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Organization-wide change forces

INTERNAL/EXTERNAL FORCES OF CHANGE

Internal Causes:

Poor financial performance

Employee dissatisfaction

Inefficiency of existing business procedures and systems

Need to increase profitability

Existence of ethnical misfits to organisation goals and objectives

External Makes:

Changes in technology

Political factors

General macro-economic environment

Changes in consumer preferences, preferences, purchasing patterns & frequencies

Declining market shares scheduled to competition

ORGANIZATION-WIDE VERSUS SUBSYSTEM CHANGE

Organization-wide change could be a major restructuring, collaboration or rightsizing. organizations usually undergo organization-wide change to develop to another level in their life cycle that is, changing from an extremely reactive, entrepreneurial group to an organization which has a more secure and planned development. Experts assert that successful organizational change requires a change in culture - ethnical change is another exemplory case of organization-wide change. Whereas a change in a subsystem is where you add or remove a product or, retooling of a certain department, or a fresh way of providing product or services is implemented

TRANSFORMATIONAL VERSUS INCREMENTAL CHANGE

transformational change is also called radical, important change might be changing an organizations framework and culture from the traditional top-down, hierarchical framework to a sizable amount of self-directing clubs. Incremental change might include ongoing improvement as a quality management process or execution of new computer system to increase efficiencies. Many times, organizations experience incremental change and its market leaders do not discover the change as such. ˜˜Incremental change deals with smaller, more adaptive changes while transformational change requires major shifts in route or perspective

REMEDIAL VERSUS DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGE

Remedial Change is to enhance the poor performance of a product or the entire business, reduce burnout at work, and help the business to become much more proactive and less reactive, or talk about large budget deficits. Remedial jobs often seem more centered and urgent because they are addressing a present-day, significant problem. Change can even be developmental - to produce a successful situation even more successful, like expanding the quantity of customers served, or duplicate successful products or services. Developmental projects can seem more standard and obscure than remedial, depending about how specific goals are and how important it is designed for members of the business to achieve those goals.

˜˜The point of view on change assumes that the goal of change is to help the business to develop in such a way that this can do better still what it can well at the moment. The aim of management operating under developmental change is to optimise systems and through such optimisation, take care of the change

UNPLANNED VERSUS PLANNED CHANGE

Unplanned change usually occurs because of a major, sudden wonder to the organization, which in turn causes its participants to reply in a highly reactive and disorganized fashion. Unplanned change might occur when the Chief Executive Officer all of a sudden leaves the business, significant pr problems appear, poor product performance quickly ends in loss of customers, or other disruptive situations arise. Planned change occurs when leaders in the business recognize the need for a significant change and proactively organize a plan to perform the change. Planned change occurs with successful implementation of any Strategic Plan, plan for reorganization, or other execution of a change of this magnitude.

BUREAUCRACY

The term bureaucracy has been widely used with invidious connotations directed at government and business. Bureaucracy can be an administrative system made to accomplish large-scale administrative jobs by systematically coordinating the task of many individuals. Mark Weber (1864-1920) has observed three types of electricity in organizations: traditional, charismatic, and rational-legal or bureaucratic. He has emphasized that bureaucratic kind of power is the ideal one. Weber analyzed the working of church, government, armed forces, and business group assumed that the bureaucratic framework is the most efficient form of framework for all sorts of organization. It's the most rational means of carrying out essential control over humans.

STRENGTHS OR ADVANATAGES OF BUREAUCRACY

Bureaucratic structure has been considered once superior than ad hoc or temporary composition. It has been termed as rational and ideal leading to efficiency. The efficiency in bureaucratic corporation comes through rationality and predictability of behavior because everyone understands the consequences of his action before actually the action is carried out.

Control through hierarchy

The basic feature of bureaucratic composition is hierarchy of positions in the organization. Hierarchy is the machine of rank various positions in descending level from top to bottom of the organization. In bureaucratic structure offices also follow the theory of hierarchy, that is, each lower office is subject to control and guidance by higher office. Thus no office is still left uncontrolled in the organization.

Ease of job due to department of work

Work of the organization is divided based on specialization to have the advantages of division of labour. Thus, department of labour tries to ensure that every office has a obviously defined area of competence within the business and each official understands the areas in which he works and the areas where he must abstain from action so that he will not overstep the boundary between his role and those of others. Further, department of labour also tries to ensure that no work is remaining uncovered.

Impersonal relationship

A noteworthy feature of bureaucracy is that relationship among individuals is governed through the machine of official specialist and rules. Formal positions are free from personal involvement, feelings and sentiments. Thus, decisions are governed by rational factors rather than personal factors. This impersonality notion is used in dealing with organizational relationships as well as relations between the group and outsiders.

WEAKNESS OR PROBLEMS OF BURAUCRACY

There are many dysfunctional factors of bureaucracy which is sometimes known as bureau pathology. Seeing the requirement of your contemporary firm, Bureaucracy has many pitfalls and for that reason is not ideal. Some of the most typical factors are;

Unintended consequences

In bureaucratic composition there a wide range of consequences that have not been envisaged but may occur because of the system.

Trained incapacity in the organization. It means that a person is only trained to look at the matter from a single perspective. Thus he does not know anything beyond the training given to him and for that reason he will try to correlate the matter with total situation based on his training.

Conflict between professional and bureaucrats. The main reason is the difference in orientation between your experts and bureaucrats. Pros make an effort to work according to their self-discipline for efficiency whereas bureaucrats adhere to rules and regulations.

Many a times there boosts a turmoil between organization and individuals. Human beings work better when you can find free environment but bureaucracy puts lots of constraints on motion through guidelines and regulations

Inhuman organization

The most significant criticism of bureaucracy originates from behavioural researchers who studied human behaviour in the organization. Matching to them, the bureaucratic framework is completely inhuman and sees humans as machines. For instance Argyris contain the view that individual move from immaturity to maturity and over the time he matures, while bureaucratic group is designed to suit immature personality. An adult individuals needs less control, innovation and latitude in behavior and adaptable working condition. The bureaucratic design goes against the fundamental human behaviour.

A pioneering criticism of bureaucracy comes from organizational psychologist Warren Bennis. He perceives the model as overly mechanical no much longer useful.

FORMAL AND INFORMAL ORGANISATION

The formal firm involve some specific objective to be performed, they were created this way. Formal organizations have well identified jobs, each creating a definite expert, responsibility and accountability. According to classical theorists, some of the characteristics of formal group are:-

The top management designs the complete structure of the business to satisfy certain requirements-performance of important activities by which they achieve the goals of the organization.

The structure is dependant on the principles of department of labor and efficiency in businesses.

The main concern is the performance of jobs (conglomerate of activities) and is not concerned about the average person performance of staff.

They are well described about their control and coordination among themselves via functions, procedures, rules, etc.

The job holder is given some specialist and responsibility plus they have to adhere it. Based on this idea of power and responsibility they are located in hierarchy, which decides their status.

INFORMAL ORGANISATIONS

Informal organization comes in view when individuals are placed in an organization on basis of some typically common component in them. For example, Litterer has seen that the informal organization identifies people in group associations at work, but these organizations are not specified in the blueprint of the formal firm. The informal company means natural groupings of people in the task situation.

When people begin working along they develop some kind of grouping or style of relationship included in this which is not granted by formal group. You will discover high chances that the recently developed romantic relationship is more complex than the official prescribed ones. For instance Davis observes that under the cloak of formal romantic relationships in every establishment, there exists a more technical system of interpersonal human relationships called the casual organization.

Informal group is not designed or organized; it is created alone in the workplace.

It is created on basis of some common factors among the list of members, that can be age, sex, place of origin, caste, faith, culture, likes and dislikes, etc.

A person in an informal corporation can be considered a member of other organization at exactly the same time.

And finally the tendencies of the member follows the normal protocol handled by group norms and not by the norms of formal organization.

ORGANISATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

Organizational development is a way to increase the long-term health and performance of the business, at the same time improve the life of its associates. In organizational development folks and the organization both undergoes a big change for positive progress and betterment of both.

˜˜firm is a well planned and collaborative process for understanding, producing, and changing organizations to improve their health, effectiveness and personal renewing capabilities

Organizational development helps companies by:

Empowering leaders and individual employees.

Creating a culture of constant improvement and positioning around distributed goals.

Making change easier and faster.

Putting the imagination of most employees to work.

Enhancing the product quality and speed of decisions.

Making turmoil constructive rather than destructive.

Giving leaders more control over results, by giving employees more control over the way they do their job.

Main advantage of organizational development

The upshot of organizational development brings upsurge in:

Profits (cost lowering, for nonprofits).

Innovation.

Customer satisfaction.

Product and service quality.

Cost success.

Organizational versatility.

Personal thoughts of effectiveness.

Job, work, and life satisfaction.

Some of the various form of organizational development can be achieved by business process re-engineering (BPR) and total quality management (TQM).

BUSINESS PROCESS RE-ENGINEERING

Business process reengineering is the primary way in which organizations are more useful and modernize. Business process reengineering transforms an organization with techniques that directly have an effect on performance

˜˜BPR is a tool that is specifically designed in order to help the organization where large scale advancements are needed In a world where change is really the only constant, there's a need of tool and techniques to help organization are more effective. In a very competitive world there is a dependence on ways to stay ahead of the field or to capture up before it is too later. In a intricate world there is a need for mechanism that can make apparently complicated things simpler. BPR is an undeniably powerful tool that will help in every the circumstances

Seven rules of reengineering to streamline the task process and thus achieve significant degrees of improvement in quality, time management, and cost:

1. Organize around benefits, not responsibilities.

2. Identify all the functions in an business and prioritize them to be able of redesign urgency.

3. Integrate information handling work in to the real work that produces the information.

4. Treat geographically dispersed resources as though these were centralized.

5. Website link parallel activities in the workflow rather than just integrating their results.

6. Put the decision point where in fact the work is conducted, and build control in to the process.

7. Capture information once with the source.

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT

TQM means an organizations culture us defined by a useful philosophy of management that supports the continuous attainment of customers satisfaction via an organization-wide, included system of complex and statistical tools, fundamental and behavioural strategy. A worker training to analyze, understand and solve quality problems. This evolutionary idea involves the ongoing improvement of organizational process under a disciplined methodology, concentrating on process quality and resulting in high quality products services

(Carr, et al, 1992; Lakhe and Mohanty 1994, sashkin and kiser 1993)

TQM is the integration of all functions and processes within an corporation in order to achieve constant improvement of the grade of goods and services. The target is client satisfaction. Quality expert JM JURAN also says that TQM is defined of management processes and systems that create delighted customers through empowered employees, leading to higher revenue and low cost.

TQM can be employed to any kind of organization; it originated in the making sector and has since been adapted for use in nearly every type of organization imaginable, including classes, highway maintenance, hotel management, and churches. Being a current target of e-business, TQM is based on quality management from the customer's perspective.

BIBLOGRAPHY

Bennis W G. (1969) Organisation Development, Reading MA: Addison Wesley.

Carr, David, et al (1992) Business Process Redesign: How Americas Top Companies Blast At night Competition, Coopers and Lybrand, Arlington, VA.

Chris Argyris, (1957) Personality and Company, Harper Brothers, NY.

Kroon, J (1995) General Management. S. A. : taylor and francis.

Litterer J A. (1973) Organisations, John Wiley, NY.

Mike Robson and Philip Ullah (30 may 1996) A Practical Guide To Business Process Re-Engineering, Gower Posting Small, Aldershot, GB

Newstrom J W. and Keith Davis (1997) Organisational Behaviour, McGraw-Hill, NY.

Sashkin, marshall and Kenneth kiser (1993) Putting Total Quality Management to Work: What TQM Means, How to Use It, and How to Sustain It Over the long term,

Berrett-Koehler Publishers, SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA, CA.

Sullivan, R. L. (May 2005) Practicing Company Development. Chichester/US: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

Swan, R. A. & Holton, E. F. (Nov 2001) Foundations of Human Source of information Development. New York/US: McGraw-Hill Education - Europe.

Weber Maximum, ( 1947) THE IDEA of Sociable and Economic Company, Free Press, New York.

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