Organizational success and staff satisfaction are immediately linked with one another in assisting organizations to boost their productivity, quality, etc. At the moment time whatever the organizational options and environment the managers face a universal problem to stimulate their employees. Employee engagement is becoming the key pillar of business success for all your global organizations in today's competitive enviorment. Not only does proposal have the potential to significantly affect employee retention, productivity and loyalty, additionally it is a key link to client satisfaction, company reputation and overall stakeholder value. Every corporation want to set-up maximum shareholder value aside from income maximization which it can only achieve if the organization can attain the highest degrees of business performance that the employees of the organization plays an extremely vital role. Worker performance plays a significant role to achieve any business. And ever since that concept was learned several studies were conducted about the factors influencing worker motivation. The research on staff satisfaction is continually innovating, with new items of view and strategies emerging on a regular basis. In fact, there are always a plethora of books which have been written on the subject. This research will analyze the various components of employee satisfaction, as well as the main element drivers involved in motivating the employees with relevant cases.
I owe my deepest gratitude to Professor. . who undertook to do something as my. . . His knowledge, knowledge and dedication to the best standards inspired and encouraged me throughout my study.
I would like to give my heartiest because of my parents and family who were always there cheering me in my bad and the good times.
Employees are one of the main element factors for just about any organizations success. No corporation can succeed without a certain level of commitment and effort from its employees. Organizations always try to fulfill its employees to gain their dedication and loyalty. Corresponding to Luthans, (2001) job satisfaction might be one of the most desirable effects that employees wish to obtain. Over time various researches has mentioned that job satisfaction is essential for both individual performance and organizational-level improvement. Bartolo and Furlonger( 1999) mentioned that there has been a convergence of interest on the initiatives of the employees by the organizations to look at the factors that foster higher job satisfaction and make positive efforts for the organization
While reviewing the literature, it would be difficult to find the ideal explanation of staff satisfaction. However regarding to Ivancevich and Donnelly (1968), worker satisfaction is a favorable perspective of the worker towards his present the work role. Later Smith, Kendall, and Hulin (1969) mentioned that job satisfaction is a feeling or affective response towards facets of the problem. Although there are no accords on ways of defining job satisfaction, it's been always considered as an employee's notion on how well his/her job supplies the important things in their life.
Again according to the employees' amount of job satisfaction or dissatisfaction employees' habit can vary greatly to influence organizational procedures and shows. Carrell, Jennings, and Heavrin, (1997) mentioned a strong romance between job satisfaction and organizational dedication has been found through the years. Even though the employees are satisfied; they would like to leave the business for a few better opportunities at other place. In summary it might be ideal to say job satisfaction is directly related to worker turnover within an organization.
Researchers have found that a number of variables are related directly to job satisfaction while some serves as an sign of job dissatisfaction.
Age -Waskiewicz, (1999) mentioned that job satisfaction with more radiant employees is normally high at the start then drops for basically after couple of years then boosts again later with employees age
Gender - Corresponding to a report conducted by Hollen and Gemmell (1976) in a college or university, job satisfaction degrees of male and feminine tutors mixed. The males portrayed higher job satisfaction levels than females.
Education - Carrel and Elbert (1974) mentioned negative romantic relationship between education and job satisfaction. Regarding with their studies employees who've more education get fed up to do tedious task in a job than exploring new things.
Type of work- Arnold and Feldman (1986) explained that educated employees prefer more difficult task to provide their capabilities, skills
Type of employees -Corresponding to Ducharme and Martin (2000)'s affective coworker support helps to enhance staff job satisfaction.
Pay - Pay can be an important determinant of job satisfaction Employees view pay as a mirror image of management's views towards their contribution to the organization. Derlin and Schneider (1994) explained that pay and fringe benefits plays an important role to increase staff job satisfaction.
According to Brooke (2005) control style of the organization and worker satisfaction are directly related to each other. The control of an organization generally establishes a perspective; organize variables to be employed by the employees within and establish overall pitch because of its employees of the business. Good leaders and managers always focus on good communication process with the employees to provide increased satisfaction to the employees permitting them to notify their views and objections. To improve worker satisfaction proper organizational control must be integrated at every level to attain organizational goals. O'Connor( 2004) explained that effective authority always means that employee skill is properly discovered and developed for future command positions within the business. Leadership that includes a knowledge of employee expectations, desires and needs is essential to be able to bolster and maintain worker satisfaction.
Work environment includes many aspects like employees physical work place, management's attitude toward its employees, romantic relationship with the colleagues and coworkers, and the working conditions.
One of the greatest factor in staff satisfaction/ is the degree of training and development the organizations provide to its employees Sufficient training and development programs not only help to strengthen worker satisfaction, but also produce infinite benefits for the business. Training initiatives should be organized well by the management teams and properly funded and designed to meet organizational and staff goals.
Employee Development & Control Planning
Employee development typically includes two main areas - profession development and professional development. Profession development provides a broader aspect of training which straight pertains to the employees professional development and profession planning. Professional development skills, identify the outside scope of your employer's job description providing the abilities and abilities necessary for the development and maturation necessary for management positions.
The major aspect of a good staff development program is to choose, cultivate, and coach future market leaders and managers. This move will inspire the employees to move up in the organization. Continual education and development of the employees is regarded as one of the most vital organizational strategy at the moment time. Cascio (1998) explained that organizations that have the best applicants helps both group and the employees to attain individual goals. When organizations are able to maintain quality employees with pointed skills, the financial prospects for the organization improve noticeably The management and management development process is adaptable and ongoing, linking a person's development to the goals of the work and the organization
Employee Satisfaction and Recognition
At a period the employees were thought to be only a normal part of the production process of an organization but now every organization became aware that the employees are the key driving force of the business generation process, and require high quality motivation and recognition
A live exemplory case of a business proactively assessing the factors which motivates its employees can be found at the Piketon Research and Extension Middle in Piketon, Ohio. The business developed a survey questionnaire consisting of ten factors and asked employees to ranking them to be able of importance. Essentially the most essential part of employee desire is to make it so that it is stable and ongoing and among the finest ways to achieve this is by a formal staff recognition program. Recognizing and appraising employees' accomplishments are critical to reinforcing desired actions. Acceptance programs have proven to play an important role in a company's worker satisfaction and development. Recognition programs serve to create positive environments that encourage desired habits. Organizations that implement significant and effective acceptance programs often gain a competitive border through increased employee retention and an increase in overall staff satisfaction The implementation of effective honor and recognition programs can create a positive working environment that induces employees to thrive. According to Brintnall (2005) acceptance makes employees feel more valued, appreciated and contributes to higher worker morale which boosts overall organizational balance. An effective acknowledgement program must be offered with organizational strategies and goals. As this will ensure that employee's work are channeled toward the ultimate goals of the organization. A well thought out and designed acknowledgement program will need into consideration factors such as: the goals of the program, the audience, the budget, guidelines, communication, and ways of award.
The following is an appropriate example of the 12 steps of the staff popularity and satisfaction program at the Sony Company:
Awareness - In Sony employee's understanding is broaden by defining the goal of recognition to the employees and then promoting the goal through standard lines of communication within like company like in the company like posters, contests, group meetings, section luncheons, fliers in worker salary envelopes.
Define the audience. Know what the manners are that need to be modified or improved upon. Then determine whom the program will be targeted for. Could it be for all those company employees, or one specific office? Identify the individuals who'll most benefit from the program and make a committed action to promote this program in that group.
Step 3: Identify how your program will be set up. There is no cast-in-stone formula to follow. Try different strategies and discover what is most effective. Determine if you will discover specific performance or team performance. Might it be peer recognition, or data and way of measuring related? Who will make the determinations of who will get the award(s)? Maybe there is a deadline or timeframe for submission of candidates? Will the program take the proper execution of a suggestion program, or will it be performance based? Maybe there is a style for this program? The company must determine the requirements for the motivation or recognition prior to the execution, and then trail the data. If the info does not mirror what's needed, then either set up a new goal, or keep tabs on an alternative data point - but either way be sure to talk that the variables of this program are changing!
Step4: Build a budget. There is no set cost for acknowledgement programs. Items may be as inexpensive as a $5. 00 surprise certificate to a $50, 000 car. The budget should be predicated on what the business can afford to put forth. But, if nothing is put forth, remember that a "thank you" only moves so far to boost morale or motivate employees.
Step 5: Seek help if you need it. Look to industry groups, real human resource firms, or even your competitors to see what they are doing using their programs.
Step 6: Choose the awards to be given. You value your employees. Why not stretch that value to award items that match what your employees' value. Films, lunches, food certificates, electronics, quality clothing items, or cash are examples of items which could be appreciated by employees. Have a survey to see what people would like. Suggest price ranges (items under $20, items under $50, and items under $100. ) You may be amazed what employees produce, but make sure the prizes are something they need. The largest pitfall in reputation programs is offering an item that's not valued by the person acquiring it.
Step 7: Set up the rules for the program. Common conditions for this program usually include: the length or timeframe of the program, the skills to be looked at for an prize, certain requirements to be met, the selection process, and the way the accolades will be delivered. The rules should be evidently written, staying away from buzzwords and jargon. Keep it simple and understandable. Make certain the guidelines are good and equitable to all or any parties involved.
Step 8: Connect the program to employees and personnel. Once the essentials are in place, it's time to obtain the employees involved and motivated! Create a solid communications plan for the program that determines what will happen (and how) from beginning to end. Be as creative as you like, or delegate someone in your company to oversee this program. What promotional materials will be used and who will create them? The length of time will the original promotional kick off take? Don't oversell or inundate the employees with too much information, but use the various tools available (e-mail, words mail, conferences, intranet systems, etc. ) In the mid-point of this program, use a corporation publication or e-mail, or some other tool to converse the changes that took place as a result of implementation of the program.
Step 9: Keep track of the changes in performance. Does the program have the desired impact? Did worker attitudes or habits change in the required way? Require employee responses on the programs success. Develop quantifiable methods to determine if this program was a business success.
Step 10: Announce the winners. Congratulate the most notable performers but make certain to show understanding to the complete team because of their efforts. Meetings provide the perfect opportunity to recognize workers for employment well done. Open public acceptance reinforces their achievements and serves as a reminder to others to do an even better job next time. Send congratulatory letters to the employees at home (a nice delight) or at work
Step 11: Deliver the honours. Pay attention to the facts of the demonstration. First, a letter of congratulations is actually required. Deliver any tangible honours on the night out promised. In case a "ceremony" is to occur, be sure to find the buy in of the members, and determine if indeed they would exactly like their name pointed out, or if they would be willing to be called to the front to get their award. Make certain their immediate supervisor and top company officer(s) are on hand for the ceremony. When the delivery is to be less complex, the supervisor and company officer(s) should still be there to present the prize and their congratulations and thanks for employment done well.
Step 12: Maintain the momentum. Because the program is over, doesn't mean it can't still donate to the business enterprise success. Will you run another program? Will the principles and lessons discovered from this program be transferable to another program? Evaluate what did the trick (and what didn't) in this program and apply it to the next one. Determine if the program helped boost employer-employee communication, and have employees for ideas and suggestions on how to proceed the next time, or in different ways (Reputation).
Although organizations may have different designs and plans for a acknowledgement program, this example from the Sony Firm includes the essential elements essential to effectively effectuate positive worker behavior.
Motivational ideas were briefly talked about in the motivation and recognition portion of this paper. Individual nature can be very simple, yet highly complex too. An understanding and appreciation of the is a prerequisite to effective staff motivation in the workplace and for that reason, effective management and command. To be able to maximize output and efficiency at work, employees must be encouraged. When employees feel determined these are more creative, better, and most notably, satisfied with their work and the business that they be employed by (Fig. 7).
Although there are several cited inspiration ideas, two of the more popular will be mentioned here: Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, which includes previously been described in this newspaper, and Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory (Fig. 8). Work drive is one of the main element regions of organizational psychology. Using both of these different motivational theories, this paper will review the motivation causes used to maximize employee drive and satisfaction.
Figure 8: Motivational Theories
Source: Gemmy Allen
Frederick Herzberg developed a two-factor theory of determination that makes clear the actual employer may bring to the determination partnership. According to Herzberg, two factors impact employee determination: dissatisfiers (sometimes referred to as Hygiene) and motivators. While at the job, the business is in control of both factors (Erven and Milligan 2001). Dissatisfaction (hygiene) or extrinsic factors, extreme time, unsafe working conditions, job security, and low salary, produce job dissatisfaction. Motivator or intrinsic factors, such as increased responsibility, enough training and development opportunities, identification, and gratifying work, produce job satisfaction (Fig. 9).
Figure 9: Motivation & Satisfaction Levels
Source: Ohio Express University
The implications for the employer's part of the inspiration partnership are obvious. The dissatisfiers must be removed before motivators could work. Employees working in unsafe conditions with unfair pay will not be motivated by reputation and delegation of additional responsibility. However, if advancements in both security and pay are created, employees may still not become encouraged. Instead, if everything else remains the same the employees can be satisfied but not motivated (Erven and Milligan 2001).
The second of both psychological ideas of drive, and probably the most widely recognized, was first unveiled by Abraham Maslow and is known as Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.
Figure 10: Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Source: Gemmy Allen
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs identifies five levels of needs, which are best seen as a hierarchy with basic need appearing first and the most superior need previous (Fig. 10). People progress the hierarchy one level at the same time. Gratified needs lose their strength and the next level of needs is activated. As basic or lower-level needs are satisfied, higher-level needs become operative. Therefore, a satisfied need is not really a motivator (Allen 1998). The basic human needs, matching to Maslow are: physiological needs (least expensive), safety needs, love needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs (highest). This theory signifies that man's patterns is therefore dominated by his unsatisfied needs. As each need is satisfied, another is established, making the routine a perpetual, ongoing activity of searching for excellence through self-development (Accel 2006).
Motivating employees is a frequent task that will require a knowledge of employee mindset, as well as an understanding of specific motivators. The key to motivation unlocks real human potential. To be effective, managers need to understand what motivates employees within the context of the functions they perform. Of all functions a administrator performs, employee determination is one of the most intricate management issues they face. As employees find an store for their imagination and satisfaction with their work, the work they perform becomes a far more important part of their life. Because of this, employees are more productive and experience higher rates of satisfaction with their employment (Erven and Milligan 2001). In the past, managers assumed incorrectly, that all it would take to motivate employees is to pay them more. It really is conceivable for a business to have more employees when compared to a rival yet produce less and have disgruntled, low-output employees even though the organization is paying their employees more than the competition. The study has clearly shown that increased determination and satisfaction can increase worker output. Organizations are beginning to understand that they could motivate increased output and employee satisfaction by means other than financial incentives (Increasing Output 2005).
The results advised that the employees experienced a moderate degree of job satisfaction with the whole job situations (overall job satisfaction). Which has a closer look, it indicated that the highest satisfaction happened in the areas of the task itself, guidance, and coworkers. The employees were highly satisfied with the task itself because they found that their job was interesting, challenging, and pleasurable and had enough power and freedom to execute their job. Supervision also made employees were highly satisfied due to high competency in doing job of supervisor and the nice encouragement, possibility to express thoughts, support, fairness, and fascination with the emotions of subordinates provided by supervisor. The employees were also highly satisfied with coworkers because their coworkers were highly competent in doing their job. They received good assistance and supports form their coworkers and there have been no bickering and preventing at work. However, the employees were reasonably satisfied with other worked-related factors, including pay, fringe benefits, opportunity for improvement, contingent rewards, and communication.
Asking from the employees' perspectives, it came out that the employees graded pay as the main factor influencing their job satisfaction accompanied by fringe benefits and coworkers. However, the employees at the managerial and non-managerial levels identified different examples of importance. The non-managerial employees perceived pay, fringe benefits and coworker as the utmost three important would be because these motivational factors could satisfy their basic needs based on the Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs (Moorhead and Griffin, 1998). Alternatively, the employees at the managerial level rated coworkers, opportunity for improvement, and work itself as the most important factor influencing their job satisfaction. This may be because a good work group or effective team could easily helped them achieved the best results. In the same way, the task itself allowed them to apply their abilities and skills and embody a diversity of tasks, liberty, and performance feedback. Regarding the romantic relationships between your personal variables of the employees and their job satisfaction, it made an appearance that there is very little associations between both of these variables.
Arnold, J. H. , and D. C. Feldman, 1986, "Job Satisfaction", Organisational Behaviour, McGraw-Hill, Inc. , USA, pp. 85-113
Bartolo, K. and B. Furlonger, 2000, "Leadership and Job Satisfaction Among Aviation FIREMEN in Australia", Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 87-97
Brunetto Y. , 2002, "The Impact of Supervisor Communication face to face Satisfaction on Early Career COPS", IFSAM 2002 Meeting Gold Coast, Queenland, Australia
Carrell, M. R. , D. F. Jennings, and C. Heavrin, J. D. , 1997, "Decision Making, Job Satisfaction, and Work Stress", Basics of Organisational Behavior, pp. 135-141
DeMato, D. S. , 2001, "Job Satisfaction Among Elementary College Advisors in Virginia: Thirteen Years Later", Unpublished Ph. D. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and Talk about University, USA
Green, J. , 2000, " Job Satisfaction of Community College Chairpersons", Unpublished Ph. D. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and Status University, USA
Jariyavidyanont, S. , 1978, "Job Satisfaction of NIDA Faculty Members", Unpublished Ph. D. Dissertation, Indiana School, USA
Luthans, F. , 2001, "Job Satisfaction", Organisational Behaviour, 9th ed. , pp. 230-235
McAfee, B. , V. Quarstein, and A. Ardalan, 1995, "The Effect of Discretion, Final result Responses, and Process Reviews on Worker Job Satisfaction", Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 95, No. 5, pp. 7-12
Moorhead, G. and R. W. Griffin, 1998, Organisational Behaviour: Handling People and Organisations, 5th ed. , Houghton Mifflin Company, USA
Robbins, S. P. (2003) Necessities of Organisational Behaviour (7th ed), Prentice Hall: US.
Rue, L. W. and L. L. Byars, 1999, "Motivating Today's Staff", Guidance Key Link to Production, 6th ed. , The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. , USA, pp. 271-285
Simintiras, A. C. , G. A. Lancaster, and J. W. Cadogan, 1994, "Perceptions and Attitudes of Salespeople towards the entire Sales Job and the task Itself", Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 9, No. 7, pp. 3-10
Smith, P. C. Kendall, L. M. and Hulin, C. L. (1969) The dimension of satisfaction in work and retirement living, Rand McNally: Chicago
Spector, P. E. , 1997, Job Satisfaction: Application, Evaluation, Cause, and Implications, SAGE Publications, Inc. , USA
Soranun, K. , 1994, "Job Satisfaction and Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction of Academic Staffs and Non-Academic Staffs at Chulalongkorn University", Unpublished Expert Thesis, Chulalongkorn University or college, Thailand
Steers R. M. , L. W. Porter, and G. A. Bigley, 1996, "Job Behaviour and Employee Behavior", Determination and Leadership at Work, 6th ed. , The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. , USA, pp. 383-420
Tilburg E. V. , 1998, "Performance-Reward Contingencies: The Role and Interactions of Perceived Collateral in the Job Performance and Job Satisfaction", The Journal of the AATEA, pp. 25-31
Wangphanich, P. , 1984, "Job Satisfaction of Faculty Associates at Srinakharinwirot University or college, Thailand", ", Unpublished Ph. D. Dissertation, Kansas University or college, USA
Waskiewicz, S. P. , 1999, "Variables that Donate to Job Satisfaction of Extra School Associate Principals", ", Unpublished Ph. D. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and Condition University, USA