Absenteeism is the failure to are accountable to work. It really is costly for every organization. For how many days a worker stay absent from work will definitely cost your around 100 if his salary is 24000. Even if an hourly established staff to whom you don't have to purchase absent but nonetheless cost a great deal, because Matching to a review its twelve-monthly cost has been projected at over 40 billions for U. S organizations and around 12 billions for Canadian businesses.
Few explanations of absenteeism are as follow,
"Absenteeism, a term used to refer to absences that are avoidable, habitual and unscheduled, is a source of discomfort to employers and co-workers. Such absences are disruptive to proper work arranging and result, and costly to an organization and the overall economy as a whole" (Kavita).
"Without any valid reason removing from job is absenteeism. Absenteeism means either habitual evasion of work, or willful absence just as a attack action. It does not include involuntary or infrequent absence anticipated to valid causes, or reasons beyond one's control, such as accidents or sickness" (Colette).
To fill difference of absent worker manager has to offer overtime to other worker or even to get temporary help from part timer staff member to complete work of this particular employee. It generates cost and useful work related problems as well as it burdensome other employees those who find themselves regular and show their determination to focus on time, regularly and effectively. It unlimitedly degrades costumer satisfaction and makes bad impact on country market. Experience implies that better attendance is synonymous with better quality, lower costs, and increased efficiency (Hazzard, 1990).
It is actually difficult for a business to keep its procedures smooth and achieve its goals and objective timely and properly if employees neglect to are accountable to their jobs. The task flow disrupted and some times very critical decisions aren't taken timely. Usually the organization that relies on assembly line development is more madly influenced by absenteeism of employees. It can bring about a drastic reduction in the grade of product and in most detrimental situation it can be a reason of complete shutdown of company. In order to avoid such dreadful condition the assistance is considered by Organizational Behavior study. It identifies differences and helps professionals to start to see the value of labor force variety, help employees balance work/life conflicts, improve quality and employee productivity by exhibiting how to meet long-term labor scarcity.
It is the field of study that investigates the impact that folks, groups and structure have on tendencies within organization for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organization's success. On other stick it is stated that Organizational Habit is study and knowledge about how exactly people react in corporation. Its goal is to develop good marriage by attaining human being goals, organizational goals and social objectives. As it is concerned with occupation related issues so that it emphasizes tendencies such as absenteeism, turnover, real human performance, output and management.
Organizational Behavior is an applied behavioral research that is composition of several behavioral disciplines such as,
Psychology: The knowledge that seeks to measure, make clear and sometimes change the habit of human and other animals.
Sciology: The analysis of real human in relationship with their fellow people.
Social Mindset: The area in mindset that is mixture of sociology and psychology that emphasize on effect of people on one an other.
Anthropology: The analysis of societies to find out about people and their activities.
Political Research: The analysis of the habit of people and groups inside a politics environment.
Organizations bottom part on the philosophy of management, value, eyesight and goals. Is derives the culture of firm whether it is formal, casual or sociable in nature. There are lots of elements Organizational Behavior deals with like, managerial responsibilities, increasing output, increasing job satisfaction, reducing turnover, creating citizenship etc. reducing absenteeism is one of them that is the topic to discuss in this books.
When an employee frequently or constantly fails to attend work as scheduled. Specifically when their absence forms a style which proposes that the worker is frustrated with the work or that their absence might have been avoided. Experts suggest that 50% employees in Great britain aren't actually unwell but remain absent on suffering leaves. Furthermore they estimate that absenteeism in the Great britain results in the increased loss of over 400 million workdays per yr that is roughly 5. 1 times per worker (Gwaltney, 1994). According to a survey of 5, 000 companies conducted by Business Clearing House, Inc. , Chicago that found that unscheduled absences cost small businesses an average of 62, 636 yearly in replacement costs lost, suffering time, and production (Markowich, 1993). Absents can be scheduled for some others reasons too such as poor working environment, or staff those who are not specialized in their work. If company prone to face such absenteeism exceedingly then it can becomes very alarming situation for the firm operations and profitability.
Is it true that all absents are bad for a business? Yes normally absence of an employee is known as not and only organization. But sometimes we see that employee's voluntarily absent is and only organization. Like stress, tiredness and disorder can badly have an impact on the output of a worker. In such mother nature of careers where employee must be very attentive, so if he's not feeling well and comfortable to do work he can opt for not to come to work that is and only organization and population. For example doctor and flight pilots need to be very alert on job. So if they are not feeling well its better if they not come to work somewhat they reach to work and perform improperly. Even in managerial job where mistakes are less speculate but efficiency of work can be retained if administrator absent himself from work somewhat make poor decision. That may produce most severe results. But most of time low absenteeism rate within an organization is considered positive aspect.
Normally there are two types of absenteeism.
Organizations must well state both types of absenteeism and notify that what comes in both types of absenteeism. If staff make unapproved absent than exactly what will be course of action. Often, organizations allow employees for holiday, holiday seasons, grief, medical, worker's payment leave, some personal responsibilities and ill leave. These come in approved category. Unapproved leave is time not included in company policy, and considered without management's prior acceptance. How management deals with such absences varies from group to company.
Research is consistent (Bielous, 1993; Stinson, 1991; Bunning, 1988; and Wallin and Johnson, 1976) to find that a lot of organizations do not keep accurate accounts of employee absences and in emphasizing the need to do so. Which means that disruptive absence frequently will be tolerated by managers until it extends to a painfully evident level, at which point a crackdown will appear (Johns, 1994).
Absenteeism can be use as financial toll on small business in various aspects. The very common kind is sick leave. Organizations offer such gain to their employee but there exists a major cost concealed behind it. Pursuing are significant concealed cost associated with absenteeism,
Lost production of a worker.
Overtime payout for other worker to fill in.
Decreased overall production of those employees.
Any short-term help cost incurred.
Possible loss of dissatisfaction of customers.
Problem with employees moral.
Steers and Rhodes (1984) advised that an employee's attendance is a function of two factors: (1) the employee's desire to attend, and (2) the employee's ability to attend. Organizational and environmental factors associated with absenteeism include: unrealistic job expectations, personnel conflicts, unsafe or demanding workplace conditions, poor employee morale, insufficient training, and unsatisfactory compensation and gain programs. There are also a various personality characteristics that may be associated with absenteeism, including, among others, reliability, independence from disruptive alcoholic beverages use, and stability (Borofsky and Smith, 1993).
Many smaller businesses don't give importance to absenteeism policy. They think that its not a big problem. Some don't offer ill leave so they don't make policies. Some have only few employees so they don't believe that an policy is needed. In such solid employees make huge incentive by showing fascination with work if don't do this their payout suffers. But some small business and small and medium businesses make their absenteeism insurance plan that is mesh with federal government law. Policy can add advantages for company when he fires any worker anticipated to indiscipline absenteeism. Alternatively it secures employees too and ensures absents on their behalf. Most employees have good attendance records, with no more than 3% of your company's employees exploiting the system by taking more than their allowed ill time or more days than they want (Markowich, 1993). However, company coverage may inadvertently reinforce a "utilize it or lose it" frame of mind with policies where employees lose their suffering time if it is not employed by the end of the year. This might encourage employees to see suffering time as an advantage to that they are entitled.
Developing absenteeism policy is useless is effective monitoring system for attendance is not developed in an organization. Many company monitor attendance of employees by making use of pay roll system. But those organizations don't possess such system employed they make it sure they put together a system that can
Keep an accurate count of specific employee absences.
Tabulate company extensive absenteeism totals.
Calculate the financial impact that these absences have on the business.
Detect cycles when absences are particularly high.
Differentiate between various types of absences.
The most important question that comes first at heart when we talk about managing absenteeism is the fact that whether we use punishment system or pay back system to avoid employee from absenteeism. The researches illustrate that compensation systems may become more effective than consequence. For example a huge manufacturing organization found a large decrease in absenteeism giving non monetary reward to their employees once and for all attendance. In another circumstance by just giving 10 to regular employee firm save around 3000 for unwell leaves, where 68 employees were working (Bunning, 1988).
However a researcher Markowich in 1993 reported that motivation base reward does not motivate employees to wait job regularly who misuse ill leave. Such employees give more importance to remain away from job than getting motivation. So such motivation base pay back system will not motivate them to improve their behavior. On other part giving incentive to already regular employees is just like wastage of energy, because in this way you are paying double your worker for same work.
As mentioned before that approved lack of employee can be in favor of company but non approved absence can make big problem for company efficiency. Other employees have to benefit absent employee and in worst condition work will not get done of absent employee. Below are a few tips to assess absenteeism,
Find that staff was absent voluntarily or involuntarily. Voluntarily means absence without any sturdy reason and involuntarily means lack due to any sturdy reason which can not be avoided. If staff was absent involuntarily like condition, or various other event that can't be missed then manager just need to do counseling of that employee to worry of his health. But if employee was absent voluntarily then director must get stress about. Document the reason such as a Doctor's note to ascertain that absence was scheduled to any good reason or voluntarily.
Look if the absenteeism of that employee is extreme. Solution his rate of absents with organization's identified absenteeism coverage. If worker is crossing the restrictions for absents described by firm in absenteeism coverage then employee is doing increased absenteeism.
Arrange discussion program with worker to explore the reason why of his lack on job. Your attitude must be very friendly and supportive toward understanding the issues and proposing its solutions rather positioning blame and dispensing discipline.
If habit doesn't get better then realize the worker the problem company is facing scheduled to his absenteeism and request them to boost his behavior. Staff will not consider that work has been affecting scheduled to his absenteeism unless you notify him.
If still you do not find fair change in tendencies of worker then put the problem in written form and make it sure that a copy is given to the worker.
Till now during this process usually staff will begin to give proper intention to his job. If not so get prepare for terminating your employee because he is not serious along with his job and sincere with your organization.
If we neglect above mentioned tips then we can conclude a plan of action to control absenteeism in firm. First one should educate his employees and inform them about absenteeism coverage and present them copy of insurance plan as well. Secondly monitor record of your employee effectively. Notice at what time your employees are reaching on job. If they're later or absent then ask about the reason why. Keep record of reasons too. It can help to understand whether worker makes lame excuses or genuinely he has some problems. If problem is genuine then provide counselling to your staff. Here you can opt for just about any of the motivational theories that best suit the needs of employee to stimulate him to get to work regularly. Then follow-up the change in patterns of employee and finally take corrective action. Whether in worst situation flame your employee or choose a motivational strategy pursuing motivational theories.
There are numerous theories have been talked about in literatures and have been used to know their effectiveness through empirical field studies. Authors describe different ideas on different basis. These motivational ideas can be use to beat the misuse of absenteeism in organizations.
According to this theory employee lose interest in job when the work is not challenging. People prefer to do such work that is difficult and require attempts to complete. So we can lower absenteeism by determining hard to achieve goals for worker. Intention to obtaining goal is a good motivator to bring staff back to job. But goals must be attainable, specific and measurable, time described and highly relevant to dynamics of job.
Reinforcement theory is satisfying a good habit of a worker immediately to encourage him to duplicate it again an again. This theory ignores the factors like goals and expectations to make the employee keep attempting to reinforces (bonuses, rewards) play a significant role. Laura earns only 7 per hour working in a fast food restaurant. Her job is not very challenging and interesting. But still she is very happy with her job and chat enthusiastically about her job, manager and company where she works. What brought her back again to work regularly is the gratitude by his manager at the job. Her boss identifies her appreciating work before other employees employed in her change. There can be an employee acknowledgement program where on a monthly basis a worker is selected as staff of the month and his/her picture is positioned on the money counter of fast food restaurant.
According to expectancy theory one employee tends to act in a certain way with the expectation that the work will be accompanied by higher incentive to him. If we link the motivation system with regular attendance in this manner we can capture many employees to access work regularly. Changing pay is normally much suited with expectancy theory. If we announce higher purchase regular employees then employee must stimulate to join office regularly. Worker will perceive correlation of his performance along with his output. That may are a great motivator. A study of 400 developing firms discovered that by offering variable pay to staff production of companies increase by 43 to 63 percent as well as rate of absenteeism lowered. Compensation an employee for his good performance has been followed by several companies. IBM, Pizza Hut and Wal-Mart are example of this theory's application.
Theory X approach claims negative aspect of individual. The assumption is that man is lazy, dislike work and steer clear of taking responsibilities. Therefore they need to be administer and punished for his or her behavior or electricity must be use to mold them matching to your need. This theory highlights the negative factors of human being behavior and use pessimist method of deal with. This process can be use to deal with employees those who are habitual of absenteeism and not making any change in their behavior after notifying them losing company is bearing because of the absenteeism.
Theory Y suggests that individual is creative and like duties. It shows positive factors of individual action. It uses positive approach to package with human to change their behavior by using motivational qualities.
From the given ideas we can conclude that absenteeism can be controlled. Nut it require little knowledge of worker and his problems. Human source of information is l;ife bloodstream of every group. And loosing a tuned employee can be very costly for firm so using motivational ideas we can make an effort to modify habit of a worker and usually using this process organizations get positive results. However in most severe condition organizations have to follow methodology of theory X.
To understand and control organizational behavior was never problematic for professionals. But with the duration of time progression in the social circles, diversified professions and responding to manpower related issues make organizational behavior little intricate and technical to manage. Furthermore function of organizational tendencies expanded rapidly and today we find role of organizational action theories in everyday living at work. Whether in managing work force diversity, leadership, controlling group, motivating employees, HR insurance policies and procedures and creating and taking care of organizational culture.
Organizations are not much longer constrained by physical limitations. Globalization makes two types of impacts on manager's obligations. First if director relocated to other branch in other country. Where the culture will be totally change, their worth and practices will be different. Subsequently if you are suppose to utilize your subordinates, bosses ad fellow workers those who are form different races and culture. What motivates you perhaps doesn't work for these people. Your communication may be very clear-cut but such communication can injured them or they may feel uncomfortable. Organizational Behavior really helps to deal with such globalization issues. To work successfully in such circumstances you must understand the differences with these folks and change your management style relating to their variations. Research of organizational habit addresses how social differences may need managers to change their frame of mind and techniques.
Organizational Habit also handles labor related issues in day to day life such as labor scarcity. When firm is suffering from labor lack then only high income and associated benefits heading to work to keep and entice skilled employees. Professionals have to look at sufficient recruitment and retention strategies and organizational behavior helps professionals to make such ways of cop with problems. In market mangers those who do not understand individuals and organizational habit. They fail to manage their workers and production.
However organizational behavior doesn't have major emphasized on client satisfaction. But research workers are paying their intention in client satisfaction by improvement in quality. Normally focusing on customers was considered the task of people those who find themselves studying and rehearsing marketing. But organizational tendencies can contribute a lot to improve organization's performance by indicating, how employee attitude and behavior are associated with customer's satisfaction. Many organizations have failed because their employees cannot satisfy their customer by their services. In order to avoid this issue managers have to adopt customer reactive culture. Organizational patterns can provide significant guidance to make such culture. Different motivational theories can be employed to encourage employee to create friendly atmosphere where accessible, courteous, and competent and promptly react to customer need and do whatever is necessary to please the client.
There are tons of other day to day methods where Organizational tendencies is playing vital role such as improving people skills, empowering people, helping staff balance work/life issues, stimulating advancement and change, enhancing ethical tendencies etc.