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Objectives And The Functional Requirements Of Cladding System Engineering Essay

There are some elementary targets of the cladding system. These objectives are the known reasons for the invention and adoption of cladding system anticipated to your increasing engineering technology and requirements of clients. You will find various kinds of clients, some are stress more on aesthetic value, some are emphasize more on efficient value, some are emphasize promptly of erection and even some are emphasize on development cost. So, the principal objectives of cladding system can be concluded as below:

Supply of enclosure to the structure with the function of essential coverage against the natural elements such as wind flow, rain, storm and etc.

Invention and adoption of dry building method which is more complex such as off-site prefabrication, off-site manufacturing and etc.

Minimize the excess dead weight onto the framework.

Improve the cosmetic value of the framework or the architectural notion.

Control internal environment.

Thus, in order to accomplish these elementary targets of cladding system, the cladding system must perform these practical requirements:

Strength and Stability

It should have sufficient strength to support its own weight between the things of support or fixings to the framework.

It must provide adequate stability against lateral blowing wind pressure.

It is essential to permit the differential activity in material enlargement and contraction between your cladding system, the structural body and the adjacent building elements.

Exclusion of Blowing wind and Rain

Generally, the method is to construct stable cladding systems with an external leaf as a rain screen and inner leaf of light-weight block for insulation.

In order to accommodate movement and withstand weather deterioration, the material which used to seal joints and claddings must be resilient enough.

Durability and Flexibility of Maintenance

The consistency and amount of work essential to maintain minimum efficient requirements & acceptable appearance must be minimized to save lots of cost.

There are some problems and requirements of maintenance of various kinds material. These are some examples. For masonry, just a little maintenance is necessary only. Goblet requires repeated cleaning and renewal of seal. Besides that, sheet materials such as bronze, aluminium and stainless steel will be oxidized easily and faded faster as compare to masonry and goblet.

Control of Internal Temperatures

As we know, the solar is gained through wine glass panel. Thus, we must control the percentage of glazed to 'solid' areas.

Besides that, thermal control can be achieved by some methods. For instance, deep recessed home window found in conjunction with external vertical fins and used of non-transparent external louvres. By the way, used of special solar control goblet is prompted also.

Thermal Properties

Additional insulation have to be provided by coating of the cladding materials.

It must achieve the U-values that laid down in the building regulations

It must avoid the issues that would happen from 'frigid bridging' and from surface and interstitial condensation.

The issue of air leakage should be minimized.

Environmental and Sustainability Issues

It is thought as how much the cladding system can contribute to the overall energy efficiency of the building.

Environmental friendliness of cladding materials also takes on a very important role in these issues.

Fire Requirements

Due to the closeness of other properties and the use course of the building, fire resistance may be required.

In order to restrict the fire from pass on over the inner and external surfaces and within voids, the lining material that used for insulation is made up of non-combustible materials.

Sound Insulation

The resilient pad is used to prevent sensible originating within the structure to be transferred vertically through the cladding users.

Airborne sound originating from exterior source can be prevented by utilizing double glazing panel to window area.

Aesthetic Issues

The context within that your building can be found will determine the level of aesthetic of that building.

Necessary to satisfy the visual aspiration of the customers.

General Function of the Building

There are some functions of creating that require to be mentioned and set up such as day lighting and natural air flow requirements, amount of privacy required, exploitation of pleasant views or exclusion of unwanted views and etc.


The road that I will proposed which meets the demand of client is rigid pavement. Rigid pavement comprises of concrete road slab. They are some functions of pavement. Pavement provides a flat surface which makes the trip comfort. Pavement really helps to transfer and send out the transportation load onto the bottom consistently. Besides that, pavement helps to protect earth surface against weather results such rainwater and wind. These are the characteristics of rigid pavement.


Rigid pavement

Subsidence damage

Considerable with extension joints

Initial cost

High and require low skill labour




Glare from sun

Non skid properties


Resistance to wear

Good if the quality of cement is controlled

Ease of reinstatement

Costly, difficult, require curing time


The requirement of relatively frequently spaced temperatures expansion and contraction bones, which also provides a less comfortable surface for traveling.

Construction Methodology

The construction methodology of rigid pavement can be labeled into several steps which are positioning, screeding, consolidation, concluding, curing and joint parts.


Truck or truck attachment can be used to place the precast cement directly to the desired position. Otherwise, placement machine can be used for more exact and even location. Once the precast cement has been unloaded from the truck, it will become less homogenous.

Figure 1 Shape 2


During this technique, the excess part of the roughly put precast cement is cut off to the required elevation of slab. Generally, this is performed by dragging a straightedge over the slab at the required elevation.


In this process, the freshly located precast cement is making to create a more consistent and small mass. This can be done by eliminating unwanted air voids and causing it to go around potential obstruction such as reinforcement bar. Generally, loan consolidation is done by using vibrators which can be made by long and slim vibration rods. Vibrators can be drive by revolving an eccentric weight which in turn causes the whole vibrator to go backwards and forwards. Vibrators are used to excite particles within precast concrete mass. This will cause the particles attach each other closer and better flow around obstructions. Proper consolidation is vital to the performance of rigid pavement. It must have got adequate vibrations to enhance the durability. An excessive amount of or inadequate vibration will lower the performance of rigid pavement. Vibrator static brain also affects the efficiency.

Figure 3


In this process, the task is to set-up the final surface end and consistency of fresh precast concrete. In general, finishing can be classified into 2 types that are floating and texturing. In floating, a flat surface is run across the precast cement in number of that time period and may entail many different tools. This process is used to remove high places, low places and defects, embed greater aggregate particles beneath the surface and also to prepare the top of mortar for texturing with compaction. After floating, fresh precast cement is quite simple. A rough pattern is usually created by dragging a broom, rough-textured item, or tinted device over the surface to enhance the non-skip property of rigid pavement. In general, texturing can be divided into 2 types which can be Microtexture and Macrotexture. Microtexture is more prevalent than Macrotexture. Microtexture is accomplished by dragging a section of burlap or man-made turf behind the paver.


The task of the process identifies the maintenance of sufficient moisture and heat range inside a precast concrete mass as it models and hardens to be able to develop the desired properties of strength, durability and denseness. Curing can be done by 2 different methods which can be water curing and sealed healing. Water healing is method that avoids moisture loss and supply additional normal water to precast concrete surface. This method is labour rigorous and generally not procedures in rigid pavement any longer. Closed method is method that prevents moisture reduction but do not source any additional drinking water. This is done by putting a waterproof covering over the slab such as plastic material or by using a liquid membrane-forming chemical compound.

Figure 4 (Finishing) Physique 5 (Treating)


There are various kinds of joints found in rigid pavement. The basics of transverse contraction joint structure will include joint location, observed cutting timing, found chopping depth and joint sealing. Joint locations are necessary to point on the engineering plans and should be planned in advance. The timing of contraction joint sawing is determined by 2 main factors that are shrinkage cracking and precast concrete support strength and joint raveling. In the aspect of found lowering depth, transverse contraction bones are usually slice to a depth of 1/4 to 1/3 of the full total slab depth in order to ensure cracking only occurs at the joints. After the previous method has been done, it needs to be covered to reduce water and incompressible materials entry.

Figure 6 (Joint Structure) Number 7 (Shrinkage Crack) Number 8 (Sawcut Depth)


In our engineering technology, there are extensive materials you can use and performed very well in development process such as concrete, plastic, stone, ceramic and timber. All of these materials possess advantages and disadvantages. Within this question, the materials which will be chosen is aerated cement.

There are a great deal of reasons why I choose this materials, aerated cement. Aerated concrete is a highly workable and low denseness material which adding entrained air up to 50 percents. Generally, it gets the characteristics of self-levelling, self-compacting and may be pumped. Besides that, the chance of clear plastic shrinkage or settlement deal breaking of aerated concrete is significantly lower as compared to normal concrete. This foamed concrete is suitable for filling up the redundant or needless voids such as disused gasoline tanks, sewer systems, pipelines and culverts. Other than that, aerated concrete also offers a good thermal insulation property.

The aerated cement can be totally utilized in several applications such as:

Unwanted voids


Service ducts and shafts

Bridge arches or subways

Disused structures


Redundant sewers

Cellars and basements

Higher structural stabilization

Bridge abutments

Tunnel stabilization


Insulating fill

Low density insulating sub-screed

Insulating fill to accommodate over-sites

By just how, there are several highlighted final concrete shows of aerated cement that can said to be the features of this type of cement. Aerated concrete contains high entrained air content. With this property, the aerated concrete can resist the destruction that shaped from freeze and thaw. Besides that, entrained air can functions as a good thermal and acoustic insulator. The aerated concrete has good cohesion ability. It can form a stable foam structure that reduces arrangement and reduces blood loss and segregation. Other than that, aerated concrete have controlled thickness and strength. For example, low strength of concrete permits the removal for succeeding usage of services and maintenance. The range of densities and talents available depends upon the types of foamed cement. Structure that made by aerated cement is very stable. It could generally be surfaced after a day.

Besides that, other materials can be put together together and contained in the mix. Combination of different materials depends on the applications and requirements. There are some mixtures such as polypropylene fibre, fibersteel, quarry fines, vermiculite, flyash and volcanic ash. Autoclaved aerated concrete is one common type of aerated concrete. It really is a materials like wood but without the disadvantages of combustibility, decay and termite harm. The initial cost of autoclaved aerated cement is very high but it could be compensated by lower cost of labour, finish off, maintenance, and energy. In conditions of manufacturing concern, construction issue and etc, it is a good ecological choice. The autoclaved aerated concrete is very flexible because the concoction proportions can be modify to create different insulation values and compressive power. Due to the reason of autoclaved aerated concrete is light in weight and workable, thus it can decrease the construction time, misuse and energy by faster rate of building.


In general, external works is defined as the building works that done externally from the primary building. The external works can be split into several main parts which can be drainage requirements, momentary constructions, public utilities, special companies services, minor external structures, security and lamps. In development industry, the majority of the actions are spanned within the entire project period however, many of the external works are involved in the beginning of the contract. These exterior works are drainage main goes, access arrangement, storage space facilities, car parks, hard areas for vegetation and machineries for engineering of foundation and service mains to building accessibility.

Firstly, drainage will be explained at length. Drainage can be split into 2 main types that are surface drainage and sub-surface drainage. Surface drainage is defined as the removal and disposal of drinking water from the top of your pavement. Sub-surface drainage is the kind of drainage that uses the underground pipes and other fixtures to direct the flow of water from where it isn't wanted to various other places. Sub-surface drainage might include land drainage. Land drainage can be defined as removing and losing surplus groundwater gardens, areas and other plots of available land.

Surface drainage system often relates as channels that direct the surface water to a drainage shop. These channels are made up of rock or precast cement. This technique usually discharges all the relatively clean water into an area watercourse such as ditch, stream or river. This technique can decrease the demand on the effluent treatment plant. The relatively clean water usually involves drinking water from the rooftop and the paving. The programs are slope down towards the general public footpath and highway. After that, the will be directed into gullies or linear drain that will move to the storm drinking water sewers later.

In surface drainage system, the gully and access point is function to collect and discharge the collected drinking water into local watercourse. Generally, there are three types of gully and gain access to point used to execute this function. They are individual stuck gully, continuous grating over precast stations and blended kerb and drainage system.

In the aspect of individual stuck gully, there are various kinds of gully that contain been used. P-trap and hopper is often used with rainwater pick-ups somewhat than used in large areas drainage of paving. Yard gully also know as a container gully, compact gully or an widespread gully. Other than that, road gully is a lot larger than P-trap and backyard gully nonetheless they work in the same way. The specifications of street gully are they have a set 150mm diameter shop but come in a variety of diameters and depths. For instance, road gully the used within the carriage ways is often used to drain a location below 250m2.

In the aspect of ongoing grating over precast stations, it could be various sizes, from 50mm deep units for rooftop drainage to 250mm profound for motorway drains. These channels can composed of varied materials such as polymer cement, wet-press cement, HDPE and stainless. In a specific application, the sort of channels used will depends upon the finish use of the drain. You will find two main types that happen to be built-in fall products and regular depth products. Built-in fall systems are programs that maintain a fixed depth along their whole period and compulsory laid to a land. It is suited to use in large drainage for level areas such as car parks, freight yards, airports and etc. The standard depth devices are suitable to make use of in short span drainage that includes a natural gradient. Last but not least, the mixed kerb and drainage system have 2 main functions. It can acts as road isolator. Besides that, it is also a release point of collected surface normal water.

Generally, sub-surface drainage system handles foul normal water such as kitchen waste materials, toilet or garden soil and vent pipes, shower or shower or bidet and any professional process. Besides that, this system can handles both foul normal water and surface drinking water such as rainfall water pick-ups, backyard or street gullies and linear drains. Sub-surface drainage system consists of underground pipe range, manhole or inspection chamber and culvert. In underground pipe range, various materials can be used to make pipes such as vitrified clay, uPVC, concrete, ductile and cast flat iron (CI), glassfibre reinforced plastics (GRP), high thickness polyethylene (HDPE), pitch fibre and asbestos.

In standard, there are 3 main types of pipes which are socketed clayware, plain-end clay and cheap 100/150mm. There are 2 main types of jointing of pipes. Ordinary ended pipes are a type of pipes that have identical ends. They can be joined by means of a coupling. Besides that, socketed pipes have identifiable 'men' and 'feminine' ends. The technique of laid must be in the way of 'female' end pointing upstream.

Next, gain access to chambers are generally not more than 600mm deep which provides an easy gain access to for cursory inspection and access of maintenance gadgets. Inspection chamber have the same function as the gain access to chamber but inspection chamber is bigger than gain access to chamber with the very least 450mm diameter. Besides that, inspection chamber tend to have more branches or spurs feeding into them. Normally, the inspection chamber can be up to 1000mm profound. Manhole is the greatest chamber that delivers the same function. Manhole can be any depth with the lowest internal aspect of 600x900mm. You will find two main types of manhole which can be brick manhole and precast concrete manhole. From then on, culvert can be defined as a structure which provides a waterway or other opening under a highway. In general, the type of tube culvert chosen should be class Z spun reinforced concrete with spun concrete collars or spigot and outlet type.

At the beginning of the contract, there are some external works that require to be done to be able to proceed to get started on the structure works. The external works that require to be achieved 1st is to prepare and offer hard access to all parts of the website, hard storage area for materials, site facilities and car parks. Generally, in order to reduce the expense of temporary street and gain access to, the company will lay the bottom course of the near future permanent highway as the temporary road and access. There is a way to keep the site temporary road dry for the capability of structure works which is laying the drainage system as soon as possible. Public resources services are extremely important to a building. Thus, all the public utilities have to be prepared carefully before any major buildings are built. Any constructions of service mains and ducts should be produced concurrently with the building blocks construction works to make the entire development works faster and prevent any inconveniences.

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