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Operations Management Article London Zoo And New Walk Travel and leisure Essay

This report outlines the procedures management of New Walk Museum and London zoo respectively and then makes a comparison between both of these leisure facilities. New walk museum is a particular museum with a range of choices and concentrate on both natural and ethnical world.

The survey is divided into three sections. The fist two parts show some details about operations management terms of the museum and London Zoo. The 3rd part analyses the variety of some existing problems in both of these places.

The New Walk Museum

2. 1 Procedures type: service shops

Processes are serious of steps that turn materials and resources into products(Slack et al, 2007, p94). To ensure the implementation of every process may achieve the expected value is the principal purpose of process design. In other words, process should be designed to satisfy customers. Production process type and service process type will be the two major types of processes and each type has its branches. According to the definition of every process, service outlets is the the one which participate in the characteristic of the museum. Service shop are seen as a levels of customer contact, customization, amounts of customers and personnel discretion.

2. 2 structure and flow

The layout decision is a significant step since an inappropriate layout may cause lots of questions. Such as low productive outcome, high cost and customer dissatisfaction. Layout relates to two central parts. You are the setting of changing resources and another is the allocation of jobs to changing resources. Both of these core concepts suggest the move of changed resources through the operation(Slack et al, 2007, p188). Since the Structure is highly associated with process type generally, according to the process type of the museum, efficient layout which also known as process layout may be looked at to choose. The unique trait of this layout type signifies that similar transforming resources sit in the same place and the move design may be unfixed and complex. Within the museum, for instance, the Ancient Egypt hall has all icons of Egypt like mummies and Sphinx; a majority of dog specimens from across the world are exhibited in the open Space hall. Each exhibition hall has its topic, so site visitors can pick to look around any hall relating with their own interest. Different site visitors may have various needs and take diverse routes.

The inexperienced lines in figure 2. 2. 1 show some possible routes may chosen by site visitors. Cite the bottom floor as an instance, a visitor could switch left to visit the exhibition hall of untamed Space(4) or the Old Egypt(5). He may also enjoy a Special exhibition hall(8) that the farthest hall from the entry. There are in least seven different routes to visit the bottom.

Figure 2. 2. 1: The ground floor plan of the museum

The renewable lines in amount 2. 2. 2 shows there are no less than four varieties of routes.

Figure 2. 2. 2: The first floor plan of the museum

2. 3 Change process

All operations can be regarded as the input- change- end result model. More specific, this model can be used to describe functions in terms of these input resources, transforming procedures and outputs of goods and services( Slack et al, 2007, p8). It's important to note that we now have two types of input resources, some may be transforming resources like materials, informations and customers and another is changed resources, such as facilities and staff. As the museum, the functions process means let those source resources become result of services which might satisfy visitor needs. Number 2. 3 shows this technique precisely.

Transformed resources:



Transforming resources:










Figure2. 3 The input-transformation-output procedure for New Walk Museum

2. 4 procedures processes - 4Vs

Figure2. 4: profiles of New Walk Museum

Volume: low

Because of the limited range, different types of situations and particular items of every exhibition are necessary to attract guests. Notably, the amount of staff is inadequate in line with the conversation with an employee which means that every staff may respond to a sizable amount of unrepeatable and sophisticated works. So the repeatability and systemization may also be low.

Variety: a little high

Except for the fundamental function of any museum, such as broaden one's horizons, increased related knowledge and developed an understanding of artworks, there are numerous especial incidents and interesting programmes. For instance, some learning assignments, lunchtime Concerts and communication activities. In addition, details of special exhibitions tend to be changed based on the requirements of visitors. Many of these may have a solid appeal to visitors.

Variation: just a little high

According to the dialogue with a staff, the quantity of site visitors is quite different in a season or weekly. The quantity of tourists will reach a peak in holiday seasons, such as Christmas, Easter, summer time and winter holiday seasons. In addition, the quantity of visitors may increase if there will presented a particular event or special activity in a single day.

Visibility: high

Staff sometimes service as cicerones, they have to introduce or answer questions for visitors. In other words, staff provide just-in-time service.

2. 5 feedback mechanism

Feedback from tourists is a highly effective way for procedure managers to discover the existing problems and help managers to improve their operation performance. It is a fairly essential step in a functions.

The overwhelming reason for feedback device in the museum is to find visitors' perceptions on service quality they received. Site visitors often compare these perceptions with the prospects of the service they could meet offering by procedures. The difference between objectives and perceptions is a basis to evaluate quality of the service and procedures professionals can improve those aspects which perceptions are lower than visitors' prospects.

There are three various ways for visitors to give feedbacks - face e book via the Internet, questionnaire and commentary, compliments & problems leaflet.

Questionnaire includes some details about the guests' views to both the entire museum and each exhibition halls, the service they received provided by staff and also some personal informations.

Visitors can pass on a comment, go with or complaint by using the reviews, compliments & grievances leaflet(Appendix 1). Many of these may also be made via the Internet, by telephone, in person, by letter or employing this form. The personnel will contact and present an answer to tourists so soon as is feasible.

2. 6 existing problems

Operations performance objectives

Quality, speed, dependability, flexibility and cost are five basic performance goals to be able to satisfy customers.

Firstly, quality is the most significant performance that may highly involved with customers satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Slack et al(2007) define quality as "Consistent conformance to customer prospects". In a few busiest times, since each staff have a great deal of responsibilities, it is difficult to gratify various different needs from all site visitors. Some site visitors might be disregarded or cannot get what they want in time, all of these may lead low quality and can not achieve the visitors' expectation. Subsequently, the speed goal is another vital factor that heightens value for customers. Based on the conversation with an employee, it will take at least one and a half month to prepare a exhibition pertains to the customers' needs and recommendations. So some of the exhibition halls may be furnished by turns, all together, this might cause loud noises and an awful smell. Quite simply, it may also have adverse effect on the quality. Lastly, cost is a primary issue that needed to solve. As the museum is free to entry, nearly all finance that used to aid the daily operation come from donation. The sponsor are City Council, Artwork Council plus some other businesses. But due to the insufficient finance support, the facilities or some non-technological equipments in some exhibitions seems ineffective for people to get familiar with this content.


Capacity means the utmost degree of value-added activity an operation, an activity or service is with the capacity of over a period(Slack et al, 2007, p322). Based on the conversation with a staff, the common amount of tourists is fluctuate between two hundreds and four hundreds per day. In peak times, like weekends and holiday seasons, the total amount may sometimes rise to thousand people each day. But due to the small scale of the museum, three existing problems that may cause dissatisfaction of guests. The first one is jam at entry of each exhibition hall plus some corridors. Another one is the shortage of packing places. There are just 17 packing areas and two of these are for handicapped visitors. Finally, the utmost capacity of the primary MEMORIAL hall is two hundreds site visitors which might not adequate in busiest times.

feedback mechanism

The amount of questionnaire form is limited. There are just hundred of forms each month this means a few of the visitors might not be able to get one at the end of every month. I did so not get one once i visited there because the questionnaire have been used up. In addition, the personnel said that we now have still some weaknesses. The questionnaire should list some items for people to show what they want in, according to this, procedures can plan a new topic for the Special Exhibition halls.

3. London Zoo

3. 1 Process type: service shops

The significant characteristics of service shops will be the medium level of volume level and customization. As section of the Zoo has been broadened since 1830s, now London Zoo has became a leisure place which with a fair scale and quite strong. Although, the quantity of staff is 161, what more, temporary staff may be employed in peak times, it appears that the amount of staff is still not adequate to obtain high customer contact, especially in peak times. Therefore the volume and customization is within a middle level.

3. 2 structure and flow

According to the Zoo map that download from its recognized website, there are a few obvious guideline, such as habitats and kinds, to allocate animals. For instance, family pets stay in rainforest are categorised in Rainforest live, various butterflies are put in the Butterfly paradise. Pets or animals is one of the transforming resources, so put similar transforming resources jointly signifies that process design( functional design) is the design kind of London Zoo, just the same as New Walk Museum.

There is not a predetermined routes, so tourists can choose to look at any kind of animals.

Figure 3. 2: Zoo Map (https://static. zsl. org/images/originals/zsl-london-zoo-map-7874. jpg)

3. 3 change process

The idea of change process has be emphasised in the same part of New Walk Museum. It really is a process that make the resources turn into services. The changed resources of the Zoo is guests, information. The transforming resources is facilities, animals, staff, amenities. Figure 3. 3 shows this process precisely.




Transformed resources:



Transforming resources:







Figure3. 3 The input-transformation-output procedure for London Zoo

3. 4 four characteristics of businesses processes

Figure3. 4: profiles of New Walk Museum

Volume: a little high

Although there are always a great deal of visitors everyday, the amount of staff is enough. Temporary personnel may be used in busiest times and essentially used at some amenities which need to provide just- in- time service. So the tasks for each and every personnel may be proper and despite having high repeatability.

Variety: low

Some particular activities or events can be held every once in awhile. Such as, Summer season and Christmas Gatherings, Animal Encounters etc. In addition, the zoo also provides places for folks to perform private events. For example, a really wild birthday party, a romantic but special wedding or corporate meeting. All of these events may attract visitors, it is a good way to increase the amount of site visitors. But main purposes of all visitors which come to the zoo is to see and get some knowledges of family pets. Therefore the variety is low although there are an array of extra situations.

Variation: high

The daily numbers of visitors fluctuate generally and the seasonal variants are visible. Weekends and warmer summer months holidays are busiest times and the common amount of visitors is fluctuating between 4000 and 6000. For the Easter and August Loan provider Holiday, the amount can reach 10000 people per day. But, only 48 people go to the zoo in Holiday Eve. So, the variation is high.

Visibility: just a little high

The personnel in zoo are provide just-in-time service, they could introduce family pets to visitors, answer questions from visitors. But there are still some functions that can not be seen, like how staff feed pets or animals. So, the awareness is just a little high.

3. 5 reviews mechanism

The questionnaire is complete, it contains the site visitors' belief about the quality of service and what site visitors' expected from the zoo.

3. 6 existing problems

The importance-performance matrix

The importance-performance matrix is a method that includes scores that indicate the relative importance and relative performance of different competitive factors in order to prioritize them as applicants for improvement. The next body shows an importance-performance matrix divided into four areas that imply different priorities. The "appropriate" area illustrates the competitive factors are considered adequate. The competitive factors in this zone must be individuals for improvements. Quite simply, operations should create a course of action to tackle these issues. The "urgent-action" zone shows the competitive factors in this zone have to be immediate improvement. Lastly, the "unwanted?" area means factors which may have "powerful" however, not so important to guests, so operations need not give attention to these too much but used better elsewhere(Slack et al, 2007, p589).

Urgent action area:

1. Parking

2. Find way around zoo

3. Presence of animals

4. Delight of animals

5. Attentiveness&helpfulness: staff

6. Contact with staff

7. Volume of events and


8. Sanitation and tidiness

9. Comfort of animals

10. Commitment to visitors

Figure 3. 6: The importance-performance matrix for London Zoo (over 6000 guests)

The above physique 3. 6 determined from over 6000 tourists, it implies that regarding London zoo, there are 10 issues have to be improved upon urgently and 18 issues should boost properly in support of 5 competitive factors may satisfied the guests. (The details items are showed in appendix 2. )

Operations performance objectives

According to the characteristics of businesses process and the importance-performance matrix shows above, there are several problems that have to be coped with.

In admiration of quality, firstly, Because of the massive amount visitors, especially in peak times, the amount of staff is inadequate, so the connection with personnel is so less that need to be better urgently. In addition, many visitors desire the staff should be more attentiveness and helpfulness. Second, the map and guide content aren't clear enough, sometimes guests cannot find their way as a result. Finally, the tidiness and sanitation of the zoo is another aspect that require to be better immediately. Then, as people become concern about animal rights and welfare, the comfortable and contentment of pets or animals in the zoo seems to make many site visitors feel concerned, so businesses have to attempt to tackle it. Lastly, number of pets or animals in the zoo and the presence of family pets need to upgraded or site visitors may think it is not worth to go to the zoo.

In the terms of cost, the problem that lack of investment sustained for 25 years. It may prevent operations to purchase or build infrastructure, new sights, facilities and so forth. As a consequence, the number of visitors may reduce if the zoo cannot provide high quality service. Quite simply, the income could also decline. It looks like a vicious circuit.


A long queue often accumulates all over and the packing places are significantly less than demands, these will become worse in busiest times.

Compare the New Walk Museum with London Zoo

4. 1 operations functions- 4Vs

The level of New walk Museum is low, as the level of London Zoo is a little high. The number of staff in the museum is inadequate, so the requirements of visitors might not exactly be satisfied immediately. Regarding London Zoo, personnel is sufficient in regular day but might need to increase in the busiest time since tourists still thought the connection with staff have to be more based on the matrix.

As the distinct seasonal change, the variant of both places are high and London zoo in particular. The following club graph 4. 1. 1 shows the twelve-monthly fluctuation of site visitors amount perspicuously. It evidently shows that busiest times for both places are almost similar. The fluctuation of London Zoo is more remarkable than the museum, especially in Xmas eve. The next line charts 4. 1. 2 shows this distinguish. Only 48 people visitor the Zoo in Holiday Eve but there is a slightly decrease of guests' amount in the museum. The two place both need to increase the number of site visitors, especially the museum.

Figure 4. 1. 1: The variation of London Zoo and New Walk Museum





Figure 4. 1. 2: Different of variant between London Zoo and New Walk Museum

4. 2 procedures performance

In the conditions of quality, numerous of potential and existing problems need to be pay more attention. The quantity of museum is low, simultaneously, the variety is high which shows the number of staff is shortage and there could be also jams in the museum. Besides, the quality problems in London Zoo is a lot more than the museum that detail items is in the appendix 2. Such as for example, the tidiness and cleanliness, contact with staff, the capability of staff etc.

Cost is another problem that both them may have. Having less fund support from world and organization is difficult to give a high performance to guests.

4. 3 design and flow

Process layout is both places' structure type. The normal problem is guide of browsing route is not so clear that site visitors may get perplexing. Since the process structure means put similar resources alongside one another and have several different route, so without some clear guide, it is difficult to acquire a correct way.

4. 4 capacity

Both the two place are facing this serious problem. Such as the scarcity of infrastructures like car parking places, toilets, the congested corridors which might lead long queues and site visitors may stuffed and rarely move.


This survey shows some details about operations management conditions of the museum and London Zoo, for case, the change process, layout, 4Vs and so forth. In addition, it lists some existent problems that may impact the operations.

(2900 words)


Slack, N. , Chambers, S. and Johnston, R. , 2007, Operations management, 5th Release, FT/Prentice Hall.

Appendix 1

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