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Objectives of Air Traffic Services. (ATS)

First of all I would like to mention about Air Traffic Services.

  1. Air Traffic Control Service ATC.
  1. Aerodrome Control Service
  2. Approach Control Service
  3. Area Control Service
  1. Flight Information Service
  2. Alerting Service
  3. Flight Advisory Service

These are the main ATS services. Then I would like to describe about main goals of ATS.

a) Prevent collisions between aircraft;

b) Prevent collisions between plane on the maneuvering area and obstructions on that area;

c) Expedite and maintain an orderly move of air traffic;

d) Provide advice and information useful for the safe and effective conduct of flights;

e) Notify appropriate organizations regarding plane looking for search and rescue aid, and assist such organizations as required. (ICAO 2013)

  1. Prevent collisions between aircrafts.

There are two restrictions in the world which is using in the Aviation.

  • Western Bound
  • Eastern Bound

Aircrafts that are flying in the Eastern destined, pilots should have to use Peculiar trip altitude levels. If they are flying to European bound, Pilots should have to follow Evens flight altitudes. This rule ensures the safe of aircrafts. Not just that, In the event the pilots need to descend or climb their plane. First of all pilots should have to ask it, from ATC. After ATC unite check the radar and airfare altitude, aircraft's swiftness, if there are no any aircraft for the reason that rout and they'll give the permeation. If there tend to be more aircrafts in that particular area they may be asking speeds and estimate time for particular point, then after ATC unite decide the time for pilots to climb or descend. EX. after 15 min. UL302 can climb up to xxx fleet level.

If there are more aircrafts in same path or altitude, ATC check the speeds and change their Journey altitudes.

If there's a busy way, ATC unite change aircrafts rates of speed and direction. After they help to make sure aircrafts destination path.

Pilots should have to obey ATC instructions while these are flying. Not only that they have to make conversion between Pilots and ATC unite. Because ATC unite always alert about aircrafts accelerate altitude and their routes. Therefore their instructions will be help to prevent coalition between aircrafts while they can be flying.

  1. Prevent collisions between aircraft on the maneuvering area and obstructions on that area.

Maneuvering is pilots flying into Aspen's Pitkin County Airport (ASE) should become aware of FAA Notice NOTC4835, which addresses two basic safety issues at the field. The notice endeavors to mitigate ongoing safety incidents at the Colorado air port involving aeroplanes, vehicles and pedestrians on runways and non-movement area. Outside the winter sports season, the motion/non-movement area boundary series was repositioned closer to Taxiway. (AIN 2013)

When the aeroplanes parked at Apron, pilots must have to ask from Air Traffic Control Unite "flight amount and can we push back and start the engines. " If there are no any plane has pushed back and start their motors at the apron, ATC unite provided the authorization to push back and begin the engines. If there are any airplane bushed again and stare ATC will wait the permission. Because ATC prevent the collision between aeroplanes inside the Apron,

Before the remove pilots should have to find the permission from ATC unite. They give the move of purchases, ATC check the taxing ways and runway and clear the taxing ways and runway. Later than they provide the taxing number for pilots to type in the runway. Behind ATC supply the permission to take off and they maintain aircraft's altitude. ATC unite has to promise safe of aircraft, that's the reason for clear the taxing ways and runway. It halts collision between aircrafts and vehicles.

Pilots must have to follow the orders of instruction prior to the landing. ATC will clear the runway for getting. They absorb aircrafts and vehicles in the runway. ATC provides wind guidelines, and glide route. If there any takeoff or getting on the runway, ATC late their permission and deal with both aircrafts routes.

Under the indegent presence situations they postponed aircrafts takeoff and getting. After they deal with and help to reach their spots.

ATC check every nock and comer inside the airport and prevent collision between aircrafts and obstructions on that area.

c. Expedite and keep maintaining an orderly movement of air traffic.

When the busy routes, ATC manage aircraft's Velocity, Altitudes directions. These changes help prevent from collision between aircrafts and control the traffic among aircrafts.

Before the remove, ATC check and manage plane departure times. ATC will manage all aircrafts to takeoff promptly.

When if it is a busy durations or busy airports, step-by-step, ATC will clear the runway, taxing ways and apron. They'll manage air port aerospace's traffic. Since it will be a reason for air collision.

d. Provide advice and information useful for the safe and reliable conduct of flights.

Aircraft's Altimeter reveals aircraft's current altitude with using air pressure. Place to place Air pressure and Density can change. Because of this reason pilots have to enter mean see level pressure to the altimeter. Before the landing pilots have to come through right glide route, therefore pilots have to know right altitude of airplane. ATC unit provide floor pressure suggest sea level pressure and density of these areas prior to the landing. Aircrafts use some countries aero areas, Flight Information Regents FIR of these counties provide pressure density and temperature to keep up aircraft's altitude.

Under poor visibility situations ATC provide advisory services for aircrafts to prevent collision between aircrafts and Obstructs in the air port area.

Below the bond failure situations between Aircrafts and ATC unite, ATC provide advises using signs. Those signals are of help for the safe landing. Effectively they check the failures of plane and offer some guidelines within shorter time.

ATC unite always alert about their Trip Information Regent area FIR and offer information for aircrafts. Those advise and Information will control traffic of aero space. It will make sure the safe about aircrafts.

Physical appearance of the control tower.

Fig. 01

Control Tower

Building and Terminals

Apron

Ramp Area

Hanger

Taxing way

Runway

This structure shows the essential idea of an airport terminal. Air Traffic Controlling Tower is situated in witch is the place where can get the totally and cleared view point. It's the highest building for the reason that area. ATC participants can have the fully 360 degree view of any airport.

Control tower height and location affects airport security and engineering costs, the FAA experienced no means to assess quantitatively the improvement in air traffic controller presence that can be gained by changing the tower level and location on the airport surface, and there is no required least criterion for tower level.

FAA individual factors specialists and Air-port Facilities Terminal Integration Laboratory employees created and conducted tower establishing simulations of different existing towers to establish a performance baseline of a controller's capacity to discover and identify aeroplanes on the air port surface at distance points. Research results were used to determine requirements for future tower engineering projects, guaranteeing safe minimums and constraining costs of the nation's airport investments. Prior to the simulation, individuals factors researchers sophisticated and validated an experimental procedure and methodology to evaluate the individual performance characteristics impacting on tower establishing decisions. This work supports the FAA Airfare Plan Goals for Increased Safety regarding the FAA Basic safety Management System (Text) initiative to revise the FAA Order for tower. (FAA 2010)

ATC product always alerting in the international airport and always verifying movement and non movements regions of an airport. Its prevent collisions between airplane on the maneuvering area and obstructions on that area ATC can offer right advisory service due to clear view. Then it's expedited and maintains an orderly stream of air traffic. Easily ATC can provide advice and information ideal for the safe and effective conduct of flights because of 360 clear certifications.

Communication failure methods.

According to my knowledge an aeroplanes operated as a controlled flight shall maintain continuous air-ground tone of voice communication watch on the correct communication route of, and build two-way assertion as necessary with, the appropriate air traffic control unit, except as may be approved by the appropriate ATS authority in value of aero planes.

If it is a communication failure precludes aircraft shall comply with the communication failure methods, and with such of the following procedures as are appropriate. The plane shall try to establish communications with the correct air traffic control unit using all other available means. Furthermore, the plane, when forming part of the aerodrome traffic at a manipulated aerodrome, shall keep a observe for such instructions as may be given by visual alerts.

If in aesthetic meteorological conditions, airplane has to:

a. Continue steadily to fly in visible meteorological conditions b. Land at the nearest suitable aerodrome c. Survey its arrival by the most expeditious means to the correct air traffic control unit. (ICAO 2013)

If in instrument meteorological conditions or when the pilot of your IFR air travel considers it inadvisable to complete the airfare in peacefulness with the aeroplanes shall:

In airspace where radar is not found in the provision of air traffic control, maintain the last assigned rate and level, or lowest trip altitude if higher, for a period of 20 minutes next the aircraft's break down to survey its position more than a compulsory reporting point and thereafter modify level and velocity in accordance with the filed trip plan.

Where radar is employed in the provision of air traffic control in airspace, maintain the last assigned acceleration and level, or least airline flight altitude if higher, for a period of 7 minutes following.

1) Enough time the last given level or minimal air travel altitude is reached

2) The time the transponder is defined to Code 7600

3) The aircraft's inability to report its position over the compulsory reporting point

Whichever is later, and thereafter adapt level and velocity in accordance with the filed airfare plan

When an aircraft station does not establish contact with the aeronautical post on the specified regularity, it shall try to establish contact on another consistency appropriate to the way. If this make an effort fails, the aircraft place shall attempt to establish communication with other airplane or other aeronautical channels on frequencies appropriate to the course. In addition, an aero plane operating within a network shall supervise the correct Very High Regularity for phone calls from nearby aircraft. If necessary, include the addressee for which the message is intended. Methods for Air Navigation Services Suggestion - in network procedure, a message which is sent blind should be sent twice on both major and extra frequencies. Before changing occurrence, the aircraft place should announce about changes. (K. Haroon 2005)

Visual signs and their used in Airport.

In a case of your radio failure, pilots must have to land their plane immediately. Therefore air traffic control could use a signal lamp to lead the plane. The signal lamp fixture has a focused bright beam which is with the capacity of emitting three different colors red, white and renewable. These colors may be flashed or stable. Its have different meanings to plane in flight or on the ground. Aircraft can recognize the instructions by rocking their wings, moving the ailerons if on the ground, or by flashing their getting or navigation lamps during in the darkness also.

Lights and Signals from Aerodrome.

Color and kind of signal

Aircraft on the ground

Aircraft in flight

Movement of vehicles, equipment and personnel

Steady green

Cleared for takeoff

Cleared to land

Cleared to mix; proceed; go

Flashing green

Cleared to taxi

Return for landing (to be accompanied by steady green at the correct time)

Not applicable

Steady red

Stop

Give way to other airplane and continue circling

Stop

Flashing red

Taxi free from getting area or runway in use

Airport unsafe- Usually do not land

Clear the taxiway/runway

Flashing white

Return to starting point on airport

Not applicable

Return to starting place on airport

Alternating red and green

General Warning Transmission- Exercise Extreme Caution

General Warning Transmission- Exercise Extreme Caution

General Warning Transmission- Exercise Extreme Caution

Fig. 02

(FAA 2014)

Maneuvering Area Marking Signs.

Runway & Taxiway Signs

 

ILS Critical Area Holding Position Sign

Fig. 03

 

Runway Approach Keeping Area Position Sign

Fig. 04

 

Taxiway Location Sign

Fig. 05

 

Runway Holding Position Sign

Fig. 06

 

Destination Symptoms & Location Sign

Fig. 07

 

Outbound Destination Sign

Fig. 08

 

Inbound Destination Sign

Fig. 09

 

Runway Boundary Sign

Fig. 10

 

Taxiway Finishing Marker

Fig. 11

 

Closed Runway and Taxiway Marking

Fig. 12

 

Direction Indication for Runway Exit

Fig. 13

 

ILS Critical Area Boundary Sign

Fig. 14

 

Holding Position and Location Signs

Fig. 15

 

Runway Location Sign

Fig. 16

Visual Getting close to Navigational Products.

Any manmade things with easy to find just how and strategy for pilots. VASIS Lights.

Visual Approach Slope Sign System

White/White Too Elevation Red/White on Glide Course Runway Runway Red/Red Too Low Runway Fig. 17

PAPI Lights

Precision Approach Avenue Indicator

Fig. 18 Runway 4 Whites - Too High

3 Whites / 1 Red - Somewhat High

2 Whites / 2 Red - On Glide Path

1 Whites / 3 Red - Too Low

Relationship among Runway, Taxing and Control Tower.

Runway

A defined area on the land aerodrome well prepared for getting and removing of aeroplanes called as a runway.

Taxing way

A basic idea is course on a Land aerodrome set up for taxiing of airplane and to provide a link between apron and runway.

Control Tower

It is the unite where control aircrafts vehicles and maneuvering area. Air Traffic Controlling Tower is situated in witch is where can receive the totally and cleared view point. It's the highest building in that area. ATC people can obtain the fully 360 level view of your airport.

Runway, Taxiing Ways and Apron have linked with Air Traffic Control Tower. Since it is the most sensible place. ATC tower Control Getting close to lights Runway lights, Taxing signals, Runway edge lamps, Runway centerline, Runway threshold Runway end. There's a flow of orders, before the getting or take off. Then tower is the place where the led aircrafts. They always check the airport area and make sure the safe of aircrafts, vehicles, and peoples. When the plane pushed back and start their machines and until their take off, ATC provide instructions using taxing and runway signs for safety efficient.

If the aircrafts ready to take off, firstly ATC must clear taxing and runway from other aircrafts and vehicles. Using signals systems and indicators they will remove all the vehicles and aircrafts for safeness. Because tower has a wealthy and clear visibility. If it's an emergency ATC tower will make decisions and Inform those thing for other gatherings. Therefore they can declare it easily Always they will make sure the safe of any Airport.

Role of tower controller.

  1. BEFORE Transmitting Listen-out carefully to ensure no interference from another station
  2. Be familiar with Good Microphone operating techniques
  3. Use a standard conversation build, & speak Plainly & Distinctly
  4. Maintain an even rate of talk Ї 100 words each and every minute, speak even slower when receiver writes-down
  5. Maintain a continuous Speaking Size level
  6. A slight pause before & after amounts aids to make it much easier to understand
  7. g) Avoid using hesitation tones such as "er"
  8. h) A constant distance from 'mic' advised if a modulator with a continuous level is not used
  9. i) Suspend conversation briefly if turning your mind from 'mic'
  10. j) Depress PTT fully before speaking & do not release it until note is complete to ensure transmitting of whole message
  11. k) Long announcements be interrupted momentarily allowing the transmitting operator to verify the Frequency in use is Clear, & if necessary to permit the recipient to demand repetition of any parts not received. (Exforxys 2012)

Advices for Air Traffic Controllers.

  • Hold the microphone about one inches from the mouth.
  • Speak straight into the mike.
  • Speak evidently, plan what you want to say.
  • Don't clip transmitting.
  • Listen out prior to the transmit.
  • Don't expect an instantaneous answer. (hang on 10-15 seconds before trying again)
  • Establish communications. (using the phraseology)
  • Wait for an answer.

References

Journals

ICAO, 2013, About Annex 11, Air Traffic Services first model, ICAO, Montreal 01

ICAO, 2013, Annex 10, , 5. 2. 2. 7. 1. 1, Communication inability procedures 04

ICAO, 2013, Annex 10, , 5. 2. 2. 7. 1. 1, Communication failing procedures 05

Websites

Figure Page

Fig. 01 It my very own creationpage03

Fig. 02 It my very own creationpage06

Fig. 03 to Fig. 16 from

http://www. studentflyingclub. com/airport-signs-markings. phppage07-08

Fig. 017 It my very own creationpage09

Fig. 018 It my very own creationpage09

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