Posted at 12.29.2018
Psychology is the study of how humans and animals behave. There will vary approaches to psychology that gives a varied insight to human behavior based on different features rendering it insufficient for one to explain all aspect of human behaviour. The Behaviourist thinks a change in behavior is because of individual's react to event in their environment. In contrast psychoanalysts such as Sigmund Freud think that all human behavior is based on internal issue of the unconscious brain. Whilst Cognitive psychologist believe that what goes on in the mind makes people respond the way they are doing and finally, humanist such as Abraham Maslow believe that individual have free will to behave the way they want. Detailed explanation of these four techniques with evaluation of the strength and weakness, similarities and distinctions is an make an effort to determine why one methodology is unfit to make clear all human behavior.
The behaviour approach assumes that behaviour is determined by past incidents from the surroundings. Thus, all behaviour is learnt from experience from the environment and hereditary performs no part. The strategy also assumes that examined behaviour must be observable, measurable and recordable. Finally, all complicated behaviour is reducible to stimulus-response device and reinforcement. For the behaviourist, Behaviour can be described by the procedure of classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical fitness is where people associate two stimuli when they are offered close together, such that the response primarily elicited by one stimulus is transferred to another. Hence, Watson and Rayner (1920) conditioned Little Albert to connect the sight of the white rat by paring the rat with dread a loud noise that Albert already concerns. Operant conditioning is where individuals study from the things they certainly. If behavior is rewarded then it is likely to be looked after whiles those that are punished will be decrease. For example a kid praised for a polite behaviour will continue to show such politeness without been unaware. Operant condition can be used to unlearned irregular behaviour for example Little Albert fear of rat can be removed by pairing the perception of rat with lovely to adopt his head of the rat. A lot of behaviourist work consists of the use of experimental method where learning in animals/humans is studied under lab condition which allows conditions to be controlled to influence learning and of which some conditions are purposely manipulated so as to measure their effect on a particular set of focus on behaviours. An important addition to the behavior way is the sociable learning theory where theorist such as Bandura, suggest that learning can be carried out through observation requiring cognitive factors.
A major durability of the behaviourist strategy is its clinical method of research where behaviour can be observed, measured independently and transformed which will make it very reliable. However, some researched behavior may be under artificial conditions anticipated to manipulations and modifications and may well not reflect the real world situation to be able to explain all real human behavior. Also, experimenting on non-human kinds has been generalised to humans in studying behaviour and this has not increase moral issues as it could have been if humans are widely-used. Nonetheless, human behavior is more technical to be limited to the analysis of animals because humans are conscious beings with free will to believe and choose their behavior than involuntarily giving an answer to a stimulus, reinforcement or punishment. Again, discussion and experience with the surroundings seen as the only determinant of behaviour means that new behaviours can be learned by people with mental problems. Nevertheless, the way completely ignores mental operations on learning where many reports for example interpersonal learning theorist like Bandura show that people observe and learn from the behavior of others. Hence aggressive behavior imitated by children through observation shows that mental process plays a part in explaining human behaviour which classical and operant conditioning cannot effectively clarify all human behaviour.
The psychodynamic approach was developed by Sigmund Freud who assumes that behavior is determined by unconscious events which we are normally unaware. The unconscious head to Freud holds information that is hard to bring to live which is also the submerged brain that influences individuals behavior. The unconscious brain consists of three components: the Id, ego, and the superego. The natural drive of the individual such as love-making, aggression and eating is from the Id and requires an instantaneous satisfaction which are avoided by the superego using stress and anxiety and guilt. The ego tries to resolves conflicts between your Id and the superego using various defence mechanisms such as repression. According to Freud, a kid experience at the psychosexual development affect his/ her adult personality. Development occurs through five main levels: oral, anal, phallic latent and genital. The child's personality builds up during the first three periods and a difficulty at each stage will have a great influence on his /her adult personality. Fixation at the oral stage for example will result in a grown-up sucking the tongue when depressed. Psychodynamic psychologist analysis human behavior by finding answers from what people say and think, gathering qualitative data about them through individual case-study method and interpreting the conclusions.
Strength of the psychodynamic procedure is that years as a child experience is the main basis of all adult's personality and mental health performing has been accepted in psychology and professional areas such as sociable work and psychiatry. However, this claim cannot be detected scientifically and the idea that much of the mental life operates in the unconscious brain cannot be demonstrated neither can the repressed memory. The approach also is convinced of emotional factors causing abnormal behaviour is broadly accepted and Freud's work on defence mechanism is seen as useful. Conversely, the strategy completely ignores how behaviour, cognition and hereditary factors can impact abnormal behaviour thus making it less inclined to explain all human being behaviour. Furthermore, many types of mental disorders have been treated by Freud's psychoanalytic therapy. Nevertheless, there is a probability of bias as different therapist can provide different interpretations to data obtained from patients. Finally, too much attention is put on the erotic instinct in youth though the truth is this is viewed as one in many.
The most influential ideas in humanistic procedure are those of Carl Rogers (1951, 1961) and Abraham Maslow (1962, 1970). The methodology assumes that individuals have free will to decide what they need in life and individuals are unique with instinctive drive for continues growth and fulfilment. Both theorists think that humans are rational beings with mindful head to choose how to react and are not controlled by environmental makes and the unconscious mind. Humanistic psychologists rejects the scientific method of learning behaviour and normally uses qualitative research methods like, unstructured interview and observation that they believe provides a good knowledge of the way a person behaves and think. Humanism also, views humans as completely different from animals as humans are conscious beings with thoughts, capability to reason and have a discussion. Both Rogers and Maslow believe that each individual has varied ways of achieving personal development, fulfilment and satisfaction in life which in a whole is known as self-actualisation. Corresponding to Maslow an success of do it yourself- actualisation means that of individual's needs arranged in hierarchy with basic needs like food at the bottom and higher need like self-actualisation at the top are met and a position of content is achieved. Carl Rogers also think that potential for growth and accomplishment of self-actualisation is accomplish if a person has positive view about himself which is achieved through unconditional love and approval shown by people near to them such as parents and professors. A client centred therapy, developed by Rogers's therefore offers a warm compassionate healing that frees clients to restart the self applied- actualisation process.
Strength of the humanistic procedure is its view of specific as unique with free will and the concentration of review of behavior towards the average person rather than the unconscious mind, genes and observable behaviour. However, the way assumption of free will and consciousness of the average person cannot be researched scientifically and this has resulted in insufficient empirical evidence to support the main ideas of the methodology thus making it inadequate to describe all human behaviour. Secondly, the procedure provides a good explanation of how to promote personal development and home- actualisation which enables the individual to achieve a state of content. Nevertheless, the concept of personal growth and fulfilments as the essential human motive cannot be looked into properly. Finally the Client-centred remedy by Rogers has assisted human potential for self-cure and this has been proved to be effective by Davison and Neale (1986, p. 489), it has also contributed to student learning by aiding them reach their full potential and abilities through unconditional approval shown by tutors.
Cognitive strategy developed in the 1950's is nervous about how are you affected in the mind that influences behavior. The way assumes that learning the mental process objectively and scientifically by experimenting in a laboratory environment offers a good understanding of people's behavior. The psychologist views the mind as just like computers having suggestions, output, safe-keeping and active control system. The behaviour of folks is thus dependants about how information received is processed by the mind and revise record placed in the ram. A negative thought by the brain can therefore cause excessive behaviour such as depression for example a person experiencing a depressed feeling following declining a university entrance test may have mental poison not only about the specific inability but could generalised the failing to all aspect of life. The cognitive approach believes that the negative thought of the average person can be changed through remedy. Cognitive approach has been put on the attribution theory analyzed by Kelly (1967, 1973) who shows that the behaviour of an individual can be related to lots of factors that will often predict the results of the behavior.
A major durability of the cognitive strategy is it's dominance in empirical method in producing and testing theories objectively providing self-confidence results to conducted experiments. On the other hand, the approach in some instances conduct test that typically do not relate with how people think and behave in reality. Second, the approach is focused on current information processed by the mind to understanding human being behaviour rather than using earlier history which might often be irrelevant or even misleading to the situation at hand. However, the approach concentrates heavily on learning mental process than behaviour and most experiment is conducted on recollection with little attention to even how emotions make a difference the cognitive functions which can also affects behaviour. Also, the way gives much focus on important real human characteristics investigating into the mental; processes, functioning and feature of the average person. Nevertheless, deducing individual to computer analogy that works in a total different way is doubtful because information stored in the computer storage can be moved onto another computer easily but individual memory cannot at all be used in someone else. Finally, the strategy has provided practical application in the treating such as panic through for example rational motive therapy by Ellis (1989). Nonetheless, the way has received criticisms to be too narrow in their theoretical and empirical treatment of folks (Pennington and Mcloughlin, 2009).
The behavioural, psychodynamic, humanistic and cognitive way tends to contrast and consent to each other somewhat for example, considering individuals character by the techniques, the behavioural way consider humans as a lot like animals and machines conditioned to respond to environmentally friendly stimulus, reinforcement or punishment, focus on the present behaviour and it is clinical. The cognitive way agrees to the medical and learning facet of behaviour methodology and the behaviourist public learning ideas. The humanistic methodology on the other hand rejects the idea of human behaviour been dependant on stimulus- response sequence as they may have free will to decide their behaviour. The psychodynamic methodology views humans as bothersome, handled by natural thoughts and behaviour influence by the unconscious and years as a child repression. The cognitive somewhat is similar to the psychodynamic way because your brain is cognitive however in contrast, where Freud views the unconscious as a intricate part the mind the cognitive recognizes it as a simple. Contrast to the psychodynamic view of individuals mother nature, the humanistic way offers a positive view where humans have emerged to motive for personal expansion and capacity to decide his actions. Finally, the cognitive approach view individuals as mindful beings with ram to decide similar way to psychodynamic conscious level and behaviourist public learning theories.
In conclusion, all methods provide different views of human being behaviour. Scientific solutions like behaviourism and cognitive do not consider the effect of personal experience behavior. Although humanistic methodology consider individual experience it is unscientific and therefore lacks evidence to support its principles. The psychodynamic on the other side focuses mainly on the unconscious and childhood occasions and tends to ignore the value of free will and environmental affect on behavior. Overall, the strategies present different reason to knowledge of human behavior and each has been successful in the treating patients. The behaviourist aversion therapy has been successful in treating undesirable behaviour. The psychotherapist has help patient in dealings with thoughts and recollections of the unconscious. The Client-centred remedy by Rogers has assist individual ability for self-cure and finally, cognitive therapy has prevailed in treating people with stress and anxiety, depression and eating disorders (Becks 1991). Considering the above discussion, psychology does need different methods to understanding and studying of human behaviour.