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Networking Design And Development

Every system developed or job that were carried out needs a framework or solution to follow as guide in order to make certain of success execution. Guideline of organized framework can help to control and plan jobs, to reduce the down sides like failing to meet requirements, poor, high procedure cost, not getting together with the approximated time, inefficient work, and expensive maintenance. In networking, the whole concept of planning a network is simplified through the use of planned or organized design methodologies. Organized design technique is a set of unique steps that help to guarantee that of the essential jobs in the network design process are achieved. In this display article, we were focusing on three major issues on development and execution platform; System development Life circuit (SDLC), PDIOO (acronym of Planning, Design, Implementation, Operation and Search engine optimization) and PPDIOO (increased version of PDIOO).

System Development Life Circuit (SDLC)

The Systems Development Life Circuit (SDLC) is platform that describes the actions performed at each stage of a software development task. It is also a theoretical model found in project supervision that identifies the phases involved in an information system development project from a short possibility analysis through maintenance of the completed request.

System life pattern models describe stages of the machine cycle, Shape 1 and the order where those stages are carried out. There will vary phases for SDLC and the following are the main phases of it.

Figure SDLC Cycle

Phases of SDLC model

Project planning phase

During this phase, resources will be acknowledged and cost will be predicted in order to achieve success project objectives. Job planning is procedure for defining methods, scope, length and improve conclusion of a project.

Requirements Classification phase

Under this period, the project's goal is determined and the functions are taken to focus. Gathering of information and analysis of the user's necessity is also done in this phase.

Design phase

A sample structure of the whole project is created in this stage and all necessary data are gathered. This is where everything is put together and the real design of the system is done. This is also where records such as the Maintenance Manual, Functions Manual, and Training Manual initiate. That is also where a few of the defects in the original planning may appear and require some adjustment. Again, there exists documentation and approval.

Development phase

The system is built. The software, hardware, and testing occur during the Development Stage. This is also the phase where the pests are exercised of the machine.

Integration and Test phase

This is the formal integration and screening of the machine. Trials has been done on the development period, but in the Integration and Tests Phase it is a formal, documented screening procedure, not only to assure that the machine performs as designed, but screening the roll-out of the machine.

Installation and Acceptance phase

After completing the testing stage, the completed system should be installed by the end consumer sites. Users encourage the system after all errors and insects captured through the previous phases have been altered and mended.

SDLC Models

There are various SDLC methodologies, Physique 2, have been developed to steer the processes involved like the waterfall model (the initial SDLC method), speedy application development (RAD), prototype model, spiral model and a great many other models. Some models are better for specific types of projects, but in the ultimate analysis, the most important factor for the success of a task may be how carefully particular plan was followed. The image down shows a few of SDLC models:

Figure SDLC reviewed in this report

Waterfall Model

Waterfall Model is the most frequent and classic of life pattern models, also referred to as a linear-sequential life pattern model. It is very easy to understand and use. Within a waterfall model, Figure 3, each period must be completed in its entirety before the next phase will start. At the end of each stage, a review will take place to determine if the project is on the correct path and whether or not to continue or discard the task. (Priya, 2008)

Figure SDLC, Waterfall Model

Phases of Process

Requirements - defines needed information, function, behavior, performance and interfaces.

Design - data constructions, software architecture, software representations, algorithmic details.

Implementation - source code, repository, user documentation, trials.

Verification (testing): Brings all the pieces together into a particular evaluation environment, then checks for errors and pests.

Maintenance - System improved to represent changing conditions.


This model is simple and easy to use and easy to manage due to the rigidity of the model - each phase has specific deliverables and an assessment process. Stages are processed and completed individually. It works well for smaller assignments where requirements are very well understood. (Priya, 2008)


If there any modification scope during the life cycle can eliminate a project improvement. No working software/product is produced until past due through the life cycle. It has high amounts of risk and doubt. As far as the development concern, it is an unhealthy model for intricate and object-oriented projects. It isn't well suited for long and on-going projects where requirements are at a average to high risk of changing.

When to use the Waterfall Model

It is going to be used when job requests are incredibly popular and understandable. The merchandise definition is secure and the technology is understood

Figure SDLC, Prototype Model


Figure 4 shows a Prototype Model. In such a model, once the requirement analysis is performed and the design for a prototype is made, the development process gets started out. After the prototype is created, it is given to an individual for evaluation. The customer tests the deal and gives his feed back to the developer who refines the product according to the customer's exact expectation.


Customers can easily see the system requirements as they are being compiled. The creators can learn from the customers. It proper to a more appropriate end product and there will no unexpected requirements accommodated where it permits flexible design and development.


It has bad status for "quick-and-dirty" methods. The client might want the prototype delivered. By the end of it, the process may continue permanently.

When to work with the prototype Model

When requirements are unpredictable or need to be clarified. And other thing, where job has to offer with development of consumer interfaces when it requires a short-lived presentations with information for the evaluation and design servings of object-oriented development necessary to be presented.

Spiral Pattern Model

In the spiral circuit model, Shape 5, the idea is more on risk analysis. The spiral model has four stages which are organizing, Risk Analysis, Anatomist and Analysis. Requirements are obtained during the planning stage. In the risk analysis phase, an activity is undertaken to recognize risk and alternative solutions. A prototype is produced at the end of the chance analysis period.

Figure SDLC, Spiral Circuit Model


It has a higher amount of risk evaluation which that kind of information is very useful to the project. Best for huge and mission-critical assignments. Lastly, in software development, the product will be created early in the program life cycle.


It is definitely an overpriced model to use and risk analysis requires highly specific experience. The Project's success is highly hooked on on the chance analysis stage and it generally does not work well for smaller assignments.

When to use the Spiral Model

When costs and risk analysis is important which is good for medium to high-risk assignments. Spiral model is the better when users are unsure of these needs and requirements are sophisticated. If dealing with a fresh products, it significant changes are expected and the model ready to package with it.

Incremental Model

The incremental model is an all natural approach to the waterfall model. Number 6 shows multiple development cycles take place, making the life routine a "multi-waterfall" cycle. Cycles are divided up into smaller, more easily managed iterations. Each iteration passes through the requirements, design, implementation and testing phases.

Figure SDLC, Incremental Model


It generates working software quickly and early through the software life cycle. It provides more adaptable - less expensive to change opportunity and requirements. Which is easier to test and debug during a smaller iteration. Furthermore, it is much easier to control risk because risky pieces are discovered and managed during its iteration.

Customer can respond to each build with lowers first delivery cost. Preliminary product delivery is faster however the customers are certain to get important functionality early on.

At last the risk of changing requirements is reduced.


It takes a good planning and design and early definition of a whole and fully practical system to allow for the definition of increments. Sometimes, well-defined component interfaces will be required (some will be developed a long time before others). Not forgotten, total cost of the complete system is not lower.

When to utilize the Incremental Model

Risk, funding, timetable, program complexness, or need for early on realization of benefits. Most of the requirements are known up-front but are expected to evolve as time passes. This model must get basic features to the market early. It ideal on projects which have long development schedules or a job with a new technology

PDIOO Network Life Cycle

Cisco runs on the methodology known as PDIOO within designing sites ( Lamml & Barkl, 2003). PDIOO is an acronym that describes a few of the major elements in a network design process, particularly:






Figure PDIOO (Oppenheimer, 2004)

But then cisco turn out with a new enhanced strategy called PPDIOO where the first 'P' identifies PREPARE. In this paper, area of the phases in PDIOO is likely to be explained in PPDIOO stages.

PPDIOO Network Life Cycle

PPDIOO is the improved PDIOO methodology made up by six (6) stages directly related to PDIOO alternatively than has one additional phase that's needed is by real life business of a company.







Figure PDIOO (Oppenheimer, 2004)

PPDIOO service lifecycle allows network design designers and network organizers to better take care of large network installations. Cisco created this technique to permit network engineers to raised plan and meet business targets.

Why PPDIOO Model?

The methodology created to decrease the total cost of network possession while the company or group provides some new systems or upgrade the prevailing network (Semperboni, 2009).

Increasing availableness, Downtime can badly have an impact on income and can reduce success through costs from the network staff needing to troubleshoot and function in a reactive setting (Semperboni, 2009). To surge supply get to carefully designed redundancy, acoustics security, and scalability and also requires carefulness throughout the network lifecycle.

To Improving business agility serves as a an organization's ability to respond quickly to changing business or market conditions and adapt to the changing demands of its customers and the business environment

Access acceleration: Speeding usage of applications and services helps permit business agility.

Availability targets are inspired by business goals. Targets are established early in the network lifecycle and achieved throughout it: a simple, well-planned deployment helps decrease risk of downtime, and sensible planning day-to-day operations helps swiftness problem resolution. (Semperboni, 2009)

Life Cycle Stages:

The network design technique made up by six stages (Cisco, 2008), Figure 9, directly related: prepare, plan, design, put into action, operate, optimize. In this section we give you more details of every of the phases.

Figure PPDIOO phases


Business agility starts off with prep. The preparation period is the breakthrough process to understand the business requirements gathering to build a business case and financial drive to support the implementation of new technology (CiscoSystem, 2004). By planning on future needs and developing both a technology strategy and a high-level structures to meet those needs (Cisco, 2008).

In this phase we should know about:

Business requirement development

Consider and doc the business enterprise requirements for end-user service delivery that support the technology investment.

Business requirements development can help:

Make sensible financial decisions by developing a business case that establishes the financial justification for making a technology change

Establish a basis for creating a technology strategy

Technology strategy development

Analyse your business and service requirements and identify the Cisco advanced technologies that support them. Report a technology strategy.

Technology strategy development can help:

Improve efficiency throughout the answer lifecycle by aligning your technology technique to your business goals

Meet end-user service-delivery requirements by identifying which advanced systems can create a solution that can support them

Operation Technology strategy development

Create an functional strategy that identifies the people, procedures, and tools required to support the businesses and management of the technology solution.

Operations technology development can help to:

Achieve business goals by aligning your businesses strategy with your business and technical requirements

Reduce on-going network procedures costs by figuring out the operational requirements for aiding the procedure and management of the technology solution

High Level Design Development

Create a high-level conceptual architecture of your suggested system that addresses business and technological requirements and creates the foundation for system deployment. Include specifications for supply, capacity, and security to meet service requirements. High-level design development can help you to reduce rework during the design period by figuring out and validating required solutions and features early in the solution lifecycle.

Business Case Development

Prepare and present an executive-level business case that details the business and financial justification for migrating to the new technology solution. Include a detailed financial analysis, including capital and operational expenses, cost-to-benefit evaluation, and projected profits on return. Business circumstance development can help in make sensible financial decisions by demonstrating:

That the technology investment facilitates your business goals and high-level design

The cost-to-benefit ratios of both adopting and not adopting the suggested solution

Return on investment predicated on multiple investment requirements such as net payback period and inside rate of return

Proof Concept

Develop and perform a proof-of-concept test to validate the high-level design. Identify design improvements necessary to meet business and technical requirements. Proof of concept testing can help you reduce costly rework and job delays by determining design enhancements necessary to meet your business and specialized requirements before proceeding to comprehensive design


The network requirements are what you ought to identify in the look period. (CiscoSystem, 2004). Important considerations for this stage include determining just where you plan to set up the network, its goals, and the types of services it will provide and whom, etc. in this stage the existing network checks its network for security implementation or security vulnerability to ensure it'll be able to assist with intruders and outside the house networks. In this particular phase the main things is to ensure that the prevailing environment is carefully analysed prior to going to design phase.

Development Job Management

Provide for just one or more task managers or program professionals to manage the look, design, and implementation of your deployment task. Develop and use a project management plan, manage information and resources, and control change.

Deployment task management can help to:

Reduce hazards by using proven task management methodologies and risk mitigation strategies

Resolve problems quickly by handling information, facilitating cooperation, and escalating issues quickly and effectively

Keep the project on the right track by handling and handling change throughout the task lifecycle.

System Readiness Assessment

Prepare for your technology solution deployment by assessing the readiness of your existing system infrastructure to aid a new technology. Analyse the physical and reasonable settings of the network, systems availableness, and systems capacity, quality of service, systems resiliency, security, and integration with existing platforms. Identify network and program modifications that should be made prior to execution.

Systems readiness diagnosis can help:

Improve the return on investment and velocity migration by discovering and planning for necessary infrastructure changes as well as resources

Reduce deployment costs by analysing spaces early in the look process to determine what is needed to support the system

Improve productivity by identifying and resolving gaps in service-level requirements associated with availability, capacity, and security technical specs.

Site Readiness Assessment

Prepare for your technology solution deployment with a comprehensive site examination that evaluates the readiness of your current facilities infrastructure to aid the new technology. Identify any physical, environmental, and electric modifications that needs to be made prior to execution.

Site readiness diagnosis can help to:

Reduce deployment costs and delays by figuring out facilities planning requirements early on in the planning process

Reduce the risk of downtime brought on by facilities-related problems.

Operation Readiness Assessment

Prepare for your technology solution deployment with a thorough operations analysis that evaluates the readiness of your present functions and network management infrastructure to aid the new technology. Identify any changes to people, techniques, and tools that needs to be made prior to execution.

Operations readiness evaluation can assist in:

Effectively plan and cover technology expenses by gauging operational preparedness and capability to aid current and designed network systems and services

Avoid downtime by improving readiness to operate and manage technology and services

Reduce network operations costs by discovering the functional changes required to support the operation and management of the technology solution

Improve IT personnel productivity by determining high-demand repeatable duties that may be automated.

Security Vulnerability

Protect your network from inside and outside intruders by assessing system, program, and network device vulnerabilities. Safely simulate activities typical of attacks on your network, without inside your network. Recommend changes that should be designed to the network to assist in preventing security breaches and reduce threat of attack.

Security vulnerability analysis can help:

Mitigate network security dangers by restricting their capacity to do damage

Reduce the downtime, business disruption, and costs associated with infections and worms, information theft, application mistreatment, and denial-of-service attacks

Improve the overall security point out of the corporate "trusted" network and the systems and information within it by determining changes to address vulnerabilities

Prevent episodes from external sources and mistakes created by trusted insiders from leading to security breaches

Support regulatory compliance by demonstrating that enough security procedures are in place to protect very sensitive information investments.


In this phase, the network designers should make a design aligned with business goals and specialized requirements can improve network performance while aiding high availability, stability, security, and scalability, regarding to requirements gathered through the Plan stage (CiscoSystem, 2004). Also by developing precise design is important to reduce the risk, delay and the total cost of network procedure. The design period can also guide and speed up successful implementation with a plan to level, configure, test, and validate network procedures.

Application Development:

Prepare for a fresh technology deployment by planning and expanding custom applications for the technology to aid feature and efficiency requirements, and to allow the applications to assimilate with your existing network infrastructure.

Applications development can help:

Reduce risk when integrating a fresh technology system into the existing infrastructure by utilizing a proven applications development methodology

Speed migration by giving an in depth development, integration, and test plan that addresses such elements as custom-made scripts, reporting, and database design

Detailed design development

Develop an in-depth, implementation-ready thorough design for your brand-new system. Derive the look from availableness, capacity, consistency, security, scalability, and performance specifications that align with your business and technological requirements.

Detailed design development can help to:

Reduce expensive, time-consuming network redesign by building a well-engineered design early on in the network lifecycle

Increase system or solution performance, resiliency, and availability by specifying the correct set of hardware, software releases, and hardware and software features and functionality

Improve deployment team and businesses staff proficiency by providing ongoing knowledge exchange throughout design development

Accelerate adoption of new solutions and improve profits on return by integrating your complex requirements and business goals into a detailed design.

Staging plan development

Develop a step-by-step arrange for staging the settings, implementation, and connectivity assessment of the technology system or solution in a manipulated environment that emulates, but will not affect, your development network.

Staging plan development can help:

Reduce delays and other problems during staging with a detailed plan that addresses staging requirements including physical, electronic, and environmental conditions on the webpage; network hardware and software; and third-party devices

Accelerate staging plan creation by using industry leading tactics and staging expertise

Operation Put into action Plan Development

Develop an procedures implementation plan describing the tasks had a need to deploy and commission the functions and network management system for the technology to be deployed. Include scheduling of priorities, resources, and tasks.

Operations execution plan development can help:

Reduce delays, disruption, and other problems by accurately estimating enough time and resources necessary to implement new operations and network management systems

Improve efficiency during the operations implementation period by creating a plan that covers staging, tools, processes, task owners, settings, testing, paperwork, system user approval, and success criteria

Staff Plan development

Prepare your personnel for a fresh technology deployment by using conventional instructional design methodologies to make a personnel plan. Determine the technological activities and jobs necessary to support the machine, measure the capacity of functional groupings to execute those responsibilities, and create a curriculum plan to dwelling address skill and knowledge gaps.

Staff plan development can help:

Reduce on-going operating costs by identifying proficiency conditions that could affect staff output and performance

Improve training success by comparing personnel performance to industry leading techniques as well as your standard operating types of procedures and determining a role-based curriculum to close any spaces in skill or knowledge


This phase starts, after the Design stage has been approved. In this stage activities are performed to ensure that the network is designed based on the design specifications with no issues or weakness. This period the network will be put in place to ensure that the new infrastructure meet all the business enterprise requirements by putting in, configuring, integrating, tests, and commissioning all systems


In this staging process, it'll stage and test thoroughly your new technology system in a controlled environment that will not influence your live network, as outlined in your predefined staging plan. Staging can help to improve efficiency and reduce costly delays and rework during execution by identifying and resolving issues.


Install, configure, and incorporate the new technology system as specified in your implementation plan. Complete predefined test cases. And need to file all the components, devices, and applications used.

Implementation can help:

Successfully deploy the new technology system by pursuing an in-depth, specific implementation process predicated on leading practices

Realize business and technological goals of the new system by employing it relative to recommendations made in the earlier stages of the lifecycle.

Operation Implementation

Install, configure, test, and commission the operations and network management system for the technology and deploying relative to operations execution plan. Operations execution can help reduce network operating expenses by bettering the efficiency of businesses procedures and tools.


Migration can help you to reduce dangers such as downtime, delays, and the need for rework by following a thorough, detailed implementation process based on leading procedures.

System Acceptance testing

Perform systems-level popularity assessment: objectively solution operability and functionality of the machine you are deploying to confirm that it matches your business and technological requirements and is ready for creation. Document the test results. Systems acceptance trials can enable you to speed migration; accelerate profits on return; and reduce needless risk, including disruption, delays, rework, and other problems. These benefits are attained by demonstrating that your recently deployed system or solution satisfies the operational, efficient, and software requirements defined in the machine acceptance test plan.

Business Readiness testing

Test the readiness of existing network to aid end-to-end business functions, including functions, management, and security processes, as outlined in business readiness test plan. Business readiness tests can help reduce threat of downtime by screening your development network's procedures and management business techniques.

Staff Training

Staff training pertaining to managing or applying development plan for worker's skill and competency in the organisation. It is includes scheduling classes, creating the enrolment process, providing course materials, and handling training vendors.

Staff training can help:

Increase overall efficiency and reduce on-going operating costs through training designed to close the skill gaps that were discovered in developing your staff plan Reduce downtime through expedited circumstance controlling and reduced mean time and energy to resolution through training geared to improve operational knowledge

Improve training efficiency and performance by applying the proper blend of training methods and tools as had a need to close skill spaces.


This phase is the last test of the effectiveness of the design before going to last stage. During this period the procedure team monitors the health of the network to improve service quality; reduce disruptions; mitigate outages; and keep maintaining high availability, stability, and security. This period could be the longest stage in the network development life circuit to ensure that the infrastructure is well designed during all previous phases.

System monitoring

In this task, it will monitor, manage, and report on service-level metrics and excessive events or trends that may adversely have an effect on the supply, capacity, performance, and security of one's body.

Systems monitoring can help:

Improve service quality and reduce disruptions and outages by proactively monitoring system health

Remediate system availability issues by monitoring and examining capacity, performance, utilization, and other service-level metrics.

Incident management

Manage and solve real-time situations with system components using an occurrence management process that creates and preserves a report of the position of an event from isolation to closure.

Incident management can help:

Restore normal service operation quickly by providing an in-depth occurrence management process that includes case management, exploration, and examination; hardware and software substitution or posts; and service repair, screening, and verification

Reduce occurrence rates and increase network and/or software availability, consistency, and stability by providing software changes and upgrades as an on-going part of your network operations

Problem management

Manage and resolve recurring incidents using an in-depth problem management process that analyses event trends to recognize patterns and systemic conditions.

Problem management can enable you to reduce the risk of downtime and increase network and/or application availability, dependability, and steadiness. It delivers these benefits by analysing the primary cause of recurring occurrences and rectifying primary problems through hardware and software support.

Change management

Standardize methods and steps for authorizing, documenting, and doing system changes.

Change management can help to:

Reduce functioning costs and limit change-related occurrences by giving a consistent and effective change management process

Improve operations personnel and end-user output by utilizing a well-defined process for planning, conversing, and scheduling changes and performing post change evaluations.

Configuration Management

Obtain an accurate, real-time logical model of one's body hardware, software, and applications by using an efficient, reliable process for checking components and component interrelationships. Identify, control, keep an eye on, maintain, change, and verify versions of individual and interrelated system components.

Configuration management can help:

Improve operational efficiency by maintaining a precise, reliable system settings database and managing configuration changes through an orderly, effective process

Make critical operational decisions effectively as your business requirements change by providing an accurate reasonable style of your technology assets.

Supplier Management

Facilitate the successful delivery of networking products and services by hardware and software vendors through management of fulfilment, assurance, and financial procedures.

Supplier management can help to:

Increase operational productivity by aligning dealer functions and tools with your organizational requirements

Achieve a more reliable and consistent delivery process for hardware and software procurement

Improve distributor management practices so that suppliers meet your performance expectations.

Security Administration

Protect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information on the network by using a thorough security supervision process. Manage security occurrences, identify and solve vulnerabilities, and secure the delivery of content.

Security administration can help:

Reduce the risk of network disruptions by proactively identifying security breaches and defining a remediation plan

Protect information against unauthorized access and use by controlling security happenings and managing passwords, privileges, permissions, and policies

Improve the reliability, completeness, and timeliness of information on the network by securing content delivery

Access home elevators the network at any designated time in accordance with gain access to policies


A good corporate thinking won't stop buying a reasonable advantage. That's the reason continuous augmentation is a mainstay of the network lifecycle. Inside the optimize phase, it is regularly researching to realise operational quality through improved performance, extended services, and regular reassessments of network value. As a business looks to boost its network and prepares to adapt to changing needs, the lifecycle begins anew-continually developing the network and improving results.

The optimize phase is dependant on practical network management which recognises and resolves problems before network disruptions occur. The optimize stage can lead to a network redesign if too many problems arise scheduled to design mistakes or as network performance degrades as time passes as genuine use and capabilities diverge. Redesign may also be required when requirements change significantly.

Business circumstance alignment

In the Business case alignment needs to evaluate how successfully the system or solution is, in interacting with the requirements established in executive-level business circumstance. It also analyse data on functional and capital costs, profits on return, and other related factors. Business case alignment can help realize technology investment goals by making suggestions to remediate spaces in the performance of in the system and solution relative to aims and requirements.

Technology assessment

Increase the performance, supply, capacity, and security in new system or way to avoid it by assessing system performance and software configurations and suggesting changes. Technology evaluation can help to improve network performance, supply, capacity, and security by examining a specific system and commending improvements.

Operation Assessment

Increase the performance and functionality of the steps and networking management environment assistant your brand-new system or solution by assessing it and recommending changes. Operations evaluation can enable you to reduce system operating bills and improve system operational productivity, performance, and operation by assessing your procedures and network management environment and suggesting changes.

Security Assessment

In security diagnosis, it will assess network security system performance continually. It will evaluate on security systems for tendencies and exceptions related to security insurance policy and strategies and user gain access to. One body called Audit intrusion-detection will search for any intrusion of course, if any they'll make resolution and advice for improvement.

Security assessment can help:

Improve the security of your company's information possessions by calculating security system performance for fads and exceptions related to your security plan and procedures

Improve your company's capability to mitigate intrusion makes an attempt by regularly auditing intrusion-detection data to reveal anomalous network and web host events and to create a forensic "fingerprint" associated with an attack

Mitigate disease infiltration and accidental insider abuse of network access by analysing access control insurance policies and suggesting improvements

Summary of the PPDIOO

The desk below shows a simplified View of the Cisco Lifecycle Services Approach (PDIOO).






Develop the business plan

Manage the deployment project

Stage the system

Support and

troubleshoot the system

Align to business case

Assess network

readiness, businesses, and applications

Implement the system

Complete goes,

additions, and changes

Assess technologies and the system

Develop deployment plans

Integrate specific applications

Monitor and deal with the system

Improve operations

Design the system

Test for system acceptance

Develop particular applications

Figure Cisco Lifecycle Services Way (PDIOO) (Hemeza, 2005)


The strategy or steps talked about in this newspaper are only a guideline to guide us to develop or to operate a project. It isn't wrong to alter the typical steps corresponding to your environment, necessity, goals or situation. Three methodology are been reviewed in this record, that happen to be SDLC, PDIOO and PDIOO. Out of the three, there are advantages and disadvantages. By comparing between SDLC and PPDIOO, we can see the similarity among these two. By referring to Physique 11, we have the ability to have likeness in job planning, design, and implementation.

Figure The phases assessment between SDLC and PPDIOO.

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