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Observation of behaviour from child

Content
  1.  
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  1. 2) OBSERVATION OF Behavior FROM CHILD
  2. Antecedents
  3. After mum drops of Greg at the setting up he is doubtful how to proceed as abruptly mum is not there to make the decisions for him, he's suddenly in an exceedingly 3rd party situation where he must make decisions for himself, up to this point mum has made all the decisions.
  4. Behaviour
  5.  
  6. Greg shows the behavior of non-communication along with his peers as well as non-participation at activities. Greg hasn't really developed good gain access to strategies - he's quite definitely a spectator. If a grown-up sits at an activity with him he will quite happily take a seat and chat and take part in the activity, but if the adult gets up to leave the experience he will get right up and also leave the experience and just operate and become hesitant as to what to do next - its almost like he is hoping the adult to make the decision in regards to what he is heading to do next. (See Appendix B of observation on child).
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  8. (2)"Piaget (1932/1968) investigated children's conceptions of rules by interviewing them about their game titles. He discovered that small children said that game guidelines were invented by parents (or God) which it would be wrong to try to change them. This finding led Piaget to characterize young children as having "heteronomous" conceptions of guidelines" Nobes, G, Pawson, C, (Jan 2003)
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  10. He will not sign up for another activity, somewhat hopping from one foot to another, gazing toward the adults in the room. He has been known to cry if he's unsure how to proceed next. Occasionally he'll just stand and appearance at how many other children are participating in. Greg attends five day sessions, Monday to Friday.
  11. He displays this behavior at nearly every single period that he attends. Through the strategies shown over an interval of 4 weeks it is hoped to raise Greg's cultural skills and self-confidence to permit him to make choices and to connect to his peers appropriately.
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  13. Consequence
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  16. 3) How could this behaviour been learnt
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  20. 4) THE STRATEGIES AND THEIR OUTCOMES
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  23. 4) RELATING THIS BEHAVIOUR TO BEHAVIOUR THEORISTS VIEWS
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  31. 5) RECOMMENDATIONS
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  47. REFERENCES
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  50. Books
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  57. Journals
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  59. 2Nobes, G, Pawson, C, (Jan 2003) 'Children's Understanding of Social Guidelines and Social Status' Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, Vol 49, No 1, pp77-79
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  62. Websites
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i) Background information on the child. The little son involved (known as Greg Booker from here on - to protect his real individuality) is 3 and three and one fourth years old. He has went to nursery because the era of 3 and a half. Greg came for two pre goes to to the nursery and both times it was discovered that he did not want to leave mum's lap and was unwilling to access the actions available, nor was he prompted too by mum. In a group or class situation he is quiet and timid and will not like to speak to his peers and you may see he seems uncomfortable around them. He has made little attempt to make friends within the group, selecting only 1 other child that he loves to stand with. Greg has made strong attachments to all or any the parents within the environment and will gladly talk openly to them.

but when he seems comfortable with a mature he is assured to speak to them clearly and concisely.

ii) Background information of the family

 

Greg lives with mum and father and has one elderly sister they live in just a nuclear family environment. All grandparents and aunts and uncles live in Scotland. Greg's older sister attends the institution mounted on the nursery, she never attended nursery but upon getting into the reception class took a long time to stay (six months to be specific - information extracted from reception class instructors). Mum realised that by not permitting his sister be present at the nursery setting was a blunder and freely accepted that she did not want the same for her son.

 

iii) Observed behaviour of mother or father and child on entering the setting

When mum drops Greg of at nursery, she will come into the setting opt for him up and kiss and cuddle the kid excessively before leaving, however he is not distressed when mum leaves although Greg was distressed on his first day at nursery and then did not cry from day two at the setting up. Mummy has always advised Greg that he is her baby and she will often say in his presence, "you are my baby, I don't want him to increase up and I'll be lonesome when he goes up to reception class". Other parents have commented that whenever Greg is asked to birthday celebrations, mum will remain and Greg will stay sitting on mummy's leg throughout the birthday party, whilst other children are self-confident to stay by themselves.

 

Mum recently approached me to say that she was organising a celebration for Greg's fourth birthday, however when mum asked him for the names of the children he wanted to request, he said he only wished to request two of the children from the setting.

 

2) OBSERVATION OF Behavior FROM CHILD

Antecedents

After mum drops of Greg at the setting up he is doubtful how to proceed as abruptly mum is not there to make the decisions for him, he's suddenly in an exceedingly 3rd party situation where he must make decisions for himself, up to this point mum has made all the decisions.

Behaviour

 

Greg shows the behavior of non-communication along with his peers as well as non-participation at activities. Greg hasn't really developed good gain access to strategies - he's quite definitely a spectator. If a grown-up sits at an activity with him he will quite happily take a seat and chat and take part in the activity, but if the adult gets up to leave the experience he will get right up and also leave the experience and just operate and become hesitant as to what to do next - its almost like he is hoping the adult to make the decision in regards to what he is heading to do next. (See Appendix B of observation on child).

 

(2)"Piaget (1932/1968) investigated children's conceptions of rules by interviewing them about their game titles. He discovered that small children said that game guidelines were invented by parents (or God) which it would be wrong to try to change them. This finding led Piaget to characterize young children as having "heteronomous" conceptions of guidelines" Nobes, G, Pawson, C, (Jan 2003)

 

He will not sign up for another activity, somewhat hopping from one foot to another, gazing toward the adults in the room. He has been known to cry if he's unsure how to proceed next. Occasionally he'll just stand and appearance at how many other children are participating in. Greg attends five day sessions, Monday to Friday.

He displays this behavior at nearly every single period that he attends. Through the strategies shown over an interval of 4 weeks it is hoped to raise Greg's cultural skills and self-confidence to permit him to make choices and to connect to his peers appropriately.

 

Consequence

 

Because Greg was chatty and more comfortable with all members of personnel, we didn't really think that Greg got a problem and we interested the actual fact that he was happy to verbalise around and remain with the practitioners, it had not been until we'd stopped and viewed who he actually played with and what he performs with that we became aware that things weren't as they should be.

 

3) How could this behaviour been learnt

Genetics

Personality

Learned behaviour

Family associations

Lack of social interaction

Harsh criticism

Fear of failure

 

 

 

4) THE STRATEGIES AND THEIR OUTCOMES

 

Strategy one - The first strategy was to only to reward Greg with verbal praise and a sticker on the sticker chart whenever he attempted to connect to activities or if he attempted to talk to his peers whilst at a task, this proved helpful well as we could see he viewed happy and smiled when getting the praise, we made sure he knew exactly why he was obtaining a sticker. We offered him with a sticker graph and explained that after obtaining ten stickers he could go in the dip pack, to receive a gift, he enjoyed keeping track of down the stickers to drop package day.

 

Strategy two - Our second strategy in week one was to ask Greg which children he liked at nursery, we were surprised that he told us that he liked all the kids who will be the socially skilled and self-assured. So when these children commenced to act out jobs within the imaginative play area we urged Greg to join in. Before including Greg I praised the kids already playing

within the imaginative play area somewhat than praising him at this time. This participation was quite successful but initially I had formed to take part in some side by side strategy use Greg I asked Greg merely to watch me become a member of these children initially, Then i asked Greg if he wished to join in with me at night and the children, he does so eagerly, after some time I stepped again, I told Greg which it had not been important to ask if he could join in as I did not need him to be declined by others, the more confident children to add Greg in their play, that they did and you could see from Greg's face how much he liked this. But after about quarter-hour Greg halted being engaged and he stood once more by himself and the other children persisted to try out on without him. So both myself and Greg persisted this routine everyday and with just a little gentle encouragement by the end of the week, Greg acquired up to 35 minutes of imaginative play with others, without myself being present. He was interacting well with others plus they were interesting him.

4) RELATING THIS BEHAVIOUR TO BEHAVIOUR THEORISTS VIEWS

Strategy One. Thorndike an important psychologist in America completed many experiments in which he'd place cats in cages (he called them puzzle boxes) he'd then encourage the pet cats to escape utilizing a piece of fish to tempt them, the kitty did break free only after pressing a lever down they have this by coming across the right series of movements, by chance. When put back into the cage, the kitten escaped more speedily. Thorndike argued that the pet cat has learned by trial and error a view shared by Skinner another twentieth influential psychologist he argued 3"that behaviour is learnt through a process of trial and error, if a specific behaviour is systematically compensated then we will repeat it, if it's punished, then we will avoid it". Legge, K, Harari, P, (2000)

 

In educational settings that are two main types of reinforcements used, intrinsic and extrinsic.

 

4"Extrinsic encouragement is presented to an individual by other folks - either deliberately (for example by supplying a child a financial incentive to execute a task" Intrinsic encouragement on the other side originates from within the average person and may consist of, for example, the sensation of satisfaction a student may have when s/he hands in work on time and in that way feels in charge of his/her own studies". Legge, K, Harari, P, (2000).

 

There are two types of supplementary reinforcement - cultural or material. Friendly may be simply a simple well done from the educator or a gold star. This is the truth for Greg in strategy one. Materials encouragement is when the thing given may become more of the concrete subject e. g. sweets or money.

 

Strategy Two - Albert Bandura a cognitive psychologist stated,

 

5"learning occurs mainly through observation and imitation. By observing others, not only do we learn how to do things, but also we can predict the likely implications of our actions Bandura details the ways in which we are determined to see and imitate other's behaviour in terms of reinforcement. For instance, it could be that people are directly reinforced for imitating others - that is, we obtain some type of reward when we copy another person. Young children for example, are trained from an early on age that people, and their own parents, or elder siblings in particular, are ideal role models" Legge, K, Harari, P, (2000).

 

Facilitation - 6"one way of encouraging children to carry out an activity that they may be uncertain about is to let them see another person doing it first" Legge, K, Harari, P, (2000).

 

5) RECOMMENDATIONS

 

Before this task was carried out our setting experienced never had a key worker system set up simply because we were concerned that when participants of staff were off sick and tired, the children in their key worker group would put up with but we realise this is a blunder as frequently children who become a member of the nursery need help with settling in even after the initial crying level, when they seem to be to go silent. Adam and Joyce Robertson figured:

 

7"at this time of separation there are tears of angry protest followed by apathy when mom does not respond. The worst end result can be denial, which is the decision by the kid not to love or trust again because it leads to heartbreak. Obviously this has a dire influence on the child's subsequent relationships". James and Joyce Robertson witnessed these three periods repeatedly when exploring the effect of parting on children in private hospitals or nurseries. Select Committee on Work and Pensions 10th February 2003, (accessed on 4th April 2007) http://www. publications. parliament. uk/pa/cm200203/cmselect/cmworpen/564/564we35. htm

 

I professionally, am not so keen to utilize intrinsic rewards as after some time these intrinsic rewards lose their interpretation, they must be given sparingly if to have the desired effect so that as the person steps through life, they will meet situations where there will be no physical incentive.

 

 

 

8"Cultural versus materials: it may seen that materials rewards, such as money or gadgets, would be more valued by children than social rewards such as endorsement and would therefore become more effective in modifying behaviour. However, social reinforcement is commonly used in classrooms, and there is a lot of evidence to point that it's, in fact, far better than offering material rewards". Legge, K, Harari, P, (2000)

 

The targets establish within the IEP will be examined regularly this means progress he makes will also be carefully checked. Finally, we wished to set achievable targets for Greg within the IEP to permit him to be empowered. He might not be motivated to be 3rd party at home but hopefully that people can eliminate a few of the behaviours he has exhibited from the setting.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

 

 

Books

 

 

1(Makins, (1997), The Invisible Children-Nipping Inability in the Bud, London, David Fulton Publishers.

 

3, 4, 5, 6, 8 Legge, K, Harari, P, (2000), Mindset and Education, London, Heinemann.

 

 

 

Journals

 

2Nobes, G, Pawson, C, (Jan 2003) 'Children's Understanding of Social Guidelines and Social Status' Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, Vol 49, No 1, pp77-79

 

 

Websites

 

7Select Committee on Work and Pensions (online 10th Feb 2003), http://www. publications. parliament. uk/pa/cm200203/cmselect/cmworpen/564/564we35. htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

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