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National Integration Remains A Crucial Issue In Pakistan Politics Essay

The present analysis aims to identify quite problems, which were responsible for national disharmony and the negative impacts. The analysis is a stepping-stone, recommending some concrete proposals, in order to achieve the objective of national integration.


National Integration remains a crucial issue in Pakistan. There are various forces, which highlight divisive factors like geography and culture of our own country. Spiritual fundamentalism is one particular make while linguistic diversities constitute another. Despite a distributed culture for a long period, regionalism has continued to be a major force, which generates anxiety because of inequitable development between different provinces/parts of the Country. The FATA/FANA and Baluchistan are the best examples in cases like this, where folks have been deprived of economic, political and cultural justice. All of the above makes and factors create a serious problem for Pakistan's integrity and unity. It is, therefore, necessary to make concerted initiatives to fortify the nationwide integration.

Quaid-e-Azam acquired envisioned that Pakistan would be a point out, where all people would enjoy equivalent rights irrespective of caste, creed, sect, or place of birth, but it might never turn into a reality. Inside a polarized and fragmented society like Pakistan, it's important to have the consent of all groups with regards to resolution with their genuine problems. This important aspect was never given a significant thought by politics and military services rulers. Despite all domestic chances, Pakistan has exhibited genuine potential to survive as a viable 'Nation Status'. Taking into consideration the prevailing circumstances, the process of national integration has gained more relevance and importance than ever. There's a need of following a right and pragmatic methodology with dispassionate research of all issues jeopardizing the process of national integration.

The activity of national integration in a plural population like Pakistan is although arduous, yet it could be achieved by attracting diverging forces jointly through a politics system predicated on justice, equality and reasonable play. To be able to find out a viable solution for reaching this objective, the next important questions need to be addressed:-

Question 1. What are the disintegrating causes in Pakistan and how they can be brought jointly?

Question 2. What exactly are the pillars of nationwide integration and exactly how they could be strengthened?

Question 3. What device is required to be devised to bring all the segments at par financially and politically?

Question 4. Where lays our success as a region?


The identify the key problems being encountered by Pakistan, which were responsible for nationwide disharmony, suggesting concrete proposals, to be able to achieve the objective of countrywide integration.

PART - 1


Nation and Country wide Integration

Nation. A country is generally thought as a community knit jointly by common experience over sensibly long former, shaping a standard religion, culture and custom. However, different societies have identified it differently corresponding with their own environment. The word "Nation" comes form a Latin expression "Natio", meaning delivery or competition.

Integration. The term in its literal sense means appropriate alongside one another parts to make one entire or incorporation of disparate cultural or religious components of the populace into a unified contemporary society, providing equality of chance of all members of that society. Keeping in view this is, "Integration" can be categorized in Functional and Psychological domains.

Determinants of Country wide Integration

National Target. National goals are established from time to time depending after the national needs. National targets will be the specific Ends a nation seeks in order to boost, support or defend its national pursuits.

Ideology. Ideology means the knowledge or research of ideas. Generally sense it refers to the specific manner in which several persons thinks. Nationalism can form into a uniting and sufficiently ambitious force, only when the requisite emotional and ideological bottom part exists; but ordinarily, this sentiment will take decades to mature.

Religion. Religious beliefs is one of the most powerful bonds in an ideological talk about and an essential element of national integration being truly a sanction of unity. It provides an additional source of pride to the country and affects national character and patterns. In Islam, the commitment o the Muslims one to the other has been institutionalized by the concept of Ummah.

Language. Vocabulary is one of the very most enduring artefacts of the people's culture, and unless people are pressured by any system of dominance or conquest, their terminology can always determine the people's communal physics and background.

Culture. Country wide integration in multi-cultural states is untenable lacking any entrenched public culture because this includes the values distributed by all groupings and constitutes the normal grounds which the diverse groups conceptualize and appreciate the condition.

Leadership. An effective leader is normally integrative, who includes folks of different culture, races, genders, personalities and periods of development and integrates them into a complete that is greater than the total of its parts.

PART - 2


Religious Facade of Pakistan

It was clear as soon as pre-independence times that, given the huge ethnic diversity of Pakistan and the strong centrifugal makes, the new condition would urgently desire a 'common denominator' and that was Islam. Apparently, the spiritual ideology as the basis of the state of hawaii was seen as a tool for nation-building and thwarting possible Indian designs to reject the creation of Pakistan.

After self-reliance, the religious dissimilarities were aggravated by the "Ulemas" based on sectarianism. The saboteurs launched by anti-state elements totally exploited these variations and religious strength started turning into nationwide weakness.

In retrospect, what we now have is a divided culture on the lines of sectarianism, propagating extreme varieties of de-faced shape of the Islam. Faith, instead of providing a unifying power, is now acting as a component of disunity and disharmony.

Misconceived Perceptions. The rationale for Pakistan's freedom notwithstanding, we failed to identify and consolidate other factors that could have added towards countrywide integration and societal cohesion in the recently independent state. We remained perplexed, and still are, as to be a 'Nation State' or 'Religious beliefs Condition'? The results are there before us i. e. FATA, FANA, Swat and Baluchistan. Large sections of the population, especially those in the minority provinces, have grown to be more and more disillusioned.

Weak Democratic Roots. Democracy cannot establish its origins at the time of our independence anticipated to brief sightedness in our politicians. The control vacuum created in the first many years of our history refused us the opportunity of creating a stable political system of governance during various intervals which range from parliamentary and presidential varieties, authoritarian system and so on. It was the incompetence of Pakistan's post-Jinnah political leadership that drew the military heavily into politics and policy-making. Politics instability, the rampant corruption of the politics and bureaucratic top notch, and poor governance have given beginning to general public scepticism of the widespread system.

Political/Constitutional Issues. Our politics companies have yet not cultivated strong enough on electricity sharing and to fight against the divisive push, which were working to disintegrate Pakistan. The politicians of Pakistan have been engrossed with internal feuds group, spiritual sects, economic classes, and leading personalities.

Regional Diversity. For Pakistan, regionalism possessed surfaced with different complexion. Even the normal religious beliefs, flag and nationwide ideology could not fully blend Pakistanis together as one entity until today.

Ethnic Diversity. Pakistani nation is rather diverse. Ethnically, Punjabis are dominating followed by Pathans and Sindhis. Punjab-based establishment is appeared upon by the rest of the society as well as the dominance of the so-called 'migratory elite', originating from regions in the current India. You'll find so many macro level cultural identities

Lingual Diversity. The lingual diversity became visible after independence. In case there is East Pakistan, we didn't understand that nations are composed of human being, whose deep thoughts about such questions as their mom tongue, should not be overlooked easily. The linguistic distinctions intensified the problem of countrywide integration and effect was riots generally in most parts of the Country, that ultimately cost us separation in our Eastern wing.

Economic Irritants. Determining the economic aims and selecting practical objectives based on economic probable and construction is a pre-requisite for offering attainable policies. Repeated policy changes due to vested hobbies of organizations, have created instability and impaired credibility of macro monetary measures.

Social Justice. Inefficient status agencies, selective program of laws, and ever-increasing problem are mating a culture of negativism in Pakistan. Disparity between your rich and the indegent is resulting in irritation, misuse of ability, and lawlessness.

Military Participation in Civilian Affairs. Army influence in political decision making began with induction of uniformed Ayub Khan in the cabinet as Defence Minister, an since then it has already established very negative influence on the society. It has been one of the major cause for the many ills in the society.

Role of Bureaucracy. Bureaucratic practices that came to effect after independence, were essentially a legacy from the British. It has now turn into a two Way Street where bureaucracy openly seeks politics patronage for personal gains and subsequently provides customized service to the politicians.

PART - 3


FATA and Swat Situation. The Taliban movements in Fata and the NWFP needs to replace the FCR with a middle ages legal framework, that is similar to the Arab tribal age. Lack of ability of successive government authorities to integrate the region into national mainstream brings to fore certain key issues, which have directly or indirectly added to its prolonged isolation. Negligence for state institutions, parochial political interests and the naivete of the rural folk have given labor and birth to a militant culture that thrives on vandalism, brutality and anarchy.

Baluchistan Concern. The problem in Baluchistan is a reason behind major concern for countrywide integrity. Baloch nationalists are mooting the insurgency as challenging for greater political autonomy, more control over and royalties from the region's considerable nutrient resources, chiefly the gas-fields and contrary to the new cantonments in the Province. The weaponry and communication means being employed by the insurgents thumbprint the overseas power.

Economic Turmoil. The current chaotic condition of global fund has invalidated the prevailing orthodoxy in macroeconomic management. Were once again on the mercy of IMF after conceding to a $7. 6 billons 'Standby Layout' signed in November 2008. Global tough economy has also added to the miseries of folks who are susceptible to be exploited by interest groups, for his or her vested pursuits.

Worsening Legislations and Order Situation. Insecure residents are vulnerable to anti-state and anti-social elements, thereby becoming a liability to countrywide integration. Improving laws and order is a major challenge for the country's socio-political integration. If the constitution and the guideline of law are not honored, such a federation essentially turns into an empire that is controlled by powerful cultural and social teams.

Judicial System. Post March 2007 Judicial Crisis, has added immensely to the miseries of aggrieved people. With this vacuum, Islamic clerics, present their version of judicial system, which by no chance, present the true picture of Islam. Recent Government's conceding to Tehrik-e-Shariat-Muhammd's brokered deal with local militant market leaders on the plea of shariat enforcement, should be an eyeball opener for rest of the society.

Religious Militancy. The extraordinary increase in variety of deeni madaris has not only increased sectarianism but also presented militancy in the Country. You will discover more than 50, 000 madrasas operating in Pakistan. Lal Masjid event has been a turning point to the phenomena.

Decayed Education System. The literacy rate of the united states is alarming at 49. 9%, especially in female population, which forms more than 50% of total inhabitants. Deep ingress of politics parties into the educational organizations is creating divisions. Parallel education systems are segregating the modern culture into classes.

Federal - Provincial Things. Concurrent list, quota system, NFC accolades, share of divisible pool etcetera and many other legislative provisions, work up against the dreams of the people of smaller provinces for socio-economic and political development.

PART - 4


Ideological Issues

Ideological Orientation. Fresh ideas aimed at finding new common grounds should be explored and additional cohesive factors identified in order to hold the nation collectively. National integration in the case of Pakistan should suggest establishing a common citizenry, common political and social constructions, a common Point out, and yet another sense of personality, of belonging mutually. This means building commonality on top of the prevailing linguistic, ethnic, spiritual and geographical variety, rather than substituting an manufactured new identification for the old ones.

Concept of 'Unity in Variety'. We have to subscribe to Weiner's 'open public coverage strategy' for obtaining nationwide integration through 'Unity-in-diversity. With inter-provincial monetary relations fast expanding, unity in variety appears a realistic national aspirations. Instead of suppressing or subjugating the diverse elements, we should chisel these diversities into a fine mosaic.

Inculcating Concept of Nationalism. There is a need to build up Pakistani nationalism which should give people the sensation that despite variations, they are people destined for common statehood. This can be done through:-

Parity can be an inalienable right of all areas and provinces of Pakistan.

The privileges of the provinces and autonomy consonant with countrywide interests and agreed in 1973 constitution need to be assured.

Pay heed to Quaid's motto: 'Unity, Self-control' and Beliefs (in the same order).

Political Issues

Political Structure. After training all types of governance, the sketch is towards a parliamentary form of administration, as envisioned in the 1973 constitution (in original form). Pursuing need consideration:-

Pakistan's leadership may need to revise and even revise its 'strong centre' ideology in favour of more pronounced regional autonomy.

Re-demarcation and increase in number of constituencies.

Establish autonomous and impartial Election Commission rate.

Establish powerful, reliable and neutral accountability body.

Bar on minimum education qualification for candidates to contest the elections be raised.

Political Parties

Political parties must be made to organize themselves on democratic lines with transparency in their party elections, self-control as well as accounts.

If political party obtains less than five percent votes on the whole election its sign up with Election Fee be terminated for legal reasons.

Political parties must not be allowed by law to impact the working of political activities of university student unions in school/universities.

Politician elected to carry a administration office to relinquish party portfolio.

Governance Issues

Changing the Administrative Model. We need to change United kingdom colonialism administrative model ruthlessly and invent our own. A step towards this direction has already been used with adoption of MUNICIPALITY Plan. However, some of the serious reservations of the provinces should be resolved in the new system, to make it more suitable.

Social Justice. Problem of rising unemployment needs to he tackled in a pragmatic manner. Sociable action program for education, health, empowerment of women, and people control, is the necessity of the hour. To avert the cultural conflicts turning out to be communal conflicts, establishment of cultural equilibrium is an essential condition for countrywide integration.

Improvement of Judiciary System

Judiciary get constitutional warrant of its self-reliance to work free from pressure.

Judges of superior courts be paid handsomely keeping in view the sensitive and critical dynamics of their tasks.

Appointment of superior judge judges be on non party basis and free of political strings.

Rationalization of NFC Honours. The centre should divide the divisible resources as per agreed formulas totally in accordance with the awards according to the constitution. We have to revise NFC solution, wherein overt weightage on population should be rationalized giving more weightage to backwardness, area and revenue generation.

More Active 'Council of Common Passions' (CCI). Constitutionally, CCI is just the right discussion board to discuss the many inter-provincial and federal-provincial irritants, like World wide web Proceeds & Royalties, Concurrent Legislative List vis- -vis Provincial Autonomy, Representation of Federating Devices in the most notable Bureaucracy and Quota System etc.

Cohesive Education Policy

Cleavages between traditional Islamic educational companies and modern educational establishments (including elitist style), be removed.

Maximum incentive to private sector to open classes in rural areas. Their fees and standard may, however, be monitored.

Curriculum be made realistic and uniform for many provinces with better quality textbook at subsidised rates.

Mismatch between educational prep and job specification be reduced through vocational training.

Urdu language also needs to be used as a car to develop cultural unity, common identification and a distributed future.

Provinces may be allowed to retain the local languages as a topic after major level.

Bolstering Faith based Harmony

Islam's subject matter of universal tolerance, of peace and value should be propagated to foster harmony among various spiritual academic institutions of thought.

All the religious militant communities be disarmed with a highhanded plan.

Steps be taken for searching for verified terrorist categories and the concerned countries be diplomatically perused to adopt necessary steps against these communities.

Already chalked out Madrasa Strategy be used in true notice and heart.

FATA/FANA and Swat Situation

We have to bring FATA/FANA into mainstream by initiating process of Land Pay out and promote urbanization, increased give attention to Human Source of information Development, exploit motorists of growth i. e. nutrients and horticulture, development of industries on fringes of FATA and accomplish early on creation of Reconstruction Opportunity Zones.

We should also initiate dialogue with all the current factions fighting from the state equipment in Swat and FATA to handle their grievances through politics means.

Baluchistan Issue

Instead of marginalizing the nationalist elements, we have to bring them on board.

Two-pronged strategy of "Dialogue" and "Development" is the only way to address deprivation. Where relevant, selective use of limited force may also be undertaken as final resort.

To address the grievance of the Province, there's a requirement for the Federal Government to invest intensely in boosting more job opportunities in the Province.

Economic Policies

An increasing development budget is essential to overcoming the unwanted effects of public fragmentation and illiteracy-fed Islamic fundamentalism.

Every work must be produced to get rid of disparity and economical disequilibrium between the various classes, parts, areas and provinces.

The economically backward areas should be helped bring in to the mainstream through education, modernization, media of communication, general economic trends, well-being and progress and through a powerful system of streets, transport and communication.

Eliminating Unemployment

Economic Revival Package for the revival of market sectors to stimulate creation and investment.

Government should announce a deal for the development of agriculture sector.

More Tech and Vocational training facilities should be provided.

With a view to reduce informed unemployment; self-employment techniques should be urged in true manners.


National integration permits a heterogeneous region like Pakistan to reside in peace, harmony and unity. It really is an important element of the nation's power potential and binds its military, economical and political advantages. Pakistan has sub-nationalist undercurrents, which run along cultural lines, seeking their show of countrywide pie and, at times, threatening secession from the federation. Whenever, Pakistan's nationwide integration experienced, the underlying triggers were political expediencies and lust for electric power.

This research will be a stepping-stone, suggesting some concrete proposals, to be able to achieve the objective of nationwide integration. In the wake of the existing situation prevailing in the country, where the land is in despair and slowly but surely losing wish and optimism, the research is very significant to learn the way frontward for coming out of the current crisis.

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