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Nervous System, Parkinsons Disease.

The central nervous system consists of two parts, the mind and the spinal-cord. The central nervous system sends impulses throughout your body and coordinates the activity of all body parts. It includes of millions of nerve cells, axons, and dendrites. Nerve cells are cells in the nervous system that transfer electrochemical signaling, The axons are the primary transmission lines of the nervous system.

Secondary System:

The circulatory systems function is to send oxygen enriched blood, throughout the body, and to help stabilize body's temperature and photography maintain homeostasis. Our Brain receives 20% of the blood circulated in the body, which means you can understand how detrimental it could be when the circulatory system isn't functioning properly and poor circulation occurs in the brain. With a tiny drop in circulation, dizziness and headaches is common, as well as lack of memory, lethargy, and insufficient mental clarity. The Poor circulation can be caused by something as easy as cholesterol build up in arteries, or may be a bigger issue. In order for the brain and entire nervous system to be working properly and efficiently, the circulatory system also needs to be as well. Even though too much blood is one area, it affects the nerves, take for example when your foot becomes numb, falls asleep, or you are feeling "pins and needles", the change in circulation for the reason that area temporarily damages the nerves triggering them to operate incorrectly. That's just in the nerves in the foot, imagine what happens when the blood circulation in the brain fluctuate.

Drug Treatments:

There are two different types of drugs used to take care of Parkinson's disease. One being truly a dopamine drug called Ledovopa, and another an antichilinergics drug. That drug is used to revive the natural chemical balance of the brain by diminishing the overproduction of acetylcholine (the reason for the Parkinson's symptoms, which has ended produced because of the insufficient production of dopamine), a neurotransmitter.

How does dopamine Conduct nerve cells??

Electrical impulses that pass along the axon of the nerve cell to attain the synaptic knob. When this happens dopamine is released. The dopamine passes along the synapse (the gap) to the nerve cell receptors within the next cell. This cycle repeats to other nerve cells.

The drug treatment works not to stop brain cell degeneration but instead to minimize the consequences of that cell degeneration. By increasing Dopamine levels and "inactivating" some of the acetylcholine.

Nerve fibers that release dopamine are situated in the Corpus striatum and connect to the Substania nigra. This part of the brain I right above the spinal-cord (a major part of the central nervous system). In Parkinson's disease the basal ganglia cells produce less dopamine. The Levodopa drugs improve the tremors, ridgety, posture and slowness. However it is important to notice that older patients are occasionally unable to keep on with this medications because they can not handle the larger doses of Levodopa that is required to control symptoms.

Dopamine's chemical structure is which is a chemical compound in the brain. Its chemical structure in words is C8 H11 N O2. Carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen are all elements that are located throughout your body.

Research question

How can our understanding of the nervous system and the production of dopamine in the brain develop treatment of Parkinson's disease in a male patient of 65 in stage 2?

Hypothesis

Through further developing Deep brain stimulation, we think that by injecting dopamine into the patient directly we can further get rid of the over production of acetylcholine that will stop the progression of Parkinson's and eliminate current symptoms.

Procedure

Parkinson's disease is dealt with the central nervous system where one struggles to control the movements of your body due to the insufficient amount of dopamine cells produced in the mind. When identified as having the condition, symptoms that can happen are tremor, rigidity, stiffness, or slowness in body movement. Parkinson disease can be both chronic and progressive; can occur for a long time period and symptoms can grow worse as time passes. The disease is to be found most popular in males above age 50. Based on our understanding of the nervous system and the production of dopamine in the mind, we've concluded ideas of treatments in a male patient of 65 with Parkinson disease in stage 2. From the male patient being 65 and in stage two, he exhibits enough symptoms for us to see the effects Parkinson has in the individual, but still find a way of the progression of the symptoms of other stages. In the disease there are 5 different stages. In stage one, an example may be to see mild symptoms. They'll probably hold the occurrence of tremors or shakings in another of the limbs. In stage two, the disease affects the medial side of your body as well as the limbs. It becomes harder for the patient to maintain balance, and it becomes difficult for them to complete physical tasks. For stage 3, the symptoms are more severe. For the patients it becomes issues to stand and inability to walk straight. In stage 4, other then having severe symptoms, walking is bound and rigidity. Bradykinesia may appear, which is slowness in execution of movement. It becomes harder for them to continue lifestyle routines, and they become reliant on other to help them bypass. In stage five the patient has no control what so ever over its body or any physical movement. It becomes reliant on others to walk him or herself, to carry on to someone or something while standing, and the individual usually takes a one on one nursing care. They're struggling to live alone without the helps of others.

Treatment Options:

Through our research and our case study, it is clear our hypothesis happens to be impossible. We now we cant inject Dopamine into the brain during the Deep Brain Stimulation procedure. However we as doctors attended up with short term and permanent treatments. Our short-term treatment for our patient is to immediately prescribe Ledovopa and an antichilinergics drug to decelerate the over production of acetylcholine. This short term treatment can make our patient's symptoms of Parkinson's Disease less severe and invite him to exist in a far more independent way. When looking at our graph this medications is quite effective in regulating the chemical balance in the brain. Our long term treatment for our patient is less of cure but rather a plan to keep research in the foreseeable future. Parkinson's Disease still does not have a cure. We hope as optimistic doctors a cure will be developed within the next 10 years. Though our hypothesis of dopamine injection straight into the brain happens to be impossible through further development and experimentation with the chemical markup of Dopamine we hope we can reverse Parkinson's Disease. This reversal will not only prevent the symptoms from progressing but it would also reverse the symptoms that are already present.

Analysis:

The study: Coping with Advanced Parkinson's Disease pertains to our patient since it was a treatment of Parkinson's in two steps. The first being a 400 mg drug treatment. And the next being LENS (low energy neurofeedback system). LENS like Deep Brain Stimulation is an operation using radio waves these waves "feed back the person's own dominant frequency at an offset (variation of this dominant frequency" (Larson 416). LENS originated by Dr. Len Ochs. Although they are different procedures they both deal with changing the frequencies of the patients brain in hopes of restoring chemical homeostasis and are surgical treatments to Parkinson's. Although research study is not exactly like our patient (this man is in a further stage and older) the approach that Richard Brown took (with two steps) follows our two treatment plans of an immediate drug treatment and a long term investment into creating a perfect surgical procedure to "cure" the condition, or at least develop a reversal on the occurring symptoms.

Conclusion:

We conclude that as doctors we at first made a mistake. We formerly hypothesized that people could inject the chemical neurotransmitter, dopamine directly into the mind during Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery. Through research and additional knowledge n what the brain can and cannot accept we are now positive that hypothesis wouldn't normally only harm the individual, but it could also not help cure Parkinson's disease (or relieve the symptoms). The main thing as doctors that we learned through our research and analysis, is that the brain's neurotransmitters, acetylcholine, dopamine, seotonin, endorphins, norepinephrine, GABA, and glutamate have a chemical balance that when deficient is the cause of many cureless diseases. These diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, Multiple Sclerosis, and schizophrenia are all with out a onetime procedure that will aid as a cure for the diseases. We think grounds that this is, is because the brain can be an organ that can't be transplanted, it is an organ that one single hit to it can shut the entire body down. Because of the brains direct connection to the spinal chord and its role in the central nervous system, how to "fix" the mind continues to be an organ that the medical world has yet to concur. In further understanding the brain, doctors will uncover the trick to curing these inoperable diseases.

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