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Organizational structures used by UK Supermarkets

Organizational structure can be defined as the formal and casual framework of plans and rules to be able to keep up the position of the business's communication, the length and width of power, rights and responsibilities of the functions of the resources that is allotted in a highly organized manner.

In this, I'd like to present two among the most well successful food chain companies in the UK specifically J Sainsbury Plc and Tesco Plc.

J Sainsbury Plc

Sainsbury's was founded by John Wayne and Mary Ann Sainsbury in the year 1869 with the first shop in another of the London's poorest areas called Drury Street. Their success in providing high quality products in low price make them to the success to reach their today's stand with an increase of than 800 retailers. The company is now longest offering 18. 5 customers a week and with market show of about 16 percent. The business also has a credit of the longest major food retailing string in the united kingdom.

Available: http://www. j-sainsbury. co. uk/index. asp?pageid=12 [April 1, 2010]

Tesco Plc

Tesco was founded by Jack Cohen in 1919 by his first sales on surplus groceries from a stall with a profit of 1 with sales of 4. The company's brand own product was sold as Tesco tea before the company is named by the name. The name Tesco came from the company's spouse and tea supplier name TE Stockwell and the first two words of jack's surname. Tesco's today's property planted in a number of countries like Japan, Turkey, China, Malaysia, India, USA and much more.

Available: http://www. tescoplc. com/

Types of Organization

There will vary types of organizations with regards to the way these are functioning.

Formal Organization

This kind of organization contains fixed rules which may or may well not follow a certain number of rules and techniques that bother the business. This will depend on the way the group considers it. Some of them are very strictly followed. A number of the key characteristics of formal organizations are

well attributed guidelines and regulations

well determined plans and objectives

limits directed at activities of specific with in the organization

strictly taken care of coordinated observance

they aren't energetic in nature

hierarchical in nature

Informal Organization

This kind of group cane be defined as integration of behaviours, interactions, personal or professional cable connections through which the task has been done by interlocking of communal connections. Evolution of this type of business is obviously created interpersonal networking site such as facebook, twitter are popular for its relationship in a variety of levels. These types of networking are extremely much adaptable and possible in developing interpersonal interactions as well as organizational relationship. They may be more casual both in professional and personal perspectives. These are far better for brainstorming and can comply new improvements and communal components.

Some of the main element characteristics of the informal organization involve

very reactive and energetic in nature

highly enthusiastic and superiority in performance

very flexible

Disadvantages of casual organization

There are extensive highly potential drawbacks of informal company. Some of them are

Resistance towards change

Role conflict

Rumor

With each one of these disadvantages, the informal organizations are still very popular in the current quickly changing world. Their natural efficiency and effective way towards new ideas and recommendations make sure they are to keep alive and much more communicative with excellent channels through out the globe.

Flat organization

This kind of organization usually in a small sector or might be a product of big group. With this there will few levels or no levels whatsoever in structure. This type of organization operates in several levels of business for some specific purpose. This type of group is a decentralized one. That's there will be no point of focus of electricity.

The main advantages of this kind of group are

minimal bureaucracy

more effective in changing environment

resource determination is minimal

Tall organization

This kind of company is not usually used singularly in any company as the niche of having way too many parallel levels that produce them difficult to create decisions.

Matrix Organization

Matrix organizations are those group that they pool the work of people getting the same level of skill. This type of structure can be used in organizations which includes high dependencies between different departments with in the business.

Courtesy: http://www. visitask. com/EBimg/sample-matrix-organization. jpg

The above figure shows how the interaction between your professionals and their tasks in their expert and departments and the business all together. In this the professionals of different departments are in the same levels and they communicate between them for the overall quality and performance of the business.

The matrix organizations can be broadly divided into fragile, strong and healthy one based on the level of control and access of the specialist towards their employees.

Weak matrix

In this kind of organization the main problem is the commitment between the job professionals and the team as there is less role for these people to the welfare of the employees. This is because the functional managers who decide the welfare and development of the employees. This develop a less affinity for the employees. The main drawback of the is employees' performance is assessed according to the work they certainly for their useful managers not for his or her own task or for the job supervisor. This creates problem in doing their work on time and in proper. This will lead to a issue between different degrees of the organization like functional managers and project professionals.

Strong matrix

In this type of matrix the task managers have more electric power than the function supervisor. So the sole authority goes to the project supervisor and the function professionals have authority on the project manager. They don't have direct control over the team. However the team has personnel managers which also offers control over them other than job function. The strong affect on the role of job managers towards the employees provides name strong matrix.

Balanced matrix

This is balanced matrix to avoid misuse of ability given to designation. Including the sole specialist given in a strong matrix organizational composition can create over power of project managers towards its employees which impact specific performance. So highly accomplishing people gets neglected because of the personal interest of project managers. On the other side we have to also avoid weak matrix in an organization. The employees should get time for his or her own project work and it will not be considered a show out for the functional manager. So both of the matrix must be balanced for the effective working of a business with high production and welfare of the employees.

Variation of group in line with the size and kind of business

Organizational Structure of J Sainsbury Plc.

Sainsbury Plc is an extremely large firm that applies a mix of different kinds of organizational structure in order to keep up the stableness and need of the business. Sainsbury uses a mix of extra tall, level, matrix and hierarchical composition. The combo helps Sainsbury to work effectively according to the situations

For example, whenever we take a look of the organizational framework of Sainsbury as a whole we will have only a hierarchical structure. However when we commence to detail the several departments and divisions of Sainsbury we will understand that it uses toned organizational composition within a functional level or a creation level. When we look at the interaction between the departments we will recognize that they are employing matrix business and the combined with the flat and large organization composition is confusing to make more efficient and coordinated working of departments for the entire performance of Sainsbury.

Sainsbury also do a flexible organizational framework based on the need of demand of services. So they can develop their departments according to the Sainsbury's production and market needs.

Source: http://www. scmr. com/photo/142/142197-sun_wp_ex1. gif

Organizational Structure of Tesco Plc.

Tesco Plc is one of the leading string company on earth. These are mainly providing food products as well as petrol, telecom and other sorts of services. Both Tesco and Sainsbury Plc has much similar attitudes in their working strategies. But Tesco Plc provides importance to taxes avoidance strategy plans which brings out a large variety of allegations towards the business. They want to be more concentrated on their financial benefits with their product quality.

Organizational composition, allocation of managerial obligations and Accountability

The framework of an organization is very much affected to the managerial tasks and accountability. The organization composition makes the employees to work in line with the workflow and work place that make the employees satisfied and encouraged. The performance appraisals and rewards types of procedures and the management techniques towards employees give a good responses from them through powerful, security and ideas from the employees. A good management of a business is a mirror image of the performance of the business.

Sainsbury provide appropriate centralized as well as decentralized approaches to cope up the necessity of the business system. The versatility of Sainsbury brings appropriate toughness to the task environment and suitability to the changing world.

Organizational Leadership

This is an important part for maintaining the balance and the entire responsibility of the business. The market leaders bring their eyesight and mission to carry on with the organization's meaning of existence. When a company aim gets changed according to the requirement of the marketplace and the suitability of the results they are providing inside and outside of computer. So a good leadership can direct the business to a proper stream will effective eyesight and missions. They offer strategies and also make the employees to switch on proper way of execution of the strategies through brainstorming and appropriate utilization of communication programs along with effective usage of recruiting.

The stream of electricity is the major part of organizational command. What sort of management executes is in various ways in different organization in line with the suitability and dependability of the organization.

Management Styles

Organizations adopt different ways of management styles based on the way it is proper in organizational point of view. There are different types of management styles commonly implemented by different organizations.

Autocratic Leadership

This type of leadership has a superior power who transmits command for their subordinates. The superior doesn't be concerned about asking suggestions from the subordinates. Commanding and make them to do what's to be achieved.

The feature of autocratic control are

Decisions are produced from an individual person

Subordinates have high dependency towards leader

Can business lead for de-motivation and alienation of personnel.

Good for group which need decisions to be carried out quickly and decisively

This kind of corporation is not common in modern world as they are not effective in big organization as individual performance brings about the total performance of the business.

6. 2 Democratic Leadership

This kind of group is common nowadays. Bigger organizations are presenting more importance to the execution with their objective with individual performance. In decision making, managers give importance to the employees. Whenever a decision is given to the employees most the decision is accepted and is being executed.

The characteristics of democratic leadership are

encourages decision making from different perspectives

decision is being discussed

leader consults with others to confirm about the correctness of the decision

employees will be highly motivated

employees feel possession of the company because they are also a part of your choice making

brainstorming makes better and effective decision making

experience gives more ideal ideas for decision making

The main downside of democratic group is the wait in taking the final decision by the engagement of way too many people.

Laissez Faire

This kind of management is almost never found in common. On this the staff has their own way of taking decision and the leader does not have much role on this. This type of leadership is specially used in creative ideas. This omits the importance of head in the business and the it can sometime impact the business with a negative image.

Some of the attribute of this type of organization are

leadership duties are equally shared

useful for business which has importance to creative ideas

employees will be highly determined as the have full control over their work life

can get good team work

can have good interpersonal relationship

The main cons of this type of organization will be the lack of coordination and frustrating in taking decisions.

Paternalistic Leadership

This type of organization is similar to an autocratic firm in the sense that the instruction is certainly going downwards only. But the organization always manages the employees' communal need and always motivates them for their opinions. This motivates the employees and helps the management to manage their employees' needs. This diminishes the personnel turnover and the as the work is done such as a dictatorship.

Some of the main characteristics of paternalistic corporation are

leader is similar to a dad to the company

workers totally depend after the leader

leader is the supreme vitality, but consults with the employees

have priority to support the organization's employee

8. Corporate and business Culture

Corporate culture can be discussed as the total to the custom, practices, values and the meaning of it which makes the organization unique. Corporate and business culture is usual said as the characteristic of an organization as it issues towards founder's vision of the business. This depends upon the behaviour of the business towards its objectives and the employees that are approaching that to accomplish it. This makes commercial company as a broader idea than organization culture.

9. Organizational Culture

Organizational culture is the instinct of a business. The organization works based on the culture they may be carried out within an firm. Organizational culture differs from one organization to another and as well as the geographic location. The organizational culture is more depended and focused on a group or a section within an organization which differentiate this from the organization culture.

10, Strategic change

Strategic change can be defined as the change in the the different parts of strategy of an organization on its opportunity, objective, resource usage, competitive advantages etc. Change can be an inevitable essence of life. So the organizations have to change itself in line with the demand and then for the presence of the organization. Organizations always review their effect of their strategy on the company performance and do necessary changes to cope up with the circumstances. Small changes never disturb much with the daily habit execution of the business. But inevitable drastic changes bring out huge impact on the organizations, in particular when the change is so severe and the current system is not ready to allow the change.

There are many factors that needs to be taken into account on the proper change. Among the key factors is the rigidity of firm in

infrastructure

management

employees

policies and rules

workplace culture

Before initiating a tactical change, the organization must consider all the aspects like the requirement and benefits for this reason to the business. Organization must think about how precisely quickly it must be deployed and what all factors have to be changed to apply it. Necessary preparations before implementation can avoid a certain amount of impact by the change. A proper flexible organization is always ready for a change. The most common ways a strategic change is integrated in three changes.

Unfreeze: - In such a stage the management provides employees the requirement of the change and that helps them to understand the necessity of the change and exactly how helpful for the survival of the organization. This can help the employees become more self-confident and get ready for the acceptance of new strategy

Change: - On this stage strategy is being implemented and worked out the effects on the real environment and appropriate maintenance is carried out for the versatility of the organization.

Refreeze: - After the change is executed, the business makes the change long term so that it can be a routine for the organization.

All the above mentioned stages need to comprehend a very profound knowledge of the impact of the new strategy being executed on the existing system. There should be a clear eyesight of the effect and advantages to the business than the current strategy. It needs to be explained how the implementing strategy adopts a better path to reach the organization objective.

The organizational change is designed in these stages using various levels.

Initiating change

This includes creating a sense of urgency, building a change team, growing change strategy.

Implementing change

This level is the implementation stage where in fact the initiated change has been put on to the present system. This step comprises of connecting the change perspective, make the employees to execute based on the change and find short-term wins.

Making the change permanent

This stage is the refreezing stage where the changes are working properly and keep it long lasting as the routine work. This level includes support to the change work, consolidating and celebrating increases in size acquired by the change and adding the change to the organizational culture.

11. Amount of resistance to change

Resistance to any change is normal in virtually any organization. You can find multiple reasons for the resistance of change. A few of them are

Rigidity of the organization

Employee attitudes to the change.

Skilled workers' concern with losing priority

Fear of the unknown

Stability of the structure

Habits

Employees attitude on the initiator

11. Symptoms of poor culture

An corporation always must monitor the level of standard of its organizational culture. The organizational culture exhibits the image of the organization and its own performance. The primary symptoms of organizational culture are

high employee turnover

bad communication of the management with the employees

poor performance of employees

irregular way of business techniques and policies

poor discord management

degradation in organization's efficiency

demotivated and dissatisfied employees

poor human reference strategies

The corporation which is not recognizing the symptoms can put themselves into threat of the organization's lifestyle and its own future.

To diagnose the indegent performance organization must care for the performance of the organization in a few order in a specific time slots.

12. Methods to improve quality of leadership

The quality of command can be an essential factor for the best of a business. There will vary methods to enhance the quality of authority. Before that people should understand power and weakness and the objectives the employees expect from other leader. A number of the steps to increase the quality of management are

Focus the weakness of to ourselves as a leader

Improving the weakness to durability is the major part as a innovator. As a innovator it is not a good attitude to be too good in some skills and too bad in some other skills. Increasing the abilities makes use far better leaders.

Listen and understand

Listen to the staff about their suggestions and feedback. Make sure they are comfortable at the task place. In case the employees believe that they are respected and listened, they'll work harder for the business and will not go for needless leave from work.

Building up good relationships

This is another characteristic of a innovator that should be very much valued. Building good relationship with the employees and customers make sure they are to trust as a leader. This is usually a frustrating one. But once this is done people will be ready to follow the ideas and views as a leader.

Never discriminate anyone

Treating everyone similarly is very important. Everyone has their own strengths and weaknesses. Never give anyone as favorite in the team. This can help these to feel free to approach the first choice.

Self-motivated

Leader should be always self motivated and always encourage the employees to get things done. A leader who is motivated even in nerve-racking and difficult situation can make the personnel to be motivated.

Offering help to cope up with workloads

Offering help the staff instead of asking for it'll invite more respect towards the first choice. Helps the employee while these are struggling inside or beyond your workplace works a whole lot.

Available at: http://www. helium. com/knowledge/65525-simple-ways-to-improve leadership-skills

13. Conclusion

From the observations and research done on the organization we can understand that and excellent management with the presence of good organizational culture with appropriate organizational framework will carry forward the sustainability and future of an organization towards a more steady or advanced level. The analysis leads me to finalize that overall flexibility and appropriate utilization and execution of the company resources and monitoring of the standard of the corporate culture will build high level of throughput to the organizational goals. All these are completely depended on the type and size of the business. So the company must be grasp the environment which they are carrying out

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