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Ongoing ISSUES WITH Vandalism Criminology Essay

The topic I am going to address in this research is the ongoing issues with vandalism in each day environments and general public transport services specifically. The issue I am aiming to confront is how vandalism impacts our experience when we travel and exactly how new implications of design in public areas transport can help to prevent vandalism. I'll explore the factors that vandalism entails such as criminal damage to public property, as well as graffiti, loud noise and even effects of drunken behaviour. In able to highlight how areas of the public move sector are affect by the causes of vandalism, we should firstly break down the reasoning behind vandalism and why people comply with it. Maybe by responding to each element of the study, it will be possible to give an overview of the main problems with vandalism and possible means of dealing with the main issues as it pertains to venturing by public transportation. This study will involve exploring the aspects of why people vandalise, their motives and whether these activities towards services in the public carry industry are avoidable using careful and purposeful design.

Vandalism prevention is not solely a matter of good design and technical systems, but also of enlightened management of properties, urban facilities and places. (CIRIA, 1994, p. 1)


In order to propose some solutions to reducing the problems of vandalism, it is important to also consider the environments and hotspots of where vandalism commonly occurs. By increasing the knowing of these locations, it might preferably allow us to put into action a great environment for general public transport to use properly without much threat of vandalism arising. I'll then explore theories and current systems that are ready to go round the world aimed at lowering or even avoiding functions of vandalism.

I will explore the reasoning behind the opportunity of decrease as previously stated in an preceding section of this thesis. I will also use examples of anti-vandalism programs as illustration, looking at the outcomes and issues with each system and depicting the main factors that have an have an impact on on the problem in hand. Using this method, it could assist in thinking through the impact and potential use of various approaches to minimizing the risk of vandalism. In considering how to approach a specific issue of vandalism, it is important to recognise that what works in one situation, might not exactly always work in another. With regards to selecting measures, substantial thought needs to be given to the device that it's hoped to induce and what lengths the context is likely to either help or impede the operation of that individual device.

Every portion of society is involved with minimizing the senseless harm and destruction of the built environment. (CIRIA, 1994, p. 1)

Once I've divulged in the aspects adjoining the problems of vandalism, I will move onto looking at the many types of carry systems used around the world and make an effort to identify which areas appear to work and the way the operation is funded and run. I am going to then delve into the design element of public carry vehicles and forecast changes to reduce vandalism through careful research and past case studies. This will involve considering the visual appearance of vehicles such as busses, trains and taxis, considering the style and modernization of the design. I'll also check out the notion of new materials and design strategies being furthered towards tackling the chance of vandalism.

My initial intentions of this thesis are to identify some particular earlier experiences where a regular journey by public transportation has been influenced by the outcome of vandalism. This could involve situations where in fact the experience of travel might have been jeopardized by the effects of vandalism, such as destroyed vehicles that may have become offensive and sometimes dangerous for folks to utilize.


My own major investigation will be to evaluate existing strategies in various metropolitan areas such as Shanghai, London, NY and Rotterdam in in a position to review the influence they have got on public transportation and how effectively these systems run. I will review these major cities at them subsequently to observe the transport systems that are used as well as the size of vandalism. I'll document my findings, supported as written notes and photos. I am going to also try to find out how they are coping with the problems and of any strategies they may have in place to tackle the everyday risk of vandalism. I'll gather more info from books, case study reports completed by police analysis organizations and local journalists as well as design companies looking to provide new ideas to tackling everyday issues with vandalism. The catalogs I will mainly use will be centred on vandalism instances and problems, describing the areas where it most commonly occurs.

The first e book that we used is COPING WITH Vandalism - Helpful information to the control of vandalism by CIRIA, 1994. This e book describes the motives behind vandalism and explores the components of an environment which attracts offenders to destruction and graffiti. It offers examples of conditions of vandalism in past events to aid the reader with understanding why people vandalize. It reveals design guidelines and strategies, whilst considering the problems with impacting an urban environment and considering alternate methods.

The second e book I used was a police research article called Preventing Vandalism, What Works? by Mary Barker & Cressida Bridgeman, 1994. I found this book especially relevant to my research issue as it covered information about approaches to combating vandalism that are set up far away outside the UK. I think about this to be vital if I will find a potential method for reducing the level of vandalism to public vandalism in Britain. This publication also delves in to the impact of adding theory into practise and devising strategies for preventative action and successful implementation.

The third reserve that I used for my dissertation is New Move Architecture by Will Jones, 2006. The book is split into four parts; air, road, drinking water and rail, all describing architectural set ups and conditions of beauty and careful design. Most constructs in the booklet are of such marvel and beauty they are practically all, in themselves, vandal facts. The book shows how each building has been designed and produced, including the materials it was created from and how it was formerly constructed. Personally i think this publication will be of major importance to get a concept of how design can effect the ambiance and affect that it is wearing people around it and of those who utilize it.

All of the books I have just stated I am going to reference where necessary to follow-up any debate or statement that we make during this study.

After researching using the various books that I simply stated, I found a useful Dvd and blu-ray predicated on the costing of rail companies called The Money Program: Jarvis - Trouble on the Paths, 2004. Jarvis are an extremely questionable rail company based in Britain. I made a decision to use this to explore the issues of unsuccessful transport services and find out the major factors that cause its failure.

I will be looking out for good use of design to solve everyday issues, taking into account the funding and budget that's available to put into action that travel service as well as the desirability and location. I am hoping to explore that plan enough to see how each anti-vandalism scheme is working and whether the risk has decreased because of it. By looking at other anti-vandalism plans and smart design in major metropolitan areas, it could be possible to identify which areas are afflicted most and for what reasons. I propose to focus on specific places with remarkable schemes in place, where dealing with problems with vandalism is a high priority. I intend to do this because I feel that by concentrating on popular areas, I am hoping to obtain a clearer notion of how the condition is being address and handled.

There is a link between design and behaviour, and the users' sense of take great pride in in the thing or facility. (CIRIA, 1994, p. 2)

Main Body

The meaning of vandalism is not always clear in common usage. Definitions could vary with respect to the framework of the action where in some instances, almost indescribable because of the strange aspect and sometimes the level of damage. In dealing with these definitional problems, one strategy that is radicalised has gone to focus predominantly on the motives. As the platform for understanding vandalism, Cohen's typology has classified vandalism in six ways, as acquisitive; tactical; ideological; vindictive; play, or destructive (Cohen, 1973). Although these main classifications were first produced back in 1973, the normal view is that they still have not been improved on. It remains nevertheless difficult to include the motivational aspect in to the explanation of vandalism itself. Take for example a damaged home window, it is impossible to see just by looking at it whether it was destroyed scheduled to vandalism and objective to break it or that it just happened accidentally throughout play. Any classification linked with accidental damage has been taken off the main topic of motivational vandalism. In order to devise a highly effective preventative strategy, an accurate definition of the particular problem is always essential. This will look at the circumstances where in fact the behaviour occurs as well as the number of potential motivations. This will likely be asked to recognise that the multi-faced aspect of vandalism may require different measures to handle different facets of the condition on certain levels. To conclude to this, the financial costs of fixing vandalism as well as the human costs of trouble and annoyance have experienced majorly as a result. This is enough to justify adding work into finding effective ways of reducing its incidence and prevalence. Although the act of vandalism may donate to anxiety and stress and sometimes have links with the general decline of a location that people live in, there is no true reason to claim that vandalism is an indicator of overall growing crime and declining morals.

"As an estimate, the total annual cost of getting rid of graffiti on our metro service is more than 400, 000. " (Nexus, Passenger Transport Executives, Tyne & Wear)

Travel, is merely just now becoming a vastly emotive subject. Today, ideas are getting to be lifted in both our support and also our capability to go faster and faster because of the growing change in carry in global contemporary society. The human race is driven by the compulsion to help expand itself in all aspects of life, travel and therefore transportation is improbable to be left behind.

When people choose to travel by public travel, they are inspired by a variety of factors that they can make a choice or decision about: time, cost, access and the consistency of travel options in accordance with their daily agenda. But personal security is another important factor that people will consider. Furthermore, crime and worries that goes with it could be the most dissuasive of all. Considering the amount of journeys made on open public transport in the united kingdom, near six billion are made by bus, coach or rail every year. However, real incidences of crime going on to the people are extremely uncommon. This result is basically because, for many individuals, their belief of criminal offenses on public move can have as great a direct effect on travel habits as an actual experience. Likewise, to get more detailed vulnerable people of culture or anyone who has been damaged by such an incident in the past, it can dissuade them from venturing via public transportation altogether.

A well-designed object encourages the user to identify with its uses and thus informally to supervise its environment. (CIRIA, 1994, p. 2)

Concern for someone's personal sense of security is not always necessarily confined to the time spent on table the teach or bus, which people often consider to be the safest part of the journey. Instead, it could be the apprehension experienced when hanging around at a bus stop or place platform, the environment that surround them or reservations about employing carry vehicles such as taxis or minicabs. The Division for Transport are currently trying to determine help items, clear signage and advanced lamps conditions around channels and bus halts in an attempt to enhance the feel of open public security, especially in unfamiliar locations.

As levels of vandalism are increasing on the day-to-day basis there becomes more and more of any need to bring in new crime protection plans that tackles the existing problem in hand. Therefore I am going to review the potency of new methods that have been create to avoid vandalism. Commonly today, most methods to identifying the challenge and handling vandalism are new educational subjects, social programs, new laws to the criminal justice system and opportunity lowering. Of the four main methods, I will mainly focus on the opportunity lowering element as I'll identify design surfaces and changes that reduce the chances and risks of vandalism. I am going to also make an effort to discover past systems which may have failed and the reasoning behind why they are unsuccessful.

I contacted the British Move Authorities (BTP), for more info regarding incidences of vandalism in the UK. The BTP hire specialist crime reduction teams that concentrate on struggling the offences of vandals. Their role is to help rail providers implement crime lowering strategies, including at the design stage. They got back again to me with two reports on graffiti and option crime and a future report plan for 2010-11.

Designing with vandalism in mind must not be permitted to produce severe items or an outdoor urban environment lacking grace and pleasure. (CIRIA, 1994, p. 2)

In the first article, the BTP consider graffiti as criminal damage which its imaginative merits are completely irrelevant. They see graffiti as air pollution as it commonly will involve a group of men and women imposing themselves on others, just like when people play music too noisy. They also believe that when people see graffiti around channels and trains, it gives the impression that the vandals are in control, because of the rebellious nature rather than the police or the railway management companies. Knowing that graffiti is shown around channels gives the proven fact that the surroundings is either overrun or out of control and because of the fear of being attacked, then people may well not thought we would travel. Also, if the desirability of the area drops, possibly due to associations with medicine problems, drinking, fighting or begging, then your fear of criminal offenses raises. The BTP see graffiti as a green issue that is certainly posed as a direct attack on the surroundings. This can lead to people which may have no other option but to visit, left with a poor experience or distrust in the service they are simply travelling with. Danger is often regarded as a thrill for the majority of vandals, so therefore passenger and personnel safety is often an issue for concern. A typical vandal will search for someplace daring and brave and usually high up to "tag" an area with graffiti, placing themselves among others in danger. Commonly they are places such as bridges, train tunnels or railway sidings. Personally i think that a way to avoid this would be to design the station systems so that areas that would be attractive to vandals and graffiti performers would be out of the boundaries and for that reason there would be no possible potential for vandalism. Within the other hand, a simple change of materials or paints could allow graffiti to be washed away with normal water or by rainfall. However, the expenses of clearing up all the graffiti around railways can be extensive and can very almost never be eradicated with immediate impact. This problem will most likely leave permanent marks on the surfaces and surroundings of railways.

In some situations, vandalism can be quite dangerous to the protection of public transportation passengers. In case a vandal were to graffiti over a vital signal or communication equipment, it could obstruct the view or decisions of teach drivers, putting every person up to speed and around it vulnerable. Another concern would be if someone threw a rock off a bridge or a siding at a moving train, then the impact of the hard subject could be lethal and easily break through goblet windows. Some situations of extreme vandalism can't be avoid and it is right down to chance, but this range of offence is very rare.

Don't leave "broken house windows" (bad designs, wrong decisions, or poor code) unrepaired. Fix each one when it is found out or the condition will occur over and over. (Wayne Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling, 1982)

There have been a broad number of strategies in the past specifically negotiated to battle the risk of vandalism. However, it comes to mind that many of the strategies have failed as they lack demanding evaluation of the situation often leaving the key specialist with an extensive choice of actions, but little direction as to their effectiveness or the reasons for success or failing.

Currently, many makes an attempt have been designed to prevent the behavior of vandalism by educating people, especially young people who are main offenders, about its nature and effects. Though education has a broad interpretation and can cover the complete of someone's cultural learning and training from delivery.

Vandalism and graffiti highly affect people's belief of criminal offense and their personal security. They provide the impression that a certain area is unmanaged and possibly uncontrollable.

"No metropolitan area will prosper unless it attracts those that can choose to reside in wherever they wish. " - Jonathon Barnett

Across the Netherlands, there is merely one major network rail company which is the NS (Nederlands Spoorwegen). It runs from Amsterdam to all or any major cities and cities over the Netherlands and is also linked at most stations with small Metro tram system. I was able to notice that it was something that were around because the 60's and had been restored every couple of years to keep it looking modern and retained. Over a long time of considerable development and maintenance, it was clear that there were few signs or symptoms of any vandalism towards the trains or major channels. This was probably because it acquired a brief history and was unique to only the Netherlands and no other country, a network that people could recognise as traditional and of great delight.

When a general public service stands for more than simply a method of getting from A to B it can substantiate a value unlike another standard service. At most stations there have been minimalistic styling, with a lot of the underground channels having only a few pillars to carry the roof above the train station with no unneeded objects or seating in the manner that might be potential vandalism goals. This is also obvious to see on outside stations, where a whole lot of overhanging canopies were made from solid steel poles and beams, very difficult putting on and out of reach of people's reach. That is a clever station design element as it would be very difficult to graffiti or affect so therefore, there is no reason to do it. The only channels with CCTV cameras are in a few major cities such as Amsterdam, Rotterdam and Utrecht where there are basketball matches and sports that can result in crowd trouble, but not necessarily vandalism. There are not many problems in the south of the Netherlands so vandalism is not actually an issue. Planning companies regularly review the problem and condition of the stations and trains and are always looking to upgrade the materials and technologies.

I will now explore some of the anti-vandal plans and product advancements that have resulted in some adequate control of vandalism far away. By studying techniques far away I feel I could get a concept of how they are simply dealing with the issues of vandalism, the scale of the challenge and if they're successfully minimizing the hazard.

The Whale Jaw - Hoofddorp, The Netherlands (created by NIO Architecten)

The Whale Jaw is a bus place unlike every other on the planet. It is perceived as a "pondering form, worn down by footsteps and sightlines" (Will Jones, 2006, p. 80), because of its vast level and unusual condition. The structure creates shelter and seats for those waiting around bus individuals, as well as space where conductors and individuals can take their daily breaks. The job was accomplished utilizing a limited budget, which meant the architect was required to use creative thinking and consider materials as well as the look and labour. Rather than concrete, the building was constructed from polystyrene foam and polyester. Because of this, The Whale Jaw is the greatest structure on the planet made from artificial materials. The design and building process was experimental from commence to finish. The proper execution was cut in a manufacturing plant from huge blocks of extended polyurethane foam. The complete structure is anchored using Contraclad, which is then used to connect material plates bolted to the concrete pad which it sits on. Because of the experimental dynamics of the project, NIO Architecten got to check the materials used against typical lots, deliberate tampering and vandalism. Lab tests were carried out to ensure that the polyester covering cannot be affected by knives, smokes or the solvents in spray paints. The composition is considered vandal proof, however, not entirely graffiti resistant. The uniqueness of the framework endears locals to protect it against overt acts of vandalism. Additionally, good graffiti art may potentially work in tranquility with this creation, boosting the framework even more. It passed all destructive lab tests, but it remains to be observed whether the framework will stand up to the test of time.

The Whale Jaw is an impressive structure that pulls a whole lot of attention, due to its scale and obscene form. It really is well reputed by local people and tourists, rendering it alone almost completely vandal evidence. It has a great mixture of the right materials and beauty allowing it to stand almost untouched by everyone in its environment.

Public move in Shanghai, China is incredibly cheap and generally, very useful. It can cost less than 4 rmb (40 pence) to travel by Metro, which makes it an extremely popular way to travel. However due to the large people of the town, the experience of traveling by Metro is quite unnatural and always very active. Whilst in Shanghai, I found many underpasses and underground stations were brightly lit up, allowing a great deal of eyesight for the occupied individuals of the metro train system. The long light beams were anti-vandal Luminaire lights which were hidden out of direct view but provided enough capacity to light any underground area. By researching more into these specific lights I found that these were housed with extruded aluminium permitting them to withstand a lot of impact because of the shock level of resistance but also very hard to graffiti because of the offset composition of the casing. The casing also shields the bulb and every one of the fixings inside it so the light cannot be removed or tampered with. Most wall surfaces of underground passages were already filled up with artwork or posters therefore the more costly and attractive lights were always vandal-proof.

Another way to visit around the busy avenues of Shanghai is by bus. Bus halts are not as common as Metro stations, but help you to where you should be when a Metro service is not around. Busses can often be considered as soiled and overcrowded, but have comfortable seats and air-con and solitary fares are cheaper than Metro and begin from as little as 1 rmb (10 pence). You can find no bus shelters, only prevents along the road which are regular and well-signposted, but only in Chinese. These road ceases are produced from solid wood banners hung to material poles and are rarely vandalised due to their low value and unattractiveness.

Forget the slow, old-fashioned Japanese bullet trains; Shanghai's Maglev promises to be the fastest, smoothest coach on the globe. Without a single pause for hesitation, it's the most superior, comfortable way to get to Pudong air-port. With a price label of just 50rmb (5 pounds) for an individual quest, few can resist the chance to relax in comfort and have the velocity clock up to 420kmh (270mph). Its hi-tech new age design and fashionable, advanced interior make it one of the very most luxurious ways to travel. So far as a vandalism element is concerned, there are simply no reasons to harm or deface this pleased machine. With a feeling of cultural pride and blistering rate, this modern marvel is a general public transport vehicle that many will immediately respect and care for.

Twenty years back the channels and automobiles of the New York subway system were protected with graffiti. People recall not having the ability to see from the home windows, so complete was the coverage. Today both are clear from colored graffiti.

The anti-graffiti initiative on the brand new York subway goes back to 1984. Subway personnel were allocated to the terminals and yards to begin cleaning the rolling stock. Those vehicles that possessed a stainless steel exterior, which needed to be completely cleaned giving the ones that were painted needed to be painted over. Stations were cleaned individually and inspected every day to ensure that they stayed clean. Any new 'strike' was immediately cleaned off, or if this is not possible, colored over.

Recognizing that the duty was enormous, which to accomplish some early on success it would be important to make a noticeable impact, the subway network companies embarked on a range by line method of cleaning the system. The first graffiti-free rail range was the F Collection in February 1985. The whole network was finally graffiti free in-may 1989.

The theory that underpins the approach in New York is usually that the graffiti vandal (a term used in desire to 'musician') is motivated and rewarded by experiencing their works viewed. This allows the artist to have an environment where she or he feels that it is suitable to graffiti as long as its in a sensible, ethnical fashion that will not offend or cause major controversy. Over five million passengers go through the stations every day, where many others take notice of the cars that travel above floor. To be able to remove the compensation and therefore the determination, it is vital to completely clean off or cover over any graffiti before it can provide an audience. Even if complete removal is extremely hard immediately, putting a brand through it is an efficient short-term solution.

During these start cars needed to be taken out of service to eliminate extensive graffiti. This induced delays and disruption to services, which in the end resulted in increased passenger aggression against personnel. However, this is rarely an issue now that the graffiti problem is in order.

Staff are employed to work at each one of the terminals to examine and clean each car following its journey down the road. Immediate removal has been found to be easier than allowing time for the color to 'migrate' into the surface. Cleaners keep a graffiti notebook so that visits can be reported to the police. There is a mobile wash device that is out to stations during the night to remove graffiti. However with new materials or perhaps a new design strategy it could be possible to eradicate the problem completely. If there are no possible opportunities to vandalize to begin with, then the problem will quickly resolve itself. Potential design alternatives is to redevelop the subway trains and channels with either pretty much surface space that can be seen as hotspots to vandals and graffiti painters. Using simple washable paints to jacket the external surface of trains could offer an unlikely target for a vandal, departing the offender with no graffiti result and a lot of wasted time.

Police officials were deployed to patrol and keep an eye on the terminals and yards, as a deterrent also to get vandals, with an addition to the CCTV system that already displays the underground channels. There's also dedicated teams who are proactive and focus on known offenders. Large or significant bits of graffiti are photographed to provide data if the vandal is trapped and prosecuted. An archive is constructed of the time taken up to clean the graffiti and the expense of materials, and this information is submitted to the court.

The NY subway initiative was originally maintained through regular monthly monitoring meetings, but they are now held over a quarterly basis. The multimedia sometimes appears as having been important in promoting the successes of the initiative and attracting again passengers. Reporters were invited to see channels that were washed up, and arrests of vandals are reported in the press.

"Urbanism works when it creates a trip as desirable as the vacation spot. " - Paul Goldberger

The reason why Personally i think that the systems integrated in these major locations are working with issues of vandalism is because you can find more demand for a remedy as the size of the condition is grand due to the population of people there. . It is almost impossible to avoid vandalism from happening altogether, but at least precautionary measures allow the condition to stem into just a few opportunities to do it. With successful design practices and the right financing to power each project, maybe it's possible to create new methods of clamping down on the amount of vandalism.

There already are many steps of anti vandalism equipment on off to public transport companies. The only real concern why not many are getting used at this time is down to the high cost levels, the great workload to create and implement all the systems as well as the value and proportion of the condition with vandalism.

Anti-vandal paint includes anti-climb and anti-graffiti paints. These paints employ a range of anti-vandal methods which means that the car paint may never dry; being slippery and staining to clothes or it may render the top impenetrable to graffiti, meaning that it can merely be wiped clean.


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