The skull is the most notable of the skeleton and consists of the cranium and mandible. The cranial part
of the skull is composed of separate bone fragments united at immobile joints called sutures. These sutures
are held by sutural ligaments. The skull is constructed of compact bone, covered with periosteum, and
a coating of diploe. The mandible is connected to the cranium by a synovial joint called the
temporomandibular joint. The cranium houses the brain and supports the face. The quantity of
bones in the skull totals 22. The skull bones can be split into two groupings. The bone fragments of the
cranium and face. The five bone fragments of the cranium contain one frontal, two parietal, one
occipital, two temporal, one sphenoid, and one ethmoid bone. The facial bones contain two
zygomatic bone fragments, two maxillae, two nasal bone fragments, two lacrimal bone fragments, one vomer, two palatine
bones, two Inferior conchae, and one mandible.
In the thoracic cage we have the lateral ribs, costal cartilages, dorsal thoracic
vertebrae, sternum, and the xiphoid. The thoracic cavity defends the heart and lungs. This cage
also facilitates the make girdles and upper limbs and attached you will see the neck, breasts, and
Skeletons and Bone fragments PG 2.
muscles. The sternum or "breastbone" has three fused bone fragments. We've 12 ribs total. The ribs are
either floating ribs or true ribs. The true ribs 1-7 are attached to the sternum. Ribs 8-10 are
considered false ribs. The ribs 11-12 are believed floating ribs and do not attach to the
sternum. The scapula is a set, triangular bone which articulates laterally with the clavicle and
with the humerous. We've two indistinguishable pairs. The clavicles are a set of long bone fragments that
connect the scapula to the sternum. The clavicles are cylindrical bones around 6 ins long.
They are located in the thoracic region superior and anterior to the first rib. Each clavicle runs
transversely and varieties a joint with the sternum on its medial end and the scapula on its lateral
end. (Bones: structure and technicians, Pg. 47) The clavicles, along with the scapulae, form
the pectoral girdle that attaches the bones of the arm to the trunk. The sternoclavicular joint parts are
the only bony accessories between your pectoral girdles and the bone fragments of the axial skeleton.
Several muscles of the neck of the guitar and make also attach to the clavicle, like the pectoralis
major, sternocleidomastoid, trapezius, and deltoid.
The vertebra column consists of 33 vertebrae. The first 24 vertebra are articulating
vertebrae, seven cervical, 12 thoracic, five lumbar, and the low nine are fused. Then following
we have five fused in the sacrumand four in the coccyx. The vertebral canal defends the spinal
cord. The human being vertebral column is the backbone or spine, comprising thirty three altogether.
The vertebra are small bone fragments developing the backbone and they have a opening through which the
spinal cord passes. The ilium is the uppermost and largest part of the hip bone. This bone is
wide, flat, and attachment points. The curved ischium forms the low and back again part of
the hip bone. This bone is below the ilium and behind the pubis. The superior part of this
Skeleton and Bone fragments PG 3.
bone forms approximately one third of the acetabulum. The body rests on these bones while in
sitting position. The pubic bone is the ventral and anterior of the three bone fragments which will make up half
of the pelvis. The pubic bone is covered the mons pubis. There's a superior ramus and an
inferior ramus observed. The pubis is the lowest & most anterior part of the hip bone fragments of the
pelvis. The pubic symphysis, is where the two hip bone fragments of the pelvis are fused jointly. The
humerus is the upper arm long bone, it stretches from make to elbow. The proximal end has a
smooth round mind that articulates with scapula.
The cylindrical shaped humerus has two curved processes called the higher and lesser
tubercles. The distal end of the humerus has two articulating areas, the trochlea which
articulates with the ulna and the capitulum, which articulates with the radius at the elbow. The
ulnais a long bone on the opposite aspect of the forearm from the thumb. It connects to the
humerus on the larger end and joins with the carpal bones of the hands at its smaller end. It lies
medially and parallel to theradius. The forearm has two large bones, the radius and the ulna, of
which the radius is the larger bone. The radius is situated on the lateral side of the forearm
between the elbow and the wrist bones.
The pectoral girdle is the skeletal construction that provides connection for the scapula's
and clavicles. The Pelvic Girdle is composed of 2 hip bone fragments and sacrum. The talus bone,
astragalus, or ankle bone is one of the band of feet bones known as the tarsus. The tarsus forms
the lower part of the ankle joint through its articulations with the lateral and medial malleoli of the
two bones of the lower calf, the tibia and fibula. The tarsus transmits the complete weight of the body
to the foot. The calcaneus or heel bone is a bone of the tarsus of the feet which constitutes the
Skeleton and Bones PG 4.
heel. The metatarsal bone fragments, or metatarsus are five long bone fragments in the foot, located between the
tarsal bones of the hind- and mid-foot and the phalanges of the feet. (Fundamentals of Anatomy
&Physiology) The metatarsal bone fragments are numbered from the medial aspect: the first, second, third,
fourth, and fifth metatarsal. A tarsal is considered one of the seven bone fragments of the tarsus. The
metacarpals are long bones within the hands that are connected to the carpals, or wrist bone fragments, and
to the phalanges, or finger bones. The tops of the metacarpals form the knuckles where they join
to the wrist. Within the palm side, these are covered with connective tissue. You can find eight small
carpel bones that sit between your distal ends of the radius and ulna. They have five metacarpals.
The size of the metacarpal's vary and have different patterns. The phalanges are digital long
bones found in the hands and legs. There are usually three noted, distal, middle, and proximal
for each digit. The only exception the thumbs and large toes.
The fibula is a knee bone on the lateral area of the tibia, with which it is connected
above and below. It is the smaller of both lower leg bones and the slenderest of all the long
bones. The tibia is the larger and more powerful of both lower leg bone fragments and it connects the knee
with the ankle bone fragments. The tibia is available on the medial side of the lower leg next to the fibula. It is the
second major bone in the body next to the femur. The patella is a circular-triangular
bonewhich articulates with the femur and includes the anterior articular surface of the knee joint.
The femur articulates with the acetabulumin the pelvic bone forming the hip joint, while the
distal area of the femur articulates with the tibia and patella building the leg joint. The femur is
the best bone in the torso.
1. Quickly identify and discuss the microscopic set ups of compact bone
Skeleton and Bone fragments PG 5.
Compact bone consists of rigid organs that form parts of the endoskeleton. Small bone
assist your body to move, facilitates it, and shields organs. Small bone produces red and white
blood cells and store minerals. The cortical bone is one of both types of osseous tissues that
form bone fragments. Cortical bone is often most prominent in the individual femur and tibia. The external layer
is thick and varieties the shaft of the long bones. Compact bone is made up of concentric tiers of
mineral deposits adjoining a central beginning. The cylindrical shaped osteon is the main
structure which makes the outer level of bones hard. They typically run parallel. The cortical bone
is considered approximately 80% of adult bone. Each unit is generally consisting of the
Haversian canal, Volkmann's canals, osteocytes, and canaluli's. (Bones structure and technicians,
Pg. 212) Small bone has a central canal, called the Haversian canal, along with
concentric tiers of bone called interstitial lamellae.
The Haversian canal is in fact surrounded with wedding rings of lamellae. Lamellae are made
up of bone matrix, collagen materials, and nutrient crystals. Interstitial lamellae are within the
spaces between osteons. Cancellous or spongy bone has less durability than small bone and
within the Haversian canal comprises a level of endosteum. This connective structure is rich in
nerve materials and blood vessels. Blood cells within the canal carry nutrients and waste products to and
away from the outer part of the bone. These systems of canals and lamellae are also called
osteons. Spongy bone is hollow and appears like a sponge. They contain skinny spicules are known
as trabeculae. Among these cavities you will find red or yellow bone. Volkmann's canals are
small programs in the bone that transmit arteries from the periosteum in to the bone and
these canals provide energy and nourish osteons. Trabecular bone is another name for spongy
Skeleton and Bones PG 6.
bone and are available at the ends of long bone fragments. (Haversian system, Pg. 12)
Long bones is most of the appendicular skeleton. The ends of the long bones are epiphysis,
its shaft is called the diaphysis. The surroundings or periphery of the epiphysis and diaphysis are
made up of compact bone. In between long bone fragments are epiphyseal plates which is the region
where bone progress occurs. The long bone is protected of the fibrous sheath called periosteum.
The periosteum protects the bone and allows it to add to other bone fragments.