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Norm Referenced And Criterion Referenced Evaluation Education Essay

Learning is very complex and there are many theories relate to how students learn. The various theories demonstrate the different ways students learn. The teachers use a number of theories used as this allows improving the learners' experience of learning. I will check out these learning ideas in more detail and how I possibly could apply in the class. I am going to explore three theories of learning that I have chosen which are - the behaviourist way, the cognitivist model and constructivism methodology.

Behaviourism is a stimulus and response theory and about how instructors can control the training. The teacher will have to use encouragement to encourage and inspire learners by using prompting techniques. To use the positive and negative encouragement that skinner emphasis that this notion is agreeable as says it can shape the behaviour. It'll be appropriate to use this theory for producing new skills for learners especially for individuals who find it hard to speak out in class. For instance, easily nominate students that I understand has difficulty speaking in front of peers plus they answer a question effectively I can use this theory by giving them verbal reward. This will give them the self-assurance to answer questions in the class without worries of getting it incorrect. Also bring about them in taking part in group conversations and responding to questions without educator asking them to. Behaviourist propose we learn in response to external stimuli and these actions need to be reinforced by either praised or punishment. This theory is apparently effective for acquiring new skills and active learning in the class room. This may be suitable for students on my course who are in placements in health setting up.

Scale is up against the behaviourist methodology as he says it stimulates learning without understanding. It isn't allowing students to think or discover concepts including the cognitive methodology. However, I love the idea of positive reinforcement as students are compensated or either punished depending on their response. Behaviourist make the assumption that the behaviourist approach is linked to how all behaviour are discovered through experiences an individual has in their environment.

Behaviourists look at the human behaviour how it is measured and discovered. Behaviourists believe learning is brought by "association between the response and reinforcement. "(Reece & Walker, 2000) This theory is about how exactly specific stimuli that contain a certain response. This idea was from the study of Watson and his views on individuals behaviour. Operant fitness interlinks with Watson idea which was extended by Skinner. Skinner spoken in great depth in his theory of positive encouragement. Classical conditioning is a good starting place as it's a straightforward form of learning. Pavlov exhibited his model of classical conditioning which was the Pavlovian dog test. Reece & Walker (2000) state that the behaviourist learning ideas suggest students learn by getting a stimulus which in turn causes a response.

Behaviourist approaches can be considered a useful way in the area of health and social care. The type of encouragement is to encourage and pay back and students. I am going to consider marking with ticks and positive reviews to enhance students learning also making them to work towards an increased level award like a certificate or giving them verbal praise before the group. However many critics dispute and disapprove of the behaviourist approach dislike the idea of satisfying all learners. Avis has advised using rewards with learners' who are determined may distract the learners' affinity for the subject. Pritchard (2005) implies the very best behaviourist procedure is whenever a particular learner has a brief history of academic inability, low inspiration and "high" stress. Around the plus side, this process has suggested that rewarding aid promote appropriate school room behaviours, discourages students to misbehave which makes the learning more conductive.

Behaviourists critique one another and argue about which behaviour is learnt better through positive or negative encouragement. For example easily used the positive support by giving reward/reward the strength of this is the fact that the individual will duplicate the action again, but a limitation is that the average person will expect the pay back every time. The identical would apply if I were required to discourage bad behavior by punishing the learner by using the negative reinforcement to stop the behaviour, but a limitation is that it could provoke the given individual to continue the bad behaviour

Behaviourist's ways of learning are in varieties of arousal and response, using repetition, support and conditioning. Being an effective teacher, I am going to have expectations which i expect the learners to possess learnt by the end of the lessons; that the learning process will involve different stages; reviews is given at each step; that the learning will end with an incentive or positive responses to keep learners encouraged.

To use the behaviourist way for my coaching I will use in my Lessons planning support with frequent feedback on learning, postponed feedback allowing learning from your errors, and praise, markings and prizes. (Reece, Walker, 2000). In my own lesson plan I should include short tasks with frequent feedback for encouragement and reward. Although to be critical, learning cannot be reduced to techniques of conditioned reflexes, inputs and outputs. Behaviour seen is not similar thing as knowledge. Over identified aims can limit learning, and business lead to triviality and criteria for learning in a few subjects derive from learning, in a far more qualitative and vibrant marriage. (Reece, Walker, 2000, 107). This eliminates the didactic method of teaching for the behaviourist approach and results the lessons not being practical application of instructors but is quite mainly student centred.

I have tried out implementing the behaviourist procedure of Skinners theory. Starting location late was challenging and students acquired other tutors with different earth rules. I wanted to monitor the behavior of learners through the lesson and then enhance ways to market positive behaviour. I did so this by having my palm up and waited for silence as i needed the learners' attention and do this for a number of weeks. There have been times; I had fashioned to remind them i was looking forward to silence. This did not be employed by the disruptive students therefore I put sanctions into place and retained students behind or not provide them with an escape. However on the times students behaved and were silent whilst I was teaching I'd praise them and praise them with a selection of a game or quiz by the end of the lesson. Eventually the disruptive students have evolved they behaviour as it shown on the course as a whole and peer group pressure possessed reduced bad behavior. Bandura's Public Learning Theory would say that the students were not only being conditioned to react to the instructor, but also learning from their peers activities as to what was appropriate behavior in the school room. (Atherton 2009)

It's been my 5th week on position and students respond to signals without being hesitated and reminded which i am waiting to talk with them. It is evident that this approach spent some time working and that the students prefer the positive response as opposed to the negative response that was followed by a sanction. It has been beneficial as it leaves me in charge and has altered the lessons atmosphere as it allowed me to continue with whatever activity I decided with no disruption.

Cognitive theorists focus on human behaviour, how students gain and organise their knowledge, the way they process and store new information. Cognitivists are insistent that students were taught to believe for themselves and exactly how to resolve problems to allow them to become unbiased learners. Quite simply they want students to take into account what it will take to solve a challenge and to deal with the problem in order to find out. (Olsen & Hergenhahn, 2009). Cognitive learning is the process how learners process new information in a way that helps it be significant to them. Reece & Walker (2000) identify the three stage theory to cognitive learning. These three phases include cognitive, associative and autonomous. Cognitivist is the process of linking pious knowledge in order to learn. Cognitivist theory is principally looking at how the brain is focused for learning, how the learners can relate with the training from previous experience.

Firstly the cognitive level, this is when the learner is given verbal teaching on the duty in hand which include those to using personal understanding and decision making how to perform the skill correctly. The second stage, associative being when the skill is repetitively performed to appropriately performs the task. And the final level when the performance can be transformed credited to both positive and negative influences.

Reece & Walker (2000), state that Bruner recognizes the teacher's role as facilitating and taking control of the learning. To utilize this strategy in my own subject I'll participate all learners to be active and motivate them to get new information and take part in the teaching methods. To utilize the cognitive theory strategy on my lesson plans, I will have to allow them time to find concepts and principles for themselves and to relate to what they could already know. Reviews is essential element in this technique. It allows the tutor to check on the entry level of the learners own knowledge and ideas and what they have to know. This is transforming students' learning with regards to existing knowledge and then verifying it and checking out it resistant to the new knowledge.

The instructing strategies I can use that are associated with cognitivist theory are videos, class presentations and debates that students have the responsibility to lead. I'll have to set up the learning for the students to discover things for themselves. I'll promote students in my class to be energetic learners and take part in conversations and encourage learners to review what they know about a topic before instructing the new subject.

According to Piaget's theory, all the students in the 14- 19 school room have reached the Formal Operational stage of cognitive development. He also says they are capable of understanding the concept and that the learners can apply their understanding and also demonstrate in a given context. From my very own experience at school, the two classes I teach at different levels; it's visible that these limitations are nor specific as Piaget believes. As there are students which may never reach the formal procedure stage. With all the cognitive theory I am aware that students will vary stages with their learning and I'll have a majority of learners with different ability. Therefore the materials I teach wouldn't normally be suitable for all the category, I could arrange for materials that are inclusive for any learners such as visible products, hand-outs or video etc. Another method would be to group the school closely by attainment levels therefore i know what organizations to concentrate on and which kind of learning method is suitable for them.

Vygotsky theory is looking at the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). This is the boundary between a learners Area of Genuine Performance and their potential degree of understanding also known as scaffolding. It offers moved from the didactic methodology and is also more student-led. Learners should use a dynamic approach to learning. Bruner believes that learners build knowledge off their earlier experience and can apply to the existing curriculum by stretching their understanding. He mentions that the professor ought to be the guide by assisting learners by scaffolding their learning with the correct resources so that when the students acquired moved on there is less scaffolding is required. (Burton 2001, p. 241)

To practice scaffolding, I'd have a variety of support materials such as writing structure or a set of words to help in completing an exercise to aid understanding.

In the classroom, I have witnessed my students are at different stages of learning. Some learners have better understanding than others which places them in a different ZPD or stage in their scaffolding learning to those learners that aren't as able. My level 2 categories are challenging as there were learners aiming from cross to merit and it I find it hard to see where they were using their performance. I've now attempted to use the didactic approach as I can cover the basic level of knowledge so these were engaged and realized what subject matter I'm trying to mention. It was difficult to acquire the middle earth, as the students who had been ahead with the learning appeared tensed as that they had to wait for the lower attained learners to totally understand the task and also to complete within the time limit.

Constructivism theory is targeted about how learning happens, whether or not students are using their experience to understand the content. The theory of constructivism advises whether or not the scholar is using their encounters the learner can still develop knowledge out of these experiences.

Constructivist theory helps bring about learners to construct new so this means to something they know. It promotes learners to be lively. The process begins using what the learners will learn. It is therefore the instructor role to check the basic level of what students already know about the topic. This also allows the learner to prepare for new ideas and promote high degrees of learning.

Constructivists rely on students' activities and how they apply their pre-existing knowledge to understand the new information. I would claim here that some learners may have limited experience to others. Which means understanding or meaning of prior knowledge will be dependent on individual experiences plus some learners could find it difficult to determine understanding to other learners in the class.

To utilize this approach I have to the links between learners pre-existing knowledge to the new subject knowledge to help and form bridges between both. These way learners can recall pre-existing knowledge, to use as a groundwork to make new ideas and ideas. When growing understanding or making new ideas, the important aspect will be to review and represent what has already been learnt helps learners to establish and secure earlier knowledge (Wray & Lewis, 1997). For instance before presenting new learning materials it would help by asking learners what they understand about the subject that may form links between pre-existing to new knowledge. Reece & Walker (2000) see that the learners own past idea may well have to be modified before the learner can develop new interpretation to the subject being shown. Learning is not a passive method and could well involve conceptual changes. The training of the theory can be an productive process and is determined by the individual to take responsibility to learn.

As Wright (2008) mentions how constructivism emphasise that learners accept new information by relating to existing 'ideas'. This theory provides student the possibility to explore knowledge somewhat than being instructor led. EASILY had to adopt this approach, I'd act as helpful information and invite my students to be imaginative and exploratory thinkers. I also would use representations and examples that are the information/ materials that will allow students to comprehend the subject. I'll also relate this content to a specific thing/materials/object can make it more interesting and easy to comprehend. The group work activities will definitely be promoted in my lessons. The students can try their ideas in a new situation which I will design appropriate useful activities or discussions. My role would be to lead and assist in this process. Finally, I'd get students to mirror after their own ideas and the changes their have seen right away of the learning. I would use the questioning approach and promote problem fixing or enquiry based mostly question and then sophisticated on learner's response. This allows learners to find answer for themselves by experimenting with new ideas and talk about and consult with peers. Collaborative discourse can certainly help and build learners' deep understanding. To help progress learning I'll provide clear targets that the learners can develop their ideas using past knowledge so they know the development of these learning. I will be prepared to respond to diverse range of learner's answers, misconceptions, thoughts and problems.

This could be achieved at the starter allowing learners to visualise their own progression. Learning works well when learners are involved, which means teachers need to plan interesting tasks that allows learners to relate to pre-existing knowledge as learners will know about the context. A dynamic learning approach can be achieved by motivating students to explore concepts and ideas, also to follow their instincts (Wray & Lewis, 1997).

Constructivist theory is more student-led and included with activities and jobs that require collaborative work. That is my least favourable theory when i find it hard to plan for a diverse band of learners as I could not relate with their experience as every learner is at a different stage with the learning and condition the delivery way and teaching style would be difficult to meet up with the learning needs of all the learners in the class

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Formative evaluation can be used more often during instruction and is more limited than summative. Summative analysis is usually broader and covers a larger stop of instruction materials. It really is normally graded piece of work than formative which is way to monitor a student's progress. It provides reviews and informs university student about their learning and the opportunity to correct errors. I believe formative is an integral to evaluating learning than summative, as looking forward to the final test is not profit to the learner as much as formative where the student can alter and improve on errors to improve their learning.

The evaluation process consists of "gathering, interpreting, recording and using information about pupils'. (Lambert and Lines, 2000)Assessments have many purposes and reason they can be used. Assessment plays a job of calculating understanding and learning. There are different types of assessments which gauge the depth of learning. Using examination, allow to evaluate learning needs and improve benefits. Fawbert (2003) says assessments are also "means of promoting or denying learner success and autonomy".

Part of the coaching learning process it is essential to evaluate learning. Formative evaluation is done during instruction. The thought of this is to check out what students are learning towards specific objectives. Whereas summative analysis, is done after instruction and information on what students have learnt towards general targets. They are both two different varieties; they fluctuate on what material needs to be learned to meet objectives, the sort of assessment/test so when the evaluation takes place and when there is a specific deadline place.

Summative diagnosis differs from formative and is employed for a wider audience such as other professors, management, parents and learners. This enables teachers to gain a knowledge of the learners capability overall. Summative analysis normally used by the end of a unit/topic or end of term/12 months.

Many recent studies have shown if assessment is used the right way within teaching, it'll enable to improve the students learning which is significant to the training process (Elwood and Klenowski, 2002).

As a tutor I need to understand the reasons why assessments are used and the reason behind. Also how to use both forms of examination. Formative analysis allows teachers to provide responses to enhance the performance of the learners' changeover throughout the learning process.

Many methods are being used for formative diagnosis which allows students to gain knowledge and new skill; to help the learner to create new aims and think about their weakness and flip them into strength. Teachers can do that by the form of observation, examining learners understanding throughout the lesson and pay attention to learner's idea and the real reason for it. Also provide constructive responses on assessments. Instructors may also need to make changes a in lesson planning; for example if majority of learners found a lesson difficult and didn't understand the ideas then the educator could have redo the lessons but with different coaching strategy.

Norm referenced and criterion-referenced assessment

Norm referencing is a function Fawbert (2003) explains as a mode of assessment where in fact the teacher compares the performance of learners against other learners in the same age group. This process is to ranking students' performance to "promote inner and exterior quality procedures". Also the assessments are graded using a marking criterion. The marks show how the student has performed set alongside the "norm, or average" like Petty (2004) mentions norm-referenced works effectively only for examination. It really is normally used to decide GCSES, A level and other certification.

Criterion reference on the other hand measures the identified objectives somewhat than comparing student performance. The assessor accolades a pass if they can do it, or a fail if they cannot. To be effective, Fawbert (2003) mentions that the criteria should be referred to by the assessors must "be as explicit. " This examination will provide information which can make clear of the level, range and type of performance expected from students.

Assessment for learning also known as formative is seen as integral facet of teaching and learning cycle rather than being examination of learning (summative). There are several forms of assessment that are noticeable of performance of the students learning. Such as practical, classroom based examination, self-assessment, portfolios of work and reflective journals

The formative assessment is the value of procedures of teaching and learning, although summative evaluation takes place following the professor and learning. To facilitate learning teachers would want use evaluation for learning approach to ensure learning is taking place. By the end of the term/calendar year educators would use the analysis of learning strategy where they might mark and grade students work. Both strategies are vital in the learning process as teachers need to get an understanding where in fact the student is in their learning and also the actual learner has achieved end of term/season.

There are a variety of assessments that can be used to evaluate students' performance for instructors to get a much better understanding of the actual learners is aware of. The diagnostic examination is a good way to establish a learner's advantages and weakness. In addition, it allows the teacher to tailor their own coaching solutions to suit the needs of learners. Whereas formative evaluation is a self-reflective process which encourages students attainment

Assessment is a critical aspect of education and is vital that teachers use assessment to keep an eye on students understanding how to be familiar with where b the university student is with the learning. Also assessment can be used to find out if the coaching methods are useful and aiding students to understand and learn the subject. Learning and teaching are both part of your reciprocal process that be based upon and affect each other. Overall assessment purpose is to assess how well the learners learn and exactly how good the tutor is teaching

Scales (2008) "Opinions can be an essential aspect in effecting communication between instructors and learners". The opinions is a vital area of the examination especially in areas of development/ changes and positive reputation of achievements/strengths. Responses should be constructive, neither brief nor extensive. As many students can feel overwhelmed or vulnerable. Teachers should never underestimate the students. Responses needs to maintain positivity and delivered with consideration, constructive and directed at the learners' regions of development. Compliment helps students to remain motivated and statements like well-done can show the scholar that which was good and grounds to explain why it appealed to the professor.

Overall, reviews shows both the teacher and university student how students' learning is progressed; responses is not used to criticise and should be beneficial to learners to understand their talents and weaknesses and use the opinions to indicate.

The structure of work I've used to produce my lessons plan BTEC National Health and Social Care. It really is unit four of the syllabus and its broad aim to cover the development through the life span stages. This structure of work includes rules and ideas for tutor arrangements and also helpful for lessons planning. The system of wok can be personalized to match the instructors ideas of belief of what they think are ideal to change or edit. Students can also access a program of work not necessary the teachers copy but instructors can design a simple malfunction for students.

The specific program of work that I have chosen, Is ideal and therefore I did so not make any adjustments. It is set up well and it constructive with format to check out. There are guidelines to check out and also options for instructors to use certain strategies or tools. The system of work helps the professor to plan lessons according to criteria and benefits clear learning objectives.

Scheme of work are part of lesson planning therefore when reviewing one a tutor should include important components to produce an effective process of learning and analysis.

Each lesson should vary and professors should use a range of teaching and learning strategies that meet the design of the learner's potential. There are obstacles that teacher should be aware of as this may affect the learners performance. These obstacles can include: insufficient confidence, negative behaviour and kinds of learning challenges e. g. dyslexia.

When critiquing a structure of work, Educators should ensure learner's needs are tackled and this learners are making progress. In order to do this the professor have acknowledge of the techniques and learning style that suits the learners they may be teaching. Professor should plan consequently and make sure they designs reflect the training outcomes, which they expect the learners to achieve by the end of the lesson. A Wright (2008) cites listening to the students develops a good classroom environment. All students learn in a different way as Reece, I& Walker S (2000) discuss different learning solutions maybe befitting some students and maybe unacceptable for others. Therefore I've used different strategies such as specific activity, group work, role paly and also discussions involving the whole group.

Daily interaction with staff; individual lessons planning and focus on setting up for learners are skills a instructor within the sector is likely to possesses. Additionally, an emphasis on the appreciation and utilisation of differentiated learning strategies, and the development of strategies of work, along with the need to mirror after one's own practice

Why perhaps you have chosen particular learning activities and resources?

I have chosen the specific activities and resources as this I love my school to participate with one another. Group work allows students to express their own views and ideas and talk about amongst their peers. Also allows students to have interaction and copy skills to one another. To be a teacher trainer, I do not understand how all the students learn and their individual needs. Therefore I have to use variety of coaching strategies to improve students learning.

How you are creating an inclusive environment

By creating an inclusive environment I'll nominate students into communities, so each college student works together with someone they haven't yet worked with. Also this way it gets students to learn their peers well and help one another and study from each other. I will also change the structure of tables if necessary to create an inclusive environment.

How you are supporting/challenging different learners (differentiation)

To do this, I've used different approaches that will test students by any means levels with talk and question and answers quiz. The variety of resources I've used can support and challenging different learners

How you are embedding terms, literacy, numeracy ICT skills in the training sessions

I have designed a task that allows students to make use of their ICT skills. Also learners will be word taking that may hopefully enhance their literacy skills. I'll recap previous period to embed these useful skills.

How you are employing assessment to check on and support learning

I will check the entry level at the beginning of class, through the lesson I will make that move right from the start and offer useful opinions on students learning. I will do an initial assessment. The initial diagnosis should be completed at the beginning of your learning routine. The need for an initial analysis and why they happen is because to identify each learners needs and learning style. This can even be used to recognize any obstacles that the learners may have also to establish professional boundaries and ground guidelines. There are a few limitations what can occur when identifying needs and also boundaries which may affect the procedure. Including the lack of information of learner requirements as the teacher isn't aware of the learner's previous knowledge or behaviour/action before the evaluation which can have a negative effect on the procedure of the evaluation. Communication issues between the teacher and learner can also make the initial assessment very hard to adopt place

As an individual training to be an effective tutor, it is my responsibility to think about my actions and thoughts as they develop on a daily basis. Refection is not merely for the individual to evaluate their activities but a chance for them to collect their thoughts. This is done either by hand or electronically. Representation is an instrument to be positively to encourage me to develop on skills they can progress to raised levels academically.

This component has been great interest to me as I have learned different approaches to learning and looked at various learning ideas and the pros and cons of the solutions. To construct this assignment, I have gained a great deal of information to learning by looking at the wider text message and how everything interlinks with coaching, learning and assessing.

When reflecting on what I discovered through this component, I will be cautious about planning lessons plans, ensuring I take advantage of different learning approaches and promote inclusive environment. It is hard to represent into practice as I've not yet attended a teaching position.

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