and Zissos believe the poetic form of Metamorphoses is interrupted by the storyplot of Narcissus, professing that this confirms that the addition of this myth was an afterthought that Ovid thought was necessary to verify Teiresias' prophecies. They believe that the Narcissus myth is an upgraded for the Oedipal figure that would be expected at this point in the Theban books, quoting Hardie's reviews that "Behind the Narcissus tale there hovers the shape of the Sophoclean Oedipus, the glaring absence from the narrative surface of Ovid's Theban literature, Metamorphoses 3 and 4, but a ghostly occurrence in a lot of the crisis of blindness, view, and insight, especially of the 3rd book. " (Gildenhard and Zissos 3) Their article explores the intertextuality between Sophocles' Oedipus Tyrannus and Ovid's Narcissus misconception, claiming that "Oedipus and Narcissus emerge as thematic mirror reflections of every other" (Gildenhard and Zissos 13). Gildenhard and Zissos conclude that Ovid's inclusion of Narcissus over Oedipus is due to a want to concentrate on the people of Cadmus' family, which Oedipus' tale "would [not] have lent itself easily to inclusion within the tight-knit patterning of Cadmus' daughters and nephews" (Gildenhard and Zissos 17). However, for me, the storyline of Echo and Narcissus is merely more appropriate to Ovid's chosen theme. Whether or not Ovid do include it as an afterthought, or a way of demonstrating Teiresias' prophecies, he does indeed so in such a way that this amplifies his metamorphosis theme.

The story of Echo and Narcissus is one of my favourite classical myths, and also inspired one of my favourite paintings - Salvador Dali's Metamorphosis of Narcissus. The tragedy, the anger and the justice of the misconception come together with the transformations of the characters to produce a captivating history. The freshness and originality with which Ovid presents a well-known story make it distinctively Ovidian. His writing is vivid and the storyline steps quickly, and whilst some may consider the addition of Echo a digression, the narrative still flows. For me, Ovid's manipulation of a few of the key components of the myth really helps to enhance it further. The Parthenius and Conon versions of the misconception that end in the suicide of Narcissus lack the poetic justice of Ovid's poor decline. In Ovid's editions of the misconception, Narcissus' steady fading away mirrors Echo's demise, and in this way, once again highlights Ovid's theme of metamorphoses. When Narcissus is dying, he's not concerned about the world around him, about food, drink or sleep; he calls for his last breath by the image he has fallen deeply in love with but can't ever obtain (Ovid 3. 405), and so dies by itself, without love. Ovid's masterful handling of the narrative offers it an depth that may be difficult to find in retellings of traditional common myths, but Ovid's Echo and Narcissus has stood the test of time and continues to inspire other writers and artists even today.


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