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Nicosia's Municipal Theater Collapse Structural Analysis

Property - Building

Nicosia Municipal Theatre

Location

Mouseiou Avenue 4

Nicosia, 1097, Cyprus

Article Date

29 March 2017

Purpose of record:

  • A structural declaration towards Nicosia's Municipal Theatre after its roof structure collapse by handling concerns brought up by the general public with regards to its historical and social importance because of its users.

The report will include studying the properties background and ideas for the most likely reconstruction of the roof covering having at heart its structural durability, the original condition of the building before collapsing and its own materials.

Points appealing:

  • Roof reconstruction during refurbishment.
  • Weight of metal shears used over metal beams exiting set ups strength.
  • Materials applied to the initial design and during refurbishment.
  • Type of material beams used - its building method, why it was chosen and its use background

Recommended activities:

  • Repair beams framework with original materials, or suggest a new more lasting one.
  • Investigate what might travelled wrong and repair as necessary the collapsed roof structure with particular attention to keep the original design always in mind.
  • Thorough repair of all existing cracking to restore the overall structural integrity of the building.
  • Remove redundant old structure remains (a sensible precaution for future account).

Conclusion:

Introduction

Each building writes its own storyline and Nicosias Municipal Movie theater for half of a century was a spot of reference

for the island of Cyprus, therefore it should stay. The Nicosia Friends Connection taking into consideration the historical value of the site helps that the building is proclaimed among the classic places of the island that the Municipal Theater was, and really should remain, a significant outbreak theatrical, educational, and entertainment building for the country. It is an essential part of the city's story, one of the capital culture incubator unnecessarily deprived the previous eight years.

It is more than a melancholic and unhappy spectacle, the image of any important building forgotten and left to the mercy of their time! Such buildings you live organs in our culture, and must not be permitted to collapse, be pointless to stand as haunted corpses waiting for the bulldozer to demolish mercilessly, reducing them from the map of an town! There are some buildings that have acquired life and spirit due to role they have played or continue to play in your own lives. Because the building is not simply a functional and visual personality, but also a ethnic, historical and a spot of research landmark in the town.

Despite all the possible mistakes in the efficiency or questionable style that a building may have, it continues to be commonly accepted benchmarks and objectively speaking important inside our lives. The Municipal Theater of Nicosia, was a building that was a full time income cell in the social pulse of the capital for years. Unquestionably, this building, even several decades previously, when it was designed, was anachronistic in style. The exterior being truly a neoclassical real estate, with pediment and columns, in contradiction using its modern for the time interior. But what is important is to understand that making a building, we create an "object" that can indeed be produced from inanimate materials but has life and figure of that time period used and controlled by its people.

This building was more than this organic system, as it was called by locals, the instrument for social activity of Nicosia for quite some time, the area where the Cyprus Theater Company lived the greatest of glories, which thrived on the level in our leading actors, which hosted so many musicians and artists from all over the world. A location that hosted many exceptional and of high importance theatrical shows, political ceremonies, numerous works of world repertoire, musical shows by top music artists about the world, and was the concentration of ethnical life in Nicosia.

  1. General Information - Historical and Cultural Background
  1. Architectural Information and Drawings:

In describing the house recommendations and drawings of leading, rear, remaining and right area elevations will be used, section, programs and structural analysis drawings. (Still pending- under process))

The property is a Theater of neo-classical style that was built in 1966 and it has been used for theatrical and party performances, musical concerts, and other political and nationwide ceremonies. It has the capacity of 1220 chairs, central floor floor resting and balcony seating, but also comprised smaller boogie studios and theatrical practice rooms on the trunk edges of the building, and dressing-rehearsal rooms at the rear back again of the building and underground. For the underground you could also find all technical materials and equipment for the theatres use. The primary accommodation is on two storeys with a further cellar/basement level below the trunk area of the property. A marble covered faade occupies leading of the building but no damage occurred to it from the roofing and composition collapse, nor splits or decay signs.

  1. Cultural and Historical Track record:

Before collapsing, the theater was the key stage of the Theatrical Corporation of Cyprus. As an only 50 years old building, its current structural and architectural stage raises several concerns by the locals, as it is considered a quite new, because of its historical value, building. The Nicosia Municipal Theater was designed by Pefkios Georgiades in 1966, a perfect architect of its amount of time in Cyprus, and built-in Oct 1967. It has not only been Cyprus Theatre Organisation's (THOC) centre of performances but the first selection of use by overseas designers as well. In July 2002, the municipality acquired chosen the same architectural practice to revise the theatre's renovation for any upgrades to occur, having contemporary needs and safeness protocols at heart. In March 2005, the responsible for the renovation structure company have been chosen and contracts were authorized (A. Panayides Contracting Ltd) with the refurbishment works coming into conclusion by November 2005 for a total cost spend to attain 5, 580, 072. After less than 3 years' time, in June 2008, Cyprus experienced a disaster that could have been a tragedy, which could have caused a painful research in the remembrances of the people of Cyprus for years, as few time before the roof collapsed there was a performance happening. The roof top collapsed in a single day on a clear theatre, few time before a sold-out, end of year performance, with the audience to be packed mainly with children and educators. The fact that the roofing framework collapsed only 2, 5 years following the government expended almost 6m on the complexes refurbishment is in any architects and technicians eyes a shocking, unexplained incident, with many still thinking

"What brought on the entire roof covering to collapse so soon after a whole lot. money were allocated to improving the structural integrity of the building?"

  1. Structural Related Information:

The construction of the original design has been proven as normal throughout and, from an optical examination, contained no uncommon detailing or materials which can arouse structural problems. The ministry of Culture denied any access to the public into the details of the structural record. The general public announcement included a affirmation expressing only that it looks like "the steel structure's resistance, which the roof top was placed, had not been evaluated correctly among other things. " In addition, it tackled that the composition failure occurred on an integral part of the roof where only a replacement of the crenelated flat iron pieces of the roof and nothing to do with the support beams as any alternative or maintenance to them was believed to be needless. Furthermore it was said that the material shears capability to go through the weight of that which was heading to be suspended from them was overestimated and wrongly calculated. The Inspective Committee mentioned as your final reason for the incident, "technical reasons that caused the failure". Generally, the buildings materials where mainly local natural stone for the surfaces construction, concrete for the foundations, marble external facades, wooden interior wall membrane facades and finally steel for the roofing structure with metallic shears as the covering materials. The beams framework used, according to the public structural record released to the general public, was a mixture of the Quadrangular Truss and the French Truss along with Vertical Struts. A framework that are designed for the form and such function that the architect actually designed, because of this kind of long spun framework of distance up to 60 metres long (197ft).

This building is a prime number for Cyprus capital city, but yet was deserted and left at its since that time stage, ever since June 2008, when the framework collapsed, without plans for reconstruction of the roofing, although there is a high demand by the majority of Nicosians, the municipality is under a legal battle over the occurrence in contradiction with those guilty in 2010 2010. They sued the contractor, architect and technical engineers and requested a full repayment for the reconstruction charge, assessed to be about 4m to reinstate the theater.

  1. From the info released to the general public, it is well known that the initial design for the roof top was created from Steel, a combination of the Quadrangular Truss and the French Truss along with Vertical Struts. The main reason was the big period period of the building's rooftop and also knowing that material trusses are usually manufactured from multiple angles, plates and eyeball bars, to be able to build such forms which are easily modified to be able to resist a tensile stress rather than compressive stress. This technique of truss arrangements allows fewer of its users to be in compression, and also, its shorter people are in compression and the longer ones in stress.
  1. Purlins are being used to support the rafters of the structure, therefore the distance between your struts, because of the proven fact that the roof covering is covered with iron linens, set on the purlins, shouldn't be more than 5 toes apart from the other. This is actually the most economical and practical method of construction, as the amount of braces used will depend on the roofs inclination, period and shape.
  1. A horizontal tie was used to avoid bending of the laterals. Furthermore, bringing up the lowest chord is highly recommended, in order to substantially raise the pressure in the truss people in need. The reason is because a truss with its least expensive chord with a growth of several feet is better aesthetically and aesthetically, and of course better, as by elevating the bottom chord will shorten the rest structure members, hence the more strength and causes will be distributed better.
  1. This specific framework was chosen for the roof structure of the theatre, having in mind its course of 190ft'with spacing, from centre to center, of 20ft. The roofing was made with 2x8 beams, which would be recognized by purlins at factors seen above in the diagram, designated with letters A, B, C, D, E, and F. On top of that a thinner metal sash was placed between C and D, for better light and ventilation to be allowed in to the interior of the building when was needed.

Parts marked having a and B was not part of the truss strength framework nonetheless they were placed there to be an additional shape work to upkeep the enhanced roof structure and the tensions.

  1. One of the ideas suggested for the refurbished composition was to carefully turn the roofs structure bottom level chord in a segmental condition, which will share with it a stylish framework, but also better proportions for such a wide span structure. The parts built-in between your junctions A, B, C, D in a Quadrangular Truss, are simply struts external to the truss.
  1. In both above conditions, original and suggested one, all customers of the kind of truss are constructed of several perspectives, to take up any anxiety or compression. The involved tensions in this Quadrangular trusses, scheduled to climate, should consider, according to calculations for the maximum stress that could be created by any potential material choice or combo of tons for set ups of 100 to 200 ft span.
  1. The topography of the site is unlike to may have caused any difficulties that may be linked to the event, as there are no physical problematic features which can have caused groundwork problems.
  1. On the exterior, a small crack is seen on the north aspect elevation, just above the top floor glass windows, which is distributing down to the rear end of the wall membrane until reaching the side door, which leads inside the theater. Also, on the south elevation of the building, a breaking can be seen above the central beam, which spans before top floor glass windows and also at the ground floor main windows. (Drawings to check out). No other external cracking of significance could be located that may have been caused after the roof structure collapsed.
  1. On the inside, a large breaking can be seen on the wall between the main level and the sitting down area and also in the related wall above on the top floor gallery (seated area). Even though the breaking is relatively small in scale set alongside the buildings damage, it looks quite new, rendering it appear to be it was caused from the incident and not prior to it.
  1. The majority of the affected areas are those that have been refurbished.
  1. Historical structural steelwork handbook: properties of U. K. and Western cast flat iron, wrought iron and steel sections including design, fill and stress data because the mid-19th century. W. Bates; British isles Constructional Steelwork Association. London, 1984
  2. Stiffness of joint parts in bolted linked cold-formed metal trusses, Zaharia, Raul; Dubina, Dan. Journal of Constructional Material Research, 2006, Vol. 62 (3), pp. 240-249 [Peer Reviewed Journal] Science Direct (Elsevier B. V. )
  3. Rotational rigidity of cold-formed material roof purlin-sheeting connections. Zhao, Congxiao ; Yang, Jian ; Wang, Feiliang ; Chan, Andrew H. C. Engineering Structures, February 2014, Vol. 59, pp. 284-297 [Peer Reviewed Journal] Technology Direct (Elsevier B. V. )
  4. http://www. lawyersincyprus. com/el/article/roof-collapse-whos-to-blame
  5. http://www. cyprusedirectory. com/articleview. aspx?ID=2604
  6. http://chestofbooks. com/structures/Construction-Superintendence/Chapter-II-Types-Of-Steel-Trusses. html#ixzz20ySOLRb5
  7. Architectural Association of Cyprus - Recognized Report of Incident - ETEK Org
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