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Outline of the professional medical characteristics of depression

The formal medical diagnosis of major unhappiness requires five of the next symptoms and proof serious distress or failure to function in everyday life. The following symptoms must be there for most of the time over a minimum period of fourteen days.

Symptoms of depressive disorder -

Sad depressed mood and sense or behaving unhappy and empty

Loss appealing and pleasure in normal activities

Difficulty in sleeping ( insomnia or hypersomnia )

Lethargic or agitated

Appetite ( loss so weight damage or increased so weight gain )

Loss of energy or great fatigue

Negative home concept sense of worthlessness and guilt.

Difficulty in focusing ( slowed thinking or indecisiveness )

Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.

Give two or more psychological causes of depression


Views about the worldPsychologist Aaron Beck advised depression is the consequence of negative thinking and catastrophising which he called cognitive mistakes. (Beck 1991) retained there are three components to unhappiness which he called the cognitive triad.

The cognitive triad.

Views about oneself

Views about the future

As the cognitive triad components interact they interfere with normal cognitive processing which then causes impairments in conception, memory space and problem handling, the individual then becomes enthusiastic about mental poison.

In addition to the cognitive triad beck presumed that depression vulnerable individuals create a negative self applied schema which means they possess a couple of beliefs and anticipations about themselves that are negative and pessimistic, that leads on to sense and symptoms of major depression. Negative do it yourself schemas can be acquired in childhood as a result of a traumatic event like the death of any father or mother or sibling, parental rejection, bulling at home or school for example. People with negative self applied schemas become prone to making logical mistakes in their thinking plus they tend to concentrate selectively on certain areas of a situation while ignoring evenly relevant information this is named cognitive distortions. A good example of a cognitive distortion is someone believing that someone is whispering about them plus they automatically expect it must be bad, disregarding the fact they may be whispering something good. Cognitive distortions include the following -

Arbitrary interference: drawing conclusions based on sufficient or irrelevant evidence for example considering you are worthless just because a demonstrate were going too was terminated.

Selective abstraction : concentrating on a single aspect of a predicament and disregarding others for example you are feeling accountable for your netball team sacrificing a game even though your just one single player on the team.

Over generalisation: making a sweeping conclusion on the basis of an individual event. Failing an exam, this means you will fail all exams and that you are stupid.

Magnification and minimisation: exaggerating or underplaying the significant of an event for example you scrape the paint work on your car and therefore see yourself as an awful driver.

Personalisation: This is attributing the negative emotions of others to yourself for example your friend enters the area looking upset; you think you'll want upset her.

Beck also advised that that there specific variations that determine the sort of event that can bring about melancholy for example sociotrapic personalities bottom part their self esteem on the acceptance of others where as an autonomous person would behave badly with their independence being challenged.

The cognitive theory is one of the most important models that describe negative thought operations. It explains that our emotional reaction seems to come from how exactly we interpret and forecast the world all around us. The primary problem with the cognitive method of depression is the fact that the idea is correlational, and that the debate is a circular one. Does depression cause negative thinking, or does indeed negative considering cause depression? Also it is a theory which is hard to test and research people seeking help for depressive disorder already have negative emotions and so it isn't possible to gain access to their cognitive process prior to the starting point of the disorder.

Secondly when individuals are tested in research they are often already on drugs to manage the depression that could affect the consequence of the analysis. Finally thoughts are subjective experience that are hard to check and measure which make proving the idea extremely difficult. A confident of the cognitive approach to depression is that they have many useful applications and has contributed to our understanding of human happening and it has integrated well with other solutions.

The psychodynamic explanation of the sources of depression

The psychodynamic approach to understanding depression focuses about how the unconscious motives drive our behaviours and experiences. Freud reason of depression is based on the early relationships with are parents, he observed that there surely is a similarity between grieving for a loved one and the symptoms of depression.

Freud described major depression as an increased and irrational grief which occurs as a reaction to a reduction, this loss evokes emotions associated with real or imagined affection from the individual on whom the person was most dependants as a child. Both actual and symbolic loss lead us to re experience elements of our youth, thus people with unhappiness become clingy, dependant and can even regress to a child like condition.

Evaluate psychodynamic remedy in the treatment of depression

In support of the psychodynamic theory people who have depression do show dependant like behaviours as they often times feel that they cannot manage every day activities and rely intensely on others. In support of Freud theory on depressive disorder and understanding depression from the psychodynamic approach is Harlow's research on privation conducted on rhesus monkeys segregated from their mothers at delivery, using surrogate mothers, a wire mother and a cloth mother he confirmed that a mother's love was essential for a person's mental health. The experiment showed that newborn monkeys separated of their mothers displayed symptoms of unhappiness.

In support of the psychodynamic approach to depression and frauds theories this process is idiographic therefore focuses on the average person. This means that the individual's problems are considered and they're not only diagnosed on the bias of others. A negative point on the psychodynamic theory will there be is little experimental data for Frauds ideas as most of his work was founded upon circumstance studies, this makes the strategy highly subjective and un-testable as his finding were often biased to match his theories, second to the frauds theory is often characterised as unscientific as it is difficult to see and measure concepts such as actual and symbolic losses and regression. Also the situation studies used to check Freud's psychodynamic theory were mainly middle older, upper class, Austrian women. This means that his findings can't be generalised to the wider population.

This is also a problem as he developed his ideas on childhood from adults speaking retrospectively of their pasts which really is a problem because people remember information in different ways and memory space and thoughts fade.

The ethical implications of psychodynamic therapy

Directive remedy- because of the unconscious cause of the subconscious problems and the resistance patients set up to the unconscious truths, the individual must trust the therapist's interpretation and instructions. However psychoanalysis occurs under voluntary conditions.

Psychoanalysis can be quite anxiety provoking as it can reveal disturbing repressed experiences. It really is a humane form of treatment as it generally does not blame or assess the patient, who is not in charge of their problems.

Outline the scientific characteristics of schizophrenia

There are negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia Positive symptoms are things additional to expected behaviour and include delusions, hallucinations, agitation and talkativeness.

Negative symptoms that are things absent from expected behavior, negative symptoms include too little motivation, social withdrawal, flattened affect, cognitive disruptions, poor personal hygiene and poor talk.

Other characteristics of schizophrenia include-

Auditory or aesthetic hallucinations

Flat emotions


Disorganised speech

Catatonic or disorganised behaviour

Give two or more mental explanations of schizophrenia

Cognitive reason for schizophrenia

Cognitive explanations for schizophrenia acknowledge the role of natural factors such as hereditary causes and a big change of brain activity for the cause of initial sensory encounters of schizophrenia. However further top features of the disorder show up as the average person attempts to understand them. The cognitive strategy also shows that schizophrenia is characterised by deep thought disturbance, this could be down to cognitive problems which can impair areas such as perception and memory. This could form cognitive biases and explain misconceptions and just how schizophrenia victims interpret there world. Schizophrenics normally first discover symptoms of voices and unusual sensory experiences, this normally leads them to a friend or relative to confirm the knowledge when the knowledge is not established this can lead to rejection of support. This brings about a belief that folks around them are hiding the reality and the individual with schizophrenia believes these are being manipulated and persecuted. This shows the foundation of schizophrenia is biology established however other symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions are shaped after the failure to not except there fact these of which are cognitive. To get the cognitive approach to schizophrenia Firth (1979) proposes that disruption with an attention filter mechanism could result in the thought disruptions of schizophrenia, as the victim is overloaded with sensory information. Studies on ongoing performance and vision tracking tasks reveal schizophrenics do show more attentional problems than non schizophrenics. Which means that perhaps reduced short-term storage area capacity could account for some schizophrenic's cognitive distractibility.

Hemsley (1993) recommended schizophrenics cannot distinguish between information that has already been stored and new inbound information. Because of this, schizophrenics are subject to sensory overload and don't know which aspect of a situation to attended to and which to disregard.

One durability of the cognitive justification when talking about schizophrenia is that there surely is further support for this theory provided by Myer-Lindenberg ( 2002) they found a connection between poor working storage area ( which is typical of schizophrenics ) and reduced activity in the prefrontal cortex. Furthermore Schielke (2002) examined a patient who developed constant auditory hallucinations as a consequence of an abscess in the dorsal pons. This suggests that there is certainly wider academic credibility for the hyperlink between biological and cognitive factors triggering schizophrenia. A second durability of the cognitive description of schizophrenia is the fact that it takes up to speed the nurture method of the development of schizophrenia. For example it shows that schizophrenic behaviour is the reason for environmental factors such as cognitive factors. A weakness of the cognitive reason is that we now have issues with cause and effect.

Cognitive strategies do not describe the causes of cognitive defects -where they result from in the first place. Is it the cognitive problems which cause schizophrenia behavior or is it the schizophrenia that causes cognitive defects. A second weakness of the cognitive model is that it is reductionist the approach does not consider other factors such as genes. This suggests that the cognitive way over simplifies the reason of schizophrenia.

The behavioural justification of schizophrenia.

The behavioural reason suggests that schizophrenia is a consequence of faulty learning children who do not obtain smaller amounts of reinforcement early on in their lives will put bigger attention into irrelevant environmental cues, for example: Taking attention to the sound of a word somewhat than its genuine meaning. This behavior will eventually show up weird or odd to others so will generally be prevented. Unusual behaviours may be rewarded by attention and sympathy and they also are reinforced. This can continue until the behaviour becomes so weird that the person is then labelled as schizophrenic. Eventually the behaviour and psychological point out deteriorates into a psychotic point out.

Evaluate cognitive behavioural treatments in the treatment of schizophrenia in conditions of its strengths and weaknesses.

The misinterpretation of events on the planet is common in schizophrenia. Using cognitive remedy with schizophrenia requires the psychologist to accept that the cognitive distortions and disorganized thinking about schizophrenia are produced, at least in part, by a biological problem that will not cease due to the fact the "correct" interpretation of reality is explained to the client. Cognitive therapy can only just achieve success if the psychologist allows the client's perception of certainty, and decides how to utilize this "misperception" to aid your client in properly managing life problems. The goal is to help the client use information from the globe (other folks, perceptions of occurrences, etc. ) to make adaptive coping decisions. The procedure goal, for the cognitive therapist, is never to "cure" schizophrenia, but to enhance the client's ability to manage life problems, to operate independently, and to be free of extreme stress and other mental symptoms.


It directly troubles the problem and attempts a remedy of the under lying down symptoms.

It provides person some control over their own health problems.

Research shows cognitive behavioural therapy can be as effective as medication

Due to its highly structured nature cognitive behavioural therapy can be provided in a number of types such as very soft ware and do it yourself help books.


In order to benefit from cognitive behavioural remedy you need to make sure you give a significant amount of dedication which people who have schizophrenia can lack.

It could be argued that because cognitive behavioural therapy only addresses current problems it generally does not address underlying causes of the condition.

Discuss the ethics of cognitive behavioural therapy

Directive therapy - due to the environmental determinism of behavioural problems, patients have to be re programmed with adaptive behavior.

Stressful - can be painful and disturbing e. g. flooding and aversion therapy

Humane - specific maladaptive behaviours are targeted the whole person is not labelled.

Outline the characteristics of anorexia

Refusal to keep body weight at or above a minimally normal weight for era and height.

Intense concern with gaining weight

Disturbance in the way in which the body weight or condition has experience, denial of the seriousness of the existing lower body weight.

Absents of three consecutive periods.

Socially withdrawn

Refusal to consume despite hunger

Give two or more internal explanations of eating disorders

Cognitive reason of anorexia

Cognitive psychologist has advised that irrational behaviour and values and distorted perception are involved in eating disorders. These beliefs normally concern unrealistic ideals or perception of body shape or irrational attitudes towards eating habits and dieting. For example: the disinhibition hypothesis - once a diet has been cracked one may as well break it completely by bingeing.

Cognitive researchers have also proposed that suffers of anorexia would like to say control over their life to an excessive idealistic extent. Bemis- Vitousek and Orimoto (1993) pointed out the sort of faulty cognitions that are typical in people with anorexia.

For example: a cognition is the fact that dieting is a means of personal control, but at exactly the same time most people with anorexia are aware they are out of control because they can not stop dieting, even when it is threatening there life. They are defective cognitions and maladaptive means of thinking.

The problem with the cognitive description is that the theory is correlational and the argument is a circular one will negative thinking cause the eating disorder or does the eating disorder cause the negative thinking. Second of all the thoughts that are related to having an eating disorder are subjective encounters that are hard to check and assess, Also people seeking help for an eating disorder are already have negative feelings so that it is not possible to test their cognitive techniques prior to the onset of the disorder.

Psychodynamic explanation of anorexia

One view of the psychodynamic model of anorexia proposes that anorexia demonstrates an unconscious desire by a girl to remain pre-pubescent. Over dependence on parents may result in the adolescent fearing erotic maturity and independence. Bruch (1974) considered anorectics as being in a struggle for control and their own personal information, the pursuit of thinness was seen as a critical part of such challenging. Bruch considered that there were two main characteristics of parents that made the development of anorexia much more likely in their children. Firstly an over nervous about food and secondly family relationships that did not assist the child in expanding their own sense of individuality particularly important was considered to be girls sensing that their needs were extra to their mothers.

The psychodynamic way in relation to eating disorders is idiographic and so it focuses on the individual. This implies the individuals problems are considered and they are not only diagnosed based on others. There is little facts for Freud's theories on eating disorders it is all based on feeling somewhat than hard proof. All his circumstance studies were a mainly middle aged, Austrian woman which means his findings can't be generalised to the wider populace. However Freud's idea that the anorexics refusal to consume was an unconscious denial of the adult role and they wished to continue to be a kid. The timing of starting point in anorexia and the loss of menstruation supports this idea.

Evaluate behavioural therapy in the treatment of eating disorders.

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a common type of treatment for eating disorders. This branch of psychotherapy is designed to help break large problems or situations into smaller more controllable parts and snacks eating disorders in this same way. Cognitive behavioral therapy is a branch of psychotherapy that is dependant on the idea that thoughts (cognition) and actions (habits) are related.

This may not always be clear, so CBT seeks to help individuals breakdown problems or situations into more controllable parts and verify the ways in which thoughts, feelings and actions were related in one another. Cognitive behavioral remedy allows individuals to analyze the relationships between their thoughts, feelings and activities and in doing this allows individuals to understand that if they change the way that they think and feel, they will change just how that they work. For individuals experiencing eating disorders, understanding the romantic relationships between thoughts, feelings and activities is highly important. Once these interactions are understood, the average person suffering from an eating disorder can replace the negative thoughts and emotions that have led to irregular food and eating manners and with an increase of positive thoughts and emotions that will lead back towards a healthy lifestyle. However, in order for these human relationships to be clear, it may take weeks of monitoring thoughts, thoughts and food and eating actions before the person will accept this confirmation. Often therapists will ask individuals to keep a journal or food journal in order to more effectively record their thoughts, thoughts and activities towards food and eating throughout a given time frame.

Discuss the ethics of behavioural therapy

Behavioural remedy can induce a high level of anxiety which could be considered unethical Directive therapy - due to the environmental determinism of behavioural problems; patients have to be re programmed with adaptive behaviour.

Stressful - can be painful and disturbing e. g. flooding and aversion therapy

Humane - specific maladaptive behaviours are targeted the whole person is not labelled.

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