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Opposing Models in Health Promotion

HND Health, Diet & Nutritional Studies - Product Four


Health campaign is provided by various organisations working together to the same goal - general health and wellbeing for everyone. It aims to prevent and reduce the risk of disease, manage condition, recovery and rehabilitation. Its objectives are to require the general public in their own search for a wholesome life through education and consciousness, to improve services, support and continuity of good care and offer a protected climate for people to reside and work in with equal opportunities presenting everyone the methods to achieve, wherever possible, ideal health.

We know children learn from parents and instructors but if parents neglect to teach their children to make healthy choices at home within an informal setting, even if educators do it to a preset curriculum in a formal setting, it may well not happen. I remember a report on a TV news channel some years back where Jaime Oliver unveiled healthy meals in schools but the parents were against the theory so they squeezed Macdonald's burgers to them through the institution fence at lunchtime because that is the type of food that they had grown to know. In communal learning theory Albert Bandura advises "behaviour is learned from the environment through the process of observational learning" (Bandura A. (1977)), everybody knows this to be true.

Children often refuse vegetables etc when they are young but perseverance is essential if they are to receive the nutrients they require for a healthy, disease free life. According to the BBC Breakfast news today (31. 05. 14) experts say that if a number of foods are launched to a child from an extremely early age which is repeated at least ten times the kid will develop up liking that one food. Another storyline that springs to mind was whenever a friend's husband said to be vegetarian, the truth is as a kid he could not be bothered to chew beef but his parents gave in to him and let him have what he needed so his meals consisted mainly of egg and chips. How is it possible to teach children from wrong when parents react this way?" The response must be to educate them as well?"

Health education and advertising requires frequently conveying the note to those vulnerable, through media advertising, health and welfare promotions and organised frameworks to market change. No smoking areas, for example, eliminates the freedom to participate in harmful actions in public places making people stop and consider what they are simply doing to themselves while others. If people understand the results of their actions and believe the changes can make a difference to them and those around them they are more likely to change their habits which will certainly reduce the associated cultural and monetary costs.

Making these procedures illegal may appear to be the individuals protection under the law, liberty and freedom of movements are being taken away however the protection under the law of their "victims" are of equivalent importance and it would be unethical for them to have to go through as a consequence of another's ignorance or selfishness e. g. second hand smoke or the price tag on treatment for the drivers of the vehicle injured because of this of an accident where he was not putting on a seatbelt.


Researchers are constantly gathering information, from people studies and health reports etc, about people's patterns and behaviour, the environment they reside in and how it impacts them, their behaviour, where specific incidences are occurring, to whom and how often, they don't however, include ideas, thoughts or the observations of the average person. That is known as quantitative research as it is handles number i. e. the amount of individuals affected and the causes contributing to health issues. Once collected the data can be divided into smaller categories e. g. demographic, lifestyle, education, ethnicity etc then used to recognize where health campaign must be directed. That is an ongoing analysis method with set criteria allowing statistical analysis and dissemination of helpful data regarding the adequacy of service provision, variety of incidences of certain diseases or where new tendencies are manifesting etc. and gives a "flavour" of a given situation at any one time.

Other researchers collect data from professional medical facilities and charity organisations etc predicated on one to one or small group contact where people and things can be observed and where changes can be produced, if necessary, to try to reach the desired outcome, this is recognized as qualitative data. Hospital wards, clinical tests etc record the effect and end result of "lab tests", their purpose is to analyze holistically allowing leads to be seen and patterns assessed for a while. Once the results of qualitative research has been identified the results can be built upon to improve i. e. a very important factor can result in another or the what if scenario, it's been seen where analysts choose a cure for one thing then stumble across another.

Both these types of research are valuable in different ways e. g. for comparability or impact but can frequently be used jointly however, one important account before carrying out any research is that the researcher is competent in what his is looking to achieve, that research will be completed under a strict code of ethics and follows the legal guidelines laid down by the relevant specialists e. g. making certain there is no danger to the individual, he is totally informed about what to expect which he is informed as to the way the data will be utilised etc.


Individual Models

By demonstrating people the harmful effects of unsafe lifestyles versus the benefits of healthy lifestyles you'll be able to change their views. They have to go through what is known as the "Stages of Change" (Prochaska J. O. & DiClemente C. C. (1983)) whereby the average person has no wish or interest in changing (pre-contemplation) until an idea is sown in his mind, he begins to think about how he'd benefit from change and realises the sense of computer so makes a decision to try (contemplation) he sets a plan into place (prep). Day one will come and he discontinues the habit (action), he is enthusiastic, he commences to see and feel the huge benefits encouraging him to keep (maintenance). At some level he may falter so looks for help and support from others to keep him encouraged through the difficult times. Treatment like this will come from many resources, often depending on circumstances e. g. smokers make a decision they want to give up so they visit their local GP who prescribes a course of nicotine areas, he suggests getting in touch with an area support group where individuals, who understand and also have experienced the same situation, can guide and help him reach his goal and help prevent relapse, once a person sees that success is possible he will be motivated to keep.

Some of the barriers experienced in changing behavioural patterns are down to individual values. If someone believes he's insusceptible to a specific disease, perhaps because no relative has been affected by it he is unlikely to feel threatened but if he sees a member of family suffering he's much more likely to want to avoid the condition himself. Alternatively, he considers someone living with an illness who appears fine he may do nothing, this may be because he might not exactly grasp or believe the severity of the condition to worry about any of it, but when see your face dies he realises the implications and makes a decision to adopt preventative action because he views living longer is better than the choice. Again the individual may require support and help to keep the new regime because with no visible signs it can seem pointless.

Both of the models are similar for the reason that they happen in levels, from pre-contemplation to maintaining change, often without actually "seeing" immediate benefits and this is where continued reinforcement of the note is necessary. Specific and group methods are both effective ways for promoting health if they are in promoting e. g. helping to overcome obstacles and providing feedback or educating jobs e. g. explaining and influencing ways to change behaviour but the main point is the fact the individual must want to and believe he can change otherwise he will always find reasons never to try.

Social and Community Models

Promoting health in organizations and communities relies on the collaboration of individuals to work at the same goals of their particular environments where they can prepare for and respond to situations that have an effect on all of them e. g. the recent flooding on the Somerset Levels brought everyone together to help fortify barriers and limit damage to themselves and their properties. Their situation encompassed the interpersonal learning theory for the reason that personal and environmental factors resulted in connection by everyone influenced to avoid further disaster and they came together on the community level to judge and plan effective ways of solve and enhance their situation. Jointly they organised themselves and submit their suggestions to government bodies in charge of keeping them safe and demanded plan changes to help prevent similar situations in the foreseeable future along with financial money for their loss of businesses and income.

No one model or theory is better or worse this will depend entirely on this situation e. g. the thoughts, emotions and beliefs of individuals or the framework, regulations and procedures that exist in groupings, organisations or areas.

There are a great many other methods for neighborhoods and organisations to aid, educate and result positive change e. g. mom and toddler categories, wellness centres, college and workplace involvement programmes, sociable networking etc. where peer and professional knowledge can be exchanged and support provided.


Many years may complete before we can confirm whether health education and promotion has helped us reach our goals because the final results will not be immediately evident e. g. mortality rates credited to overweight or the recent overflow disasters however, we can measure if our objectives are being attained through quantifying whether people have learned from the communications being conveyed by e. g. evaluating their changes in lifestyle; are there fewer deaths due to coronary attack or stroke? Are people safe in their environment? Has public policy changed to handle the floodwater problem so that lives or property aren't again jeopardized in case of heavy rains and have the measures turned out satisfactory?

We must carryon educating people about the advantages of a wholesome lifestyle, continue research and development and anticipate future problems in order to lessen these leeches on our contemporary society and utilise the financing in a better more satisfying way.



Health education and campaign helps people to take control of and enhance their own health and wellbeing. The theory is to instruct people how to prevent disease and help with attain that (main level), to comprehend and manage current health problems and aid recovery and treatment (secondary level) and regarding the terminally sick to help them and their own families cope with the condition and offer counselling and health care services that will minimize some of any risk of strain (tertiary level). Health education and promotion not only deals with illness but efforts to ensure that factors associated with overall health and wellbeing are being achieved e. g. an end to poverty.

Health education and promotion can be offered officially or informally through a number of sources e. g. colleges, workplaces, NHS services, charities or voluntary organisations.


Teachers convey communications in a formal way by carrying out a preset curriculum and concerning students in the learning and practice with measured results e. g. educating children road safeness. In the 1960's The Modern culture for preventing Accidents "invented" a squirrel persona, called Tufty, to help coach children road basic safety. It became so popular that there have been 24, 500 Tufty Golf clubs formed in the united kingdom during that 10 years (http://www. rospa. com/about/history/tufty. aspx). Certificates and badges were honored to children once they successfully completed the course, I will remember the slogan (and the lesson) from those college days.

A voluntary company known as Wish UK (http://www. hopeuk. org) teach volunteers to teach and promote the potential issues of drug, liquor and smoking habit to all ages. Their training techniques are organized to charm to different age ranges of modern culture so volunteers sign up for institution assemblies or youngsters clubs to relay their concept in a great, interesting and interactive way while parents may be taught in an helpful way highlighting signs or symptoms etc. followed by a Q&A procedure.

Informing parents and teachers of the pitfalls of addictions, or whatever the subject may be, can strengthen the understanding of children and young people when they inquire further informal questions. Sometimes it could work the other way e. g. if a kid learns at institution that smoking is bad for you and can affect other people he may then relay that message to a parent or guardian who is a smoker which has been seen to make the parent stop to take into account the harm it is doing to himself and his children and opt to cease.

Schools, workplaces and nursing homes are all being encouraged to offer balanced, healthy dishes in their eateries and expose a number of communal activities to help people keep moving. I observed a television program recently where they were testing a fresh invention in which a college or office desk can be brought up so the operator can work alternately sitting or ranking as seated for long periods is known to be harmful to health; research and innovation I really believe it is called.

It is becoming more and more fashionable nowadays to eat well and exercise more and a excellent example of this is the range of sales Jamie Oliver has achieved with his books on 15 and 30 tiny dishes and his new one "Save with Jamie", written in response to popular demand, which is targeted at eating healthily on a budget. We own two of these at home, we didn't get them because we do not know very well what to eat, however the enthusiasm and ideas they offer and the speed in which meals can prepare yourself as well as the pre-calculated healthy balance has the hard work done for you. Stars are often advertising their exercise DVDs, endorsing workout equipment and taking part in charity sports to encourage fans to take part.

These are examples of health education and campaign aimed at elimination and improvement but there are people who are currently suffering and dealing with disease and disease who also need educating in its management and ways of reducing further risk. To do this we should ensure they know about how and just why these diseases arise and what you can do to help them during its course while obtaining funding to allow further treatment research to help eliminate them totally e. g. Cancer and Alcoholism. Most people will have seen the promotional initiatives for Drink Awareness and the account raising plan "Race forever" (raceforlife. cancerresearchuk. org) organised each year to get Cancers Research UK. The NHS and many charities are continuously drumming into people what signs and symptoms to regularly look for e. g. breast or testicular lumps or intimate dysfunction and advising them where to go for verification and advice, the earlier these signals are recognized the better chance there may be of survival. Nearly every week of the year there can be an awareness campaign for just one or even more disease or disorder that make a difference anyone.

Terminally ill people will require care and attention of some description as will their families who can also suffer from indirectly due to the situation. Either of the parties might need to talk to someone about it, terminally ill people may become depressed while their families find it difficult to get through their lives due to the stress and heartache, just having someone to pay attention can help immensely. There are lots of organisations that will help e. g. The Macmillan Tumors Support (www. macmillan. org. uk) can set up to give individuals a "trip" from caring for their sick family member to providing assistance and support for the young families themselves. Others may join an informal support group where they can discuss how their condition, or that of a member of family, is affecting them, their fears for when they are gone or how their passing will have an effect on their family, this may give a great deal of comfort and support as it is sharing the encounters with folks who are in the same situation.


The undeniable fact that people's behaviors are steadilly changing shows that health promotion is working however, there is a long way to go before many people are "up to speed". Changing the views of people still in the pre-contemplation stage is probably the most challenging hurdle to cross but on the same token the more folks that change the more others will begin to handle it which might be enough itself so getting to as many as possible, whether officially or informally, can only just do more good in the long run.


Bandura A. (1977). Sociable Learning Theory. NY: Basic Learning Press.

Prochaska J. O. & DiClemente C. C. (1983). Stages and techniques of self change of smoking: Toward an integrative model of change. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Mindset, 51, 390 395.

http://www. rospa. com/about/history/tufty. aspx Tufty Club (Online)

(Accessed 25. 06. 14)

(http://www. hopeuk. org) (Online) (Accessed 22. 05. 14)

http://raceforlife. cancerresearchuk. org/index. html Competition For Life Cancers Research UK(Online) (Accessed 22. 05. 14)

http://www. macmillan. org. uk/Home. aspx Our company is Macmillan Tumors Support (Online) (Accesssed 24. 05. 14)

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