Organizational structures and cultures

Organizations are 'communal preparations for the handled performance of collective goals'. (Buchanan and Huczynski, 1991)

The copy writer Chester Barnard (1938) used the example of a man trying to lift a rock which is too heavy for him. By interacting with someone else, and merging their efforts, the person is able to move the natural stone.

Organizational Structure:-

Every organization to be effective must have an organizational composition. Organizational composition is the form of framework that establishes the hierarchy and the reporting composition in the business. Organizational structure shows information, moves from level to level within the business. Additionally it is called organizational graph.

Designing of Organizational Composition:-

Work Field of expertise:-

Work expertise is the key factor of organizational structure and it refers to the degree to which responsibilities in the business are subdivided directly into separate careers. In the work specialization the complete job is subdivided into different steps and each step have to complete separately by individual. For example: - making of an automobile. Benefits of work specialization are that, employee's skills can raises by doing one job over and over. It will save time and there is certainly accuracy in production. It allows professionals to supervise more employees. As the down sides are that, employees could easily get bored stiff by doing same job over and over. Sometime if the individual is on leave then no-one can do his job, due to which absenteeism goes up. Quality of work may undergo.


Through departmentalization common responsibilities can be coordinated. In Departmentalization, work or folks are grouped into manageable units. The primary varieties of departmentalization are:-

Functional Departmentalization

Customer Departmentalization

Geographical Departmentalization

Product Departmentalization

Process Departmentalization

Chain of Command:-

Chain of control is the formal line of authority, communication, and responsibility within an organization. Corresponding to classical firm theory the organizational graph allows one to imagine the lines of expert and communication in a organizational composition and ensures clear project of tasks and responsibilities. In lots of organizations, the chain of command concept is still quite definitely alive. Military is an example of in a straight line chain of command word which begins from a top to low level ranks.

Span of Control:-

In a business greater than one person, unless the business has equal companions, then there are managers and subordinates. Subordinates are staff controlled by the administrator. Span of control can be:-

Tall and Small:-

The manager manages six or few employees. There is close supervision of the employees, restricted control and fast communication. However, the supervision can be too close; the thin span means that we now have many degrees of management, producing a possibly abnormal distance between your top and the bottom of a business.

Flat and Wide:-

A wide span of control makes managers to develop clear targets and policies, select and coach employees carefully. Since employees get less guidance, they can be more responsible and also have higher morale with a broad span of control. Washboard and wide period of control is prosperous if employees contain the understanding about their responsibilities and job jobs because managers are not able to take a glance on each worker every day.

Centralization and Decentralization:-

Centralization and decentralization make reference to the extent to which decision making ability is devolved within an organization, or the degree of delegation of obligations, power and power to lower numbers of a business. Organizations' that have a high amount of delegation of electricity are thought to be decentralized. Organizations which have a lower amount of delegation of vitality have a tendency to be centralized. A decentralized framework often means vitality over both operational issues and strategic route is devolved to lessen levels in the hierarchy.

Matrix Framework:-

An organization which has a Matrix structure consists of teams of men and women created from various sections of the business. These teams will be created for the purposes of a specific project and will be led by the project manager. Usually the team will only exist for the duration of the job and matrix structures are usually deployed to build up new products and services. The benefits of a matrix include that, individuals can be chosen in line with the needs of the task. Project team which is energetic and specialist are brought together in a new environment to view problems in various ways. Project professionals are directly responsible for completing their task in a specific time and budget.

Whilst the cons include: A conflict of commitment between line managers and project professionals on the allocation of resources If teams have a great deal of self-reliance can be difficult to keep an eye on. Costs can be increased if more professionals (i. e. job managers) are created through the use of project clubs.

Organizational Culture:-

Culture basically identifies the norms, principles and behavior used by the organizational members during the working. Once the members of an organization join the organization they choose particular culture of a business. Every corporation has different culture depending upon their situation of working and the nature of their business. From your culture of corporation one can assume the operating environment and working patterns of employees.

Types of Culture:-

Power Culture

Within a power culture, control is the key element. Power civilizations are usually found within a little or medium size organization. Centralized Decisions making are found in the power culture organization. See your face prefers control and the power behind it. As group work is not visible in a vitality culture, the business can behave quickly to dangers around it as no appointment is involved. However this culture has its problems, lack of consultation can result in staff sense undervalued and de-motivated, which can also lead to high staff turnover.

Role Culture

Common in most organizations today is a role culture. In a job culture, organizations are split into various functions and each individual within the function is designated a particular role. The role culture gets the benefit of specialization. Employees give attention to their particular role as allocated to them by their job explanation which should increase productivity for the business. This culture is quite reasonable to arrange in a sizable organization.

Task Culture

A task culture identifies a team structured method of complete a specific task. They are really popular in the current modern business modern culture where the business will create particular 'job clubs' to complete a task to date. A task culture obviously offers some benefits. Staff feels motivated because they're empowered to make decisions of their team, they will also feel respected because they could have been determined within that team and given the duty to bring the duty.

Person culture

Person cultures are generally found in charities or nonprofit organizations. The focus of the organization is the individual or a specific aim

P2:- Analyze the partnership between an organization's composition and culture

and the consequences on business performance.

Task for P2:- Here you will discuss how business culture and structure have an effect on the organizational performance positively or negatively. This should be attempted as a continuation of P1.

Organizational Culture and Structure creates lots of various concepts, strategies, and situations which impact every level of planning when it comes to any kind of hierarchical organization. The implications of organizational structure and culture apply to companies, organizations, charitable organizations, government authorities and even athletics/organizations.

Organization Culture and framework influences the organizational performance both in positive and the as negative route. In positive sense the organization culture and framework creates the distinctions between one corporation from the other and and yes it defines the boundary role to the same group. It provides a sense of identity for the organizational members based on that your employees work betterly for the accomplishment of group goals. This business culture and framework can generate determination of employees towards the organization. As the culture represents the norms and ideals of the population so that it can boosts the stability of the sociable system inside organization. The organization that includes a strong culture will have good working environment where the employees distributed different norms and beliefs. The culture and framework also provides appropriate requirements of working environment. The business culture and structure shapes the attitude and habit of employees and it also serves a feeling of making and control system. Every company has policies matching to that your employees work by following certain regulations. These rules and regulations of the business can be bitterly developed by accessing to organization composition and culture. This firm composition also shows the responsibility for each worker which reflects that who will be reported to whom. Through strong organizational framework, the organization must make right decisions at the right time.

The organization composition and culture in addition has negative effect on business performance. Precisely the same culture becomes responsibility when the employees do not consent to share their worth with others which raise conflicts. When the organization environment is active then this can affect the business effectiveness. In case the organizational structure is complicated one then your decision making process in that business will be very slow-moving and also you will see centralized decision making in which the lower level employee's will not be entertained.

P3:- Analyze the factors which influence individual behavior at the job.

Task for P3:- In this area discuss the factors that affect behavior at the job, your answer should concentrate on personality, attributes and types, its relevance in understanding personal and others

There are extensive factors that effect behavior at the job for case difference in thoughts of individuals but the most crucial are personality and perceptions.

Personality is defined as the characteristics and distinctive traits of a person and the relation between them and the individual response to the problem and adjusts to other folks. This include big five factors of personality dimensions known as OCEAN that influences habit at the job which is given in the table below.

Personality dimension

High level

Low level


sensitive, nervous

secure, confident


outgoing, energetic

shy, withdrawn

Openness to experience

inventive, curious

cautious, conservative


friendly, compassionate

competitive, outspoken


efficient, organized

easy-going, careless

Neuroticism is a measure of affect and emotional control. Within the given table advanced neuroticism shows awareness and nervousness those experinces negative feelings. They more often become unstable, uneasy, temperamental and unfortunate. Resistant persons on the other hand need strong stimuli to be provoked while low level shows assurance, emotional stability and active at their place of work.

Extraversion dimension occurrence in advanced in an specific shows outgoing and lively. They are physically verbally active. The contrary of extraversion known as introverts or low level occurrence tend to be more independent, reserved, regular and like being exclusively. Extraverts are ambitious, assertive, frank, sociable and talkative. Introverts may be referred to as quiet, reserved, timid and unsociable.

Openness to see is a measure of depth, breadth and variability in a person's imagination and need for experiences. People with a high openness to experience have broad interests, are liberal and like novelty. The preservers with low openness to experience are conventional, traditional and prefer familiarity.

Agreeableness individual can be described as altruistic, light, kind, sympathetic and warm. Person with higher level are friendly, compassionate and able to work in team. Whereas low level tend to be proficient and outspoken.

Conscientiousness is scale of goal focused and control over impulses. Individual with advanced are more arranged and reliable. They give attention to limited goal and strive to achieve these goals. The focused person specializes in a limited number of goals but strives hard to reach them, while the flexible person is more impulsive and simpler to persuade in one task to some other. The more conscientious one is, the more experienced, dutiful, orderly, liable and detailed.

Personality can be respect as the utmost complex aspects of human being that influences action in big way. Personality characteristics offer an opportunity to the organization to understand the individual's manners and directing their work and motivating them for the fulfillment of the organizational goal

P4:- Analyze how organizational theory underpins principles and procedures of arranging and of management.

Task for P4:- Discuss the major organizational theories and discuss their salient features (concentrate on functions of management, managerial functions, and managerial expert) - Please start to see the course material for details.


The attainment of your organizational goal in a highly effective and efficient manner through planning, arranging, leading and managing organizational resources.


It is the on going process of growing the business' quest and targets and determining how they will be completed. Planning includes both the broadest view of the organization, e. g. its objective, and the narrowest, a tactic for accomplishing a particular goal.


Establishing the internal organizational framework of the business. The concentrate is on division, coordination, and control of jobs and the stream of information within the organization. It really is in this function that managers distribute specialist to job holders.


Fayol's called this maintain activity one of the personnel, it will involve instructing and motivating subordinates to handle tasks.


This is the duty of monitoring the actions of people and groups within the organization, reconciling dissimilarities in methodology, timing and tool need in the interest of overall organizational aims.


It is a four step procedure for establishing performance specifications predicated on the firm's objective, measuring and reporting actual performance, comparing the two and taking corrective or precautionary action is necessary.

Managerial Roles

A role as thought as an organized group of behaviors belonging to an identifiable office or position. Thus stars, managers and others play jobs that are predetermined, although individuals may interpret them in various ways.

Interpersonal Roles


The supervisor is symbolic, obliged to execute lots of duties. He represents the business in various ceremonies etc.


Managers select and trained the team members. He/she used to stimulate the team to accomplish pre described goal.


Manager responsibility is to communicate with people beyond your work unit looking to coordinates two job groups.

Informational Roles


The monitor includes seeking current information from many resources. The administrator acquires information from others and stocks it with concerns visitors to stay well informed.


The managers send external information into his company and internal information from one subordinate to another.


The professionals transmit information out to his organization's environment to speak on behalf of the business.

Decisional Roles


The manager works as initiator and creator of much of the controlled change of the organization. By using the monitoring role, he seeks opportunities, recognizes problems, and initiates activities to boost situations.

Disturbance Handler

The manger role requires resolving issues among subordinates or between your professionals departments and other departments.

Resource Allocator

This role of manager involves deciding about how precisely to allocate people, time, equipment, budget and other resources to realize desired outcomes.


Managers take part in negotiation activities. Professionals represent section during negotiation of union deals, sales, purchases, budgets, symbolize departmental interest.

Managerial Authority

The formal and reputable right of a manager to make decisions, issues, requests and allocate resources to accomplish organizational goals and targets.

Managerial specialist is the positioning that empowers a manger to exercise control and control over those positioned under him for realization of the assigned role within an organization.

Originally, the entire expert is centrally vested in person of the supervisor. However, it isn't possible for an individual man to effectively implement and monitor each and every task. Therefore various functions with a suitable quantum of authority are devolved downwards to concerned subordinates for better and convenient result. The practice also provides a rationale for 'organizational Tree' specifying various forces and obligations in both vertical and lateral hierarchy.

P5:- Compare different approaches to management and theories of organization employed by two organizations.

Task for P5:- This would be the comparative analysis of the two organization, you will do the assessment with another group (assigned to another group). This will be protected through the demonstration. You need to give very soft and hard copy of your display to the instructor.

Functional Theory Accompanied by SNGPL:-

Organizations must make alternatives to organizational methodology how to execute their work. You will discover five common methods employed by management to perform work i. e functional, divisional, matrix, team, and networking. Each company have follows different ways according to their needs and requirements.

For instance Sui Northern Gas Pipe Brand uses functional procedure which is the simplest form of organizational composition. Below is an example of management of sui northern

In functional framework strategy the features are well defined the channels of communication and responsibility. By following such composition by SNGPL it increases output, minimizes duplication of employees and also simplifies training of employees.

There are some drawbacks of functional framework approach as it is narrowed perspectives which in turn causes reduce cooperation. Decisions are sluggish to occur because of many hierarchy layers where authority is more centralized. This kind of structure only gives employees experience in mere single field they don't have the opportunity to oversee all the firms operations.

Divisional Theory Accompanied by Disney:-

On the other palm management of Disney practices divisional structure compare to sui northern to keep an eye on their operation. Below within an example of Disney management composition.

In large organizations like Disney its difficult to keep track of all the actions for that purpose specialised departments are developed which is divided according to the organizational end result this grouping of organizational composition are called divisional composition. It makes performance much easier to monitor which allows managers to better concentrate on recourses and results. This sort of structure may cause duplication and create competition one of the division credited to limited resources.

M1:- Discuss the organizational composition and the prevailing culture in the

Organization under study. Also discuss how the structure and culture impact the performance of the business.

Task for M1:- This task should be studied as continuation of your answers to P1 and P2; Here you will discuss what is the prevailing composition and culture in the business. This will be observed with the view that you can see the application of the ideas in real life.

Organization Framework and Culture in HBL and UBL

Culture and Structure of HBL:-

Organizations have their own structure and culture. When there is any informality in the business culture and employees believe they are an integral part of firm then behavior effect favorably. Culture and framework is vital for an organization in a culture there are extensive people belong to different teams and the framework of organization is made from the people if there is unity of control, Course of control and intrinsic inspiration so it impact the motivation degree of the employees. In company if they have a good culture and they have the good social norms, values and ethical habit so culture automatically control tendencies. Culture is develop by good interpersonal norms, good items, good peer group and culture can't be strengthened, it is link with the interior habit and change is also constant process. In group good and positive habit control buttons the culture aspects. Culture also pushes the member to behave in a way that is counter to the formal mission and goals of company but it can be changed through inter personal skills and good patterns. In group good, positive and progressive culture and structure is shared one of the people. Organizational structure is how the interrelated organizations within and organizations are create to allow them function well from a sizable stand point. Both main reason for successful organizational composition is to ensure effective communication between various parts of the business, as well as to increase coordination between different departments.

Culture and framework is important in organization but each group has their own composition and culture. Matching to this business, there is not a particular culture in corporation but through employees and their related environment culture is develop. They develop their own culture corresponding with their own need. Culture handles the tendencies of employees matching to their dynamics which accepts the efforts to that culture. They develop that culture that they need. Culture will depend upon the type of employees it develop the habit of employees matching compared to that culture. Culture does not remain the same however the unwanted culture will evolved according to mew environment. In organization culture is manufactured when employees reveal their own culture. Within this corporation the bureaucratic framework is used. Employees r not included during taking of your choice they may be totally depended after the orders of the boss. Through structure it is straightforward for the organization for keeping employees, staffing and they also understand how many employees are necessary for the careers in organization. Inside the absence of composition some issues occurs for the business that just how many employees they want for the work and exactly how they control the organization.

Factors Influencing in Both Organization

Culture and framework is important in each corporation because through good culture there is friendly environment between the supervisor and employees. And through good structure the business operates fast towards its targets and can perform the goals easily. In both corporation culture produced by posting their own culture which is very effective for both corporation because by communication with one another and sharing their views least issue occurs between the employees and supervisor. Through this friendly environment occurs which helps corporation to run as high as they want. In company the bureaucratic structure should be avoided and during decision making employees should involved because under this framework employees cannot work by their heart and soul. They take their are an encumbrance. Under this structure business cannot run towards there goals as fast as they need for his or her success because employees aren't determined by this framework they don't promote their views, their ideas included in this selves. This composition has negative effect on organization. It could be good thing in small doses especially in tackling conditions that will become continuing designs in large businesses. Through good culture and composition employees are determined and they share their new idea. They help each other and also solve the problems of organization. A fully healthy organizational culture and composition is exactly what can be expected when all is functioning normally

M2:- Discuss what procedure of management implemented by the business, with

Focus on management functions, functions and power.

Task for M2:- Here you will apply the concept of organizations theory and what is being discussed in P5 and apply your knowledge to the organization under analysis.

Management Functions:-


Objectives of HBL

Following are some main objective of HBL

To earn profit for the lender itself and maximize its shareholders value.

To provide solutions for multiple requirements of clients of diverse

financial nature

To manage with the changing developments of the modern day financial market

To be a diversified loan company by offering all basic consumer services and

specialized services

Honest and honest conduct, including ethical handling of real or

apparent conflicts of interest between personal and professional


To provide occupations to people

To assist in development and industrialization of the country

Mission Affirmation:-

To make our customers prosper, our personnel excel and also to create value for shareholders.

Leading functions in HBL:-


Managers of HBL stimulate the employees by giving free medical treatment, free education and bonuses to them.

Resolving Conflicts:-

Managers of HBL always make an effort to resolve issues among employees.

Giving importance to their opinions.

Giving new ideas for handling problems.

Sometimes offering group responsibilities to employees.

Managerial Authority

In HBL CEO Give purchases and issues polices to the managers. Then further the managers forward these instructions and insurance policies with their subordinates etc. Most of them allow and obeyed those instructions/polices/orders.

Managerial Role:-


Spokesman of HBL participating in the seminars beyond your lender and negotiating with individuals in banking issues.

D1:- Discuss what problems the organization can face in the performance

areas and what's your recommendation/solution to the condition.

Task for D1:- You must identify some problems seen regarding organizational structure and culture (there is absolutely no business which is perfectly perfect). You will give your suggestions and justify your recommendations in light of the management knowledge you have gained in the course.


The basic objective of organizational structure is to determine a network of romance among different level of employees. If the framework becomes so tall and sophisticated one then the problem occurs that how those employees will keep a everlasting network of romantic relationship. This issue will also have certain impacts upon your choice making process of an organization. The business structure also keeps coordination between different departments/systems. Sometimes the responsibility of one device mixes with another unit which affects the products in achieving their goals as in case there is selling and marketing team.

Through organizational Culture the employees stocks the values, perception, norms and icons during working. The challenge arises when there exists diversity of employees. Problem arises when culture is energetic. Rituals, stories, symbols, ceremonies and also the rules of organization form the culture of corporation. All of these are subjective in mother nature and having different perceptions during different timing therefore sometimes the problem occurs that it misguides an individuals.


The firm should give attention to participative and pre effective work of management through which the organization may easily analyze the problems. The participative procedure may also be effective in keeping romance on the list of employees and as well among the several unit of organization. When there will strong relationship then the decision making process may also be quick.

The corporation should concentrate on training and development in order to steer the employees regarding the culture of organization. Through training and development the employees should come to know about the norms, worth, beliefs and symbols which should be adopted during the working. In order to minimize the condition related to workforce variety the organization should guide their employees insurance firms a strong culture.

D2:- Discuss your suggestions which should use the formation of different approaches, this will also include the convergent and lateral thinking.

Task for D2:- In this task you will come up with tips for the business theory for the organization. We will encourage amalgamation of several approaches taking into consideration the environment in which the organization exists. In addition we will also appreciate your procedure towards the answer you are suggesting as it will a) solve the organizational problem, b) also needs to consider the inner and exterior environment necessity.

Approaches accompanied by the Professionals:-

There will vary approaches that are accompanied by the managers in order to solve the condition arises in a organization. There are lots of factors that will determine the composition and culture of a business. If the organization size is so large then it will be difficult for the organization to keep carefully the structure tall. The management induces the flat framework and decentralized decision making for those large organizations for the soft operation of a business. On the other side if the scale is small then it'll be easier to use the tall structure and centralized decision making.

Assessment Brief

Unit and Diagnosis Details

Course Name: HND Business

Unit Name: Group and Behavior

Assessor: Ms. Neelam Marwat

Internal Verifier: Mr. Sajid Fahim

Assessment Subject: Explore the organizational Structure and Culture

Assessment Method: Report

Assessing in: Individually

Number of Pages: (Total 12 Webpages Maximum)

Outcomes Covered: 1

Due Date:


This assignment will address to the students who are already having a family group business or their parents are in a corporate and business firm. These students will be the key contact persons and can make a group of three to four students. You will need to look into your loved ones business and discuss its framework and culture. Some of the benefits will be attempted by two categories where they will compare their studies with one another. Your instructor will be moderator and can help you in assigning group customers and integrating the work.


Consider yourself as joining a business as management trainee, you are asked by the manager to make a report and present your results about the organizational composition, culture and control methods in the management. For merit class you will need to present your research mostly about how the organization is carrying out in these areas and for distinction you gives your recommendations and solutions to the problems.

Grading Statement


Compare and contrast different organizational buildings and cultures


Discuss the business framework and the prevailing culture in the organization under review. Also discuss how the structure and culture impacts the performance of the business.


Discuss what problems can the business face in the performance areas and what is your recommendation/solution to the issue.


analyze the relationship between an organization's

structure and culture and the effects on business



analyze the factors which influence individual

behavior at work


analyze how organizational theory underpins

principles and practices of arranging and of



Discuss what strategy of management used by the organization, with concentrate on management functions, jobs and expert.


Discuss your suggestions which should use the formation of different approaches, this will likewise incorporate the convergent and lateral thinking.


compare the several approaches to management

and theories of organization employed by two


Task for P1

In this area you will discuss the various organizational structure and cultures researched in the class/course. This should be descriptive area, we will encourage use of diagrams and characters representing different constructions and cultures.

Task for P2

Here you will discuss how corporation culture and framework impact the organizational performance favorably or negatively. This will be attempted as a continuation of P1

Task for P3

In this area discuss the factors that effect behavior at work, your answer should give attention to personality, characteristics and types, its relevance in understanding self and others

Task for M1

This activity should be studied as continuation of your answers to P1 and P2, Here you will discuss what's the prevailing framework and culture in the organization. This will be observed with the view that you can view the application of the principles in true to life.

Task for D1

You must identify some problems seen regarding organizational composition and culture (there is absolutely no corporation which is flawlessly perfect). You gives your tips and justify your tips in light of the management knowledge you have gained in the class.

Task for P4

Discuss the major organizational theories and discuss their salient features (concentrate on functions of management, managerial functions, and managerial specialist) - Please start to see the course items for aspect.

Tasks for P5

This will be the comparative research of the two organization, you will do the comparability with another corporation (assigned to another group). This can be protected through the presentation. You must give very soft and hard copy of your presentation to the instructor.

Task for M2

Here you will apply the idea of organizations theory and what's being discussed in P5 and apply your knowledge to the organization under analysis.

Task for D2

In this you will come up with advice for the organization theory for the organization. We will encourage amalgamation of several approaches considering the environment where the organization exists. In addition we will also appreciate your methodology towards the perfect solution is you are suggesting as it will a) solve the organizational problem, b) should also consider the internal and external environment need.

General Standards for Merit and Distinction

Proper formatting of the statement. (Justification of the written text and Components like Stand of Contents, List of Characters etc. )

Proper Binding of the Report

Very few grammatical/spelling mistakes

Appropriate and needed results/graphs etc. to be given

Proper bibliography and sources given

Usage of Footnotes to clarify a term that needs reason or translation

Appendices (if needed).

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